Everything You Need To Know About

History of Modern India UPSC Notes Free Download

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1. The advent of the Europeans in India

The history of modern India can be traced back to the advent of Europeans to India. The trade routes between India and Europe were long and winding, passing through the Oxus Valley, Syria, and Egypt.

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2. Establishment of the British Empire in India

The Mughals – After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the decline of the Mughals started. Rulers of the Mughals were now weak and engrossed in political conflict for inheritance or dominance in the court.

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3. British Expansion in Deccan

Neighbouring states in the Deccan came into conflict with each other in their attempt to expand their territories to fulfil their need for resources. The rise of Mysore threatened its neighbouring states, and the Marathas and the Nizam formed an alliance against Mysore and also cooperated with the British to curb the power of Mysore. However, the Nizam was equally apprehensive of the Maratha’sexpansion in the south .

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5. Social and Cultural Awakening Before 1857

The colonization of India by the British during the 18th and 19th centuries exposed some serious weaknesses and drawbacks of Indian social institutions. Consequently, several individuals and movements sought to bring about changes in social and religious practices to reform and revitalize society.

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7. Tribal Movement

From the beginning, tribal people had lived in rural India in varying economic conditions and relative seclusion. They kept their distinct identity despite their interactions with non-tribal people. Each tribal community continued to have its own political and economic structures, as well as its own socio-religious and cultural life.

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10. Administrative Unification under the British Empire

The establishment of the British Empire allowed not only the political unification of the country but also Administrative and Economic unification. Pre-British India was divided into many feudal states, frequently struggling among themselves to extend their boundaries.

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12. Early Political Activities: 1858-1905

The revolt of 1857 was the first major large-scale revolt against the British. However, it failed to overthrow British imperialism. The failure of the revolt in 1857 demonstrated that revolutions based on old outlooks and social forces were ineffective against modern imperialism. In this aspect, the need arises for the political consciousness with the new movement:

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15. Home Rule Movement

The differences between the moderates and the extremists led to the split in Congress and the exit of the extremists from Congress in the Surat session of Congress in 1907. The Home Rule League movement started in the background of the ongoing world war and inactivity within the Congress after the Surat split.

Modern Indian History

The study of History of modern India is an important part of the UPSC Civil Services Exam, as it tests candidates’ knowledge of the political, social, economic, and cultural developments in India in the recent past.

Some of the key topics that candidates should be familiar with when studying modern India for the UPSC Civil Services Exam include:

History Of Modern India Upsc Notes
  1. Political developments: Candidates should be familiar with the major political parties and their ideologies, as well as the key events and issues that have shaped India’s political landscape in the recent past, such as the rise of regional parties, the growth of coalition politics, and the impact of social media on elections.
  2. Economic developments: Candidates should be familiar with the major economic policies and initiatives that have been implemented in India in the recent past, such as liberalization, globalization, and the development of the service sector. They should also be familiar with the challenges and opportunities that India’s economic growth has brought, such as the growth of inequality and the rise of the middle class.
  3. Social developments: Candidates should be familiar with the major social issues that have emerged in India in the recent past, such as women’s empowerment, the rights of marginalized communities, and the impact of technology on society.
  4. Foreign policy: Candidates should be familiar with India’s foreign policy in the recent past, including its relations with other countries and its role in international organizations.
  5. Environmental and sustainability issues: Candidates should be familiar with the major environmental and sustainability challenges that India has faced in the recent past, such as air and water pollution, climate change, and resource depletion.

The study of History of modern India is important for several reasons, especially for candidates preparing for the UPSC Civil Services Exam.

Here are a few reasons why studying modern Indian history is important:

  1. Understanding the present: Modern India is the period in which India has evolved into the country it is today, with its current political, economic, and social systems. By studying this period, you can gain a better understanding of the events and developments that have shaped India’s recent history and continue to influence the country today.
  2. Improving analytical skills: The study of history of modern India requires students to analyze and interpret a wide range of primary and secondary sources, such as media reports, government documents, and academic articles. This can help you develop critical thinking and analytical skills that are useful in a variety of fields.
  3. Understanding contemporary issues: The issues and challenges that India faces today, such as poverty, inequality, corruption, and environmental degradation, have their roots in the modern period. By studying this period, you can gain a deeper understanding of the origins and complexities of these issues and be better equipped to address them.

By studying these and other topics, candidates can gain a thorough understanding of the political, economic, and social developments in modern India, which will be helpful in preparing for the UPSC Civil Services Exam.