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Mains Answer Writing


Q1) The human resource potential of India’s young demography lies dormant due to lack of productive skills and ineffective skilling. In this perspective, evaluate the effectiveness of Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY) as a skilling policy.

(250 Words/15 Marks)


With the median age of 28.4 years, India is said to have a huge human resource potential in an ageing world. But India’s demographic dividend suffers from the problem of skill-shortage. According to India Skill Report, only 45.9% graduates in India are considered employable. As per, Human Development Report only 21.2% Indian labourers are skilled.

To address the dormant human resource potential of India’s young demography, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY), the government’s programme for skilling in rural areas, is addressing the skill gap in the following ways:

  1. Targeting rural youth: DDU-GKY specifically focuses on skilling rural youth, who often face limited access to quality education and employment opportunities. It addresses the skill gaps prevalent in rural areas, enhancing employability and social mobility, especially for marginalized groups.
  2. DDU-GKY follows a placement-linked training model. The training programs are designed in collaboration with industries to impart market-relevant skills. This approach aims to equip individuals with skills that are in demand, thereby increasing their chances of securing employment and contributing to economic growth.
  3. Entrepreneurship opportunities: DDU-GKY encourages entrepreneurship by providing support for entrepreneurship development and facilitating access to credit and market linkages. It creates self-employment opportunities, contributing to local economic development.
  4. DDU-GKY incorporates robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to track the progress and outcomes of skilling programs. Regular assessments help identify areas of improvement and ensure the effectiveness of programmes and accountability of the skilling scheme.
  5. Counselling support: DDU-GKY provided guidance on choosing the right training program, understanding career prospects, and addressing any challenges they may face during the training process.


While DDU-GKY has made efforts to address the skilling needs of rural youth, it faces the following challenges:

  1. Industry-linked employment opportunities are few. Most of the skills are oriented towards self-employment, which requires forward-linkages for demand through economic growth, urbanization etc.
  2. Lukewarm support of state-governments leads to poor uptake among rural youth as well as poor interest from industry partners.
  3. Continuous skilling is needed for the individuals to be able to adapt and grow amidst dynamic opportunities. The skill-centres lack connect with the trainees once the training is over.
  4. Digital disruption requires skilling in computer-related capabilities for tech-savvy workforce.
  5. There is lack of convergence between various components of skilling programmes, such as the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) and DDU-GKY.


Following measures can help improve the effectiveness of DDU-GKY as a skilling policy:

  1. Quality of training providers, continuous assessment and upgradation of training modules and engagement with industry experts.
  2. Post-training support through mentorship programs, and continuous skill upgradation.

E.g., T-Works in Telangana is aimed at creating a culture of innovators.

  1. Social enterprises can absorb trained youth as an alternative to industry.

E.g., Grameen Village Ventures provides rural electrification in Uttar Pradesh through solar power.

  1. International Best Practices: Adopt the German way of skilling with dual system of vocational education and training programme.
  2. Reaching marginalized communities: Tailored interventions, such as addressing gender specific barriers and reaching out to socially disadvantaged groups. It will help bridge the social gaps that sustain skill gaps and will promote inclusive skilling opportunities.

 DDU-GKY has made significant efforts to address the skill gaps prevalent in India’s young demography. However, continuous improvements for industry-ready skills and greater avenues for employment are needed to further enhance the effectiveness and impact of DDU-GKY to turn demographic potential into reality.

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