Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

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Modern History of India

The Modern History of India is journey through time, capturing the transformation and events that shaped the nation into what it is today. From the rise and fall of empires to the struggle for independence, the modern history of India is rich with stories of resilience and revolution. For students and enthusiasts preparing for competitive exams like UPSC, modern history notes are essential tools. These notes help to simplify the complexities of India’s past, offering insights into the important moments and figures that have influenced the course of India history. Understanding the modern history of India is not just about memorizing dates and events; it’s about connecting with the past to understand the present.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

1. The advent of the Europeans in India

The history of modern India can be traced back to the advent of Europeans to India. The trade routes between India and Europe were long and winding, passing through the Oxus Valley, Syria, and Egypt.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

2. Establishment of the British Empire in India

The Mughals – After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the decline of the Mughals started. Rulers of the Mughals were now weak and engrossed in political conflict for inheritance or dominance in the court. The Marathas – The third battle of Panipat in 1761 weakened the Maratha empire. It gave the British to consolidate their power in South India and Bengal.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

3. British Expansion in Deccan

Neighbouring states in the Deccan came into conflict with each other in their attempt to expand their territories to fulfil their need for resources. The rise of Mysore threatened its neighbouring states, and the Marathas and the Nizam formed an alliance against Mysore and also cooperated with the British to curb the power of Mysore. However, the Nizam was equally apprehensive of the Maratha’s expansion in the south and therefore cooperated with the British against the Marathas.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

4. The revenue settlements during the British rule

Land revenue settlement refers to the system in which land tax revenue is agreed between the owner of the occupied land or any other assigned leader and government. The government collects tax revenue directly from cultivators (Ryotwari) or indirectly through an appointed representative (Permanent settlement).

5. Social and Cultural Awakening Before 1857

The colonization of India by the British during the 18th and 19th centuries exposed some serious weaknesses and drawbacks of Indian social institutions. Consequently, several individuals and movements sought to bring about changes in social and religious practices to reform and revitalize society.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

6. Civil and Peasant Uprisings

During the British rule in the 18th and 19th centuries, there were many uprisings against the ruling class. These uprisings resulted from the British’s economic policies, corrupt officials, unjust administration, oppression of zamindars and tax collecting officials, and interference of the British in tribal culture and their land.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

7. Tribal Movement

From the beginning, tribal people had lived in rural India in varying economic conditions and relative seclusion. They kept their distinct identity despite their interactions with non-tribal people. Each tribal community continued to have its own political and economic structures, as well as its own socio-religious and cultural life. Land and forests were the tribal peoples’ primary sources of production and subsistence. They were unknown to the landlordism.

8. The Era of Deliberately Manufactured Annexation

By 1818, the entire Indian subcontinent, except Punjab and Sindh, had been brought under British rule. They directly ruled some states, while in others, the British exercised paramount power. These areas were brought under British control through subsidiary alliance, the Principle of Paramountcy and, in several cases, through outright war.

9. The Revolt of 1857

The Revolt of 1857 was one of the most significant watershed moments during British rule. During this revolt, various regions of north India spontaneously stood up against British rule. Garrison after garrison stood mutinied against their senior officers, and after the general public participation, it appeared that the British rule would end. However, the British forces were able to control the situation after bloody repression.

10. Administrative Unification under the British Empire

The establishment of the British Empire allowed not only the political unification of the country but also Administrative and Economic unification. Pre-British India was divided into many feudal states, frequently struggling among themselves to extend their boundaries.

11. The Economic Impact of British Rule

The British Empire in India was highly organised administratively. The fundamental difference between the earlier conquest of India and the British conquest is that the earlier conquerors made no basic changes in the country’s economic structure and gradually became a part of it.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

12. Early Political Activities: 1858-1905

The revolt of 1857 was the first major large-scale revolt against the British. However, it failed to overthrow British imperialism. The failure of the revolt in 1857 demonstrated that revolutions based on old outlooks and social forces were ineffective against modern imperialism. In this aspect, the need arises for the political consciousness with the new movement:

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

13. Swadeshi Movement

The Swadeshi movement spread as a reaction to Curzon’s reactionary policies and, more importantly, his policy of the Bengal partition. It is called Swadeshi as the movement emphasised the Boycott of foreign-made clothes and goods such as sugar, salt, government schools and colleges and other government services.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

14. The First Phase of the Revolutionary Movement (1907-17)

With the decline of the mass phase of the Swadeshi movement and the lack of political activity, a new kind of political action emerged in the national movement. In this aspect, the highly motivated youth adopted the following methods:

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

15. Home Rule Movement

The differences between the moderates and the extremists led to the split in Congress and the exit of the extremists from Congress in the Surat session of Congress in 1907. The Home Rule League movement started in the background of the ongoing world war and inactivity within the Congress after the Surat split.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

