Everything You Need To Know About Gs 2 Syllabus

Complete UPSC Mains GS 2 Syllabus & Notes Download

Welcome to 99notes IAS Institute’s site, here in this page we guide you through the GS 2 Syllabus for the UPSC CSE exam. Also you’ll find easy notes on important topics like the Indian Constitution, Governance, International Relation (IR) and more. Our Goal is to make your preparation smooth and successful. Whether you’re new to these subjects or looking to brush up, our resources are here to help you ace the UPSC Mains GS 2 paper.

UPSC GS 2 Notes for Mains

Everything You Need To Know About Gs 2 Syllabus


This paper tests the candidate's general understanding of the Indian constitution. Candidate must go through the constitution, its evolution, features, constituents, provisions, amendments, basic structure etc. Questions may be asked about comparing the Indian constitution with others, say American or British.

Everything You Need To Know About Gs 2 Syllabus


The study of governance is essential for Mains. UPSC expects you to understand the basic concepts and the issues related to governance. Its syllabus focuses on Accountability, E-governance, Transparency, citizen charters, and Good Governance. Understanding their definition, application, limitations, different models, and potential is essential in understanding governance.

Everything You Need To Know About Gs 2 Syllabus


“International relations” is a very dynamic topic. Therefore, a comprehensive study of India's relations with neighbouring countries, AU, EU, Russia, USA, etc., is needed, along with sound knowledge of recent bilateral and multilateral summits.

UPSC GS 2 Syllabus & Preparation Tips for Mains

UPSC GS 2 Syllabus




Indian Constitution
Features of Indian Constitution
Amendments in Indian Constitution
Constitutional and non-constitutional bodies


Government policies and interventions
E-governance applications

Social Justice

Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services
Issues relating to poverty and hunger

International Relations

Bilateral Groupings
Regional and global groupings
Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
The General Studies (GS) 2 paper of the UPSC Civil Services Examination (CSE) covers the subjects of Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations. It aims to test the candidate’s understanding of the political and social systems of India, as well as its relations with other countries.x

Here are some tips on how to prepare for the General Studies 2 paper in detail:

  • Study the Indian Constitution and its provisions: The Indian Constitution is a key document that outlines the political and legal framework of India. To prepare for the GS 2 paper, you should familiarize yourself with the various provisions of the Constitution, including the fundamental rights and duties of citizens, the structure of government, and the distribution of powers between the federal and state governments.
  • Understand the functioning of the Indian government and its institutions: The GS 2 paper will test your understanding of the various institutions and bodies that make up the Indian government, as well as their functions and roles. Some key institutions to study include the Parliament, the President, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, the Supreme Court, and the Election Commission.
  • Be familiar with the major social and political issues facing India: The GS 2 paper will also test your understanding of the major social and political issues facing India, such as poverty, inequality, corruption, and communalism. You should study the causes and consequences of these issues, as well as the measures that have been taken to address them.
  • Study India’s relations with other countries: The GS 2 paper will also test your understanding of India’s relations with other countries, including its foreign policy and its engagement with international organizations. You should study the major issues and challenges facing India in its relations with other countries, as well as the strategies and policies that have been adopted to address these issues.
  • Practice answering sample questions and take mock tests: To improve your test-taking skills, you should practice answering sample questions and take mock tests. This will help you understand the types of questions that are asked in the GS 2 paper and improve your time management skills.
  • Stay updated on current affairs: Many questions in the GS 2 paper are based on recent events and developments, so it is important to stay updated on current affairs. You should regularly read newspapers, magazines, and online news sources to stay informed about the latest developments in Indian politics and international relations.

The General Studies (GS) 2 paper of the UPSC Civil Services Examination (CSE) covers the following topics:

  1. Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, and Governance
  2. India and the World
  • International Relations
    1. International Organizations
    2. Disarmament and Arms Control
    3. Effect of Globalization on Indian Society
  • Social Development, Empowerment, and Rights
  • Environmental, Ecological and Climate Change-related issues
    1. Disaster Management
    2. Security Issues

To prepare for the GS 2 paper, it is important to have a good understanding of these topics and to be able to apply them to real-world situations. 

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