16. The Emergence of Gandhi

The emergence of Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian National movement is known for the beginning of the mass mobilisation phase. Before he arrived in India in 1915, he was in South Africa from 1893 to 1915, where his experiences made him take up the fight against colonialism.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

17. Non-Cooperation Movement: 1919-1922

The period from 1920-21, in the context of the Indian national movement, is known for mass politics and mass mobilisation. Gandhi emerged in the national movement with his idea of Satyagraha, which he had successfully experimented with in South Africa.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

18. Civil Disobedience Movement

The withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement (NCM) and the imprisonment of Gandhi in March 1922 weakened the national movement, and it entered a passive phase. As a result, the nationalist ranks became disorganized, disintegrated, and demoralized.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

19. Revolutionary nationalism 2.0

The non-cooperation movement failed to achieve its objective that irked the young nationalists. Dissatisfaction with Gandhiji’s direction and his method of non-violent struggle after the suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement gave fillip to the revolutionary terrorist movements.

20. The Civil Disobedience Movement

In the Calcutta session of the Congress (December 1928), the Nehru report was approved. However, discontent surfaced among the younger leaders, including Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Bose, who were dissatisfied with the demand for dominion status and pushed for the adoption of “Poorna Swaraj”, or complete independence as the Congress’s goal.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

21. Debate on future strategy after the Civil Disobedience Movement

in the Aftermath of the withdrawal of the Civil Disobedience Movement, a debate emerged among the nationalists regarding the future course of action in the near term. Different debate was initiated as follows: While Gandhi emphasised constructive work, which he thought would consolidate the masses for the next phase of the mass struggle, another section of the Congress wanted to revive constitutional struggle and participate in the elections to the central legislative assembly. The second stage of the debate started in 1937 on the question of office acceptances in the context of provincial elections held under the Government of India Act 1935.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

23. Quit India Movement

The Cripps mission had failed to pacify the Indians. It made clear that the British were unwilling to concede to any significant demand. Gandhi, who had earlier argued against launching a mass struggle, finally became convinced of the inevitability of a struggle. Other factors that aggravated the demand of the mass movement are as follows:

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

24. National Movements in the Princely States

After the revolt of 1857, the British abandoned the annexation policy, and the Princely states accepted the British paramountcy; in return, they were guaranteed protection against internal and external threats and autonomy in internal affairs, at least in theory.

Everything You Need To Know About Modern History Of India

25. Partition of India

The non-cooperation movement failed to achieve its objective that irked the young nationalists. Dissatisfaction with Gandhiji’s direction and his method of non-violent struggle after the suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement gave fillip to the revolutionary terrorist movements.

Importance to Read Modern History of India

The study of History of modern India is an important part of the UPSC Civil Services Exam, as it tests candidates’ knowledge of the political, social, economic, and cultural developments in India in the recent past.

Some of the key topics that candidates should be familiar with when studying modern history of India for the UPSC Civil Services Exam include:

Modern History Of India Notes For Upsc
Modern History Of India
  1. Political developments: Candidates should be familiar with the major political parties and their ideologies, as well as the key events and issues that have shaped India’s political landscape in the recent past, such as the rise of regional parties, the growth of coalition politics, and the impact of social media on elections.
  2. Economic developments: Candidates should be familiar with the major economic policies and initiatives that have been implemented in India in the recent past, such as liberalization, globalization, and the development of the service sector. They should also be familiar with the challenges and opportunities that India’s economic growth has brought, such as the growth of inequality and the rise of the middle class.
  3. Social developments: Candidates should be familiar with the major social issues that have emerged in India in the recent past, such as women’s empowerment, the rights of marginalized communities, and the impact of technology on society.
  4. Foreign policy: Candidates should be familiar with India’s foreign policy in the recent past, including its relations with other countries and its role in international organizations.
  5. Environmental and sustainability issues: Candidates should be familiar with the major environmental and sustainability challenges that India has faced in the recent past, such as air and water pollution, climate change, and resource depletion.

The study of History of modern India is important for several reasons, especially for candidates preparing for the UPSC Civil Services Exam.

Here are a few reasons why we should study modern history of Indian is:

  1. Understanding the present: Modern India is the period in which India has evolved into the country it is today, with its current political, economic, and social systems. By studying this period, you can gain a better understanding of the events and developments that have shaped India’s recent history and continue to influence the country today.
  2. Improving analytical skills: The study of history of modern India requires students to analyze and interpret a wide range of primary and secondary sources, such as media reports, government documents, and academic articles. This can help you develop critical thinking and analytical skills that are useful in a variety of fields.
  3. Understanding contemporary issues: The issues and challenges that India faces today, such as poverty, inequality, corruption, and environmental degradation, have their roots in the modern period. By studying this period, you can gain a deeper understanding of the origins and complexities of these issues and be better equipped to address them.

By studying these and other topics, candidates can gain a thorough understanding of the political, economic, and social developments in modern history of India, which will be helpful in preparing for the UPSC Civil Services Exam.

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