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Vegetation & Wildlife Conservation Free UPSC Notes Download

Vegetation & Wildlife Conservation

Vegetation and wildlife conservation refers to the protection and management of plant and animal species and their habitats.

It is important for maintaining biodiversity, which is the variety of different species in an ecosystem.

Biodiversity is vital for the health and functioning of ecosystems, as it helps to ensure that ecosystems can adapt to changing conditions and can provide a range of benefits to humans, such as food, medicine, and natural resources.

There are several ways in which vegetation and wildlife can be conserved, including:

  • Protected areas: Protected areas are areas of land or water that are set aside for the protection of plant and animal species and their habitats. These can include national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and nature reserves.
  • Species conservation: Species conservation involves protecting and managing individual species that are at risk of extinction. This can include measures such as breeding programs and habitat restoration.
  • Habitat conservation: Habitat conservation involves protecting and managing the natural environments in which plants and animals live. This can include measures such as land management practices, water conservation, and controlling pollution.
  • Sustainable use: Sustainable use involves the use of natural resources in a way that does not harm the environment or deplete the resource. For example, sustainable forestry involves the careful management of forests to ensure that they are not over-exploited.
  • Education and awareness: Raising awareness about the importance of vegetation and wildlife conservation can help to encourage people to take action to protect the environment. This can include educational programs, campaigns, and events.

Wildlife of India

India has an abundance of both vegetation and animals. India is home to around 90,000 animal species and roughly 2,000 bird species, representing 13% of the world’s total. India is home to 2,546 fish species, which accounts for almost 12 percent of the global supply.

In Kerala, Karnataka, and Assam, hot, humid jungles are home to the elephant, the most regal of animals. The one-horned rhinoceros is native to the wetlands of Assam and West Bengal. The Thar desert and Rann of Kachchh are noted for their separate populations of camels and wild asses. India is also home to Nilgai (blue bull), Indian bison, chousingha (four-horned antelope), gazelle, and several kinds of deer and monkeys. The Indian lion’s native home is the Gir forest in Gujarat. India is the only nation on earth with both lions and tigers.

Ladakh is home to the approximately one-ton shaggy-horned wild bull, the yak, the bharal (blue sheep), and the Tibetan wild ass (kiang). The ibex, the bear, the snow leopard, and the extremely uncommon red panda are also present in small areas of the Himalayas.

Turtles, gharials, and crocodiles inhabit India’s rivers, lakes, and coastlines.

India is also home to a variety of colourful birds, including peacocks, ducks, parakeets, cranes, and pigeons.

In 1972, the Wildlife Protection Act was enacted to establish a legislative framework for the conservation and protection of India’s wildlife.

There are 103 national parks and 535 wildlife preserves in India.

The Indian government, in partnership with UNESCO’s “Man and Biosphere Programme,” has taken special steps to preserve the country’s flora and wildlife.

In 1973, Project Tiger was initiated to conserve Tigers in India. It was the first effort of its sort to preserve the tiger population in India and protect them from poaching and other dangers. Initially established in nine tiger reserves, Project Tiger was eventually expanded to 44 tiger reserves (in 17 states).

Initiated in 1992, Project Elephant seeks to secure the long-term survival of elephant populations in their native habitats by safeguarding elephants, their habitats, and migration routes. In 17 states, the initiative is being executed.

The Government of India has also created Project Hangul, the Crocodile Breeding Project, and the Himalayan Musk deer Conservation Project.

Vegetation and wildlife conservation is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, and it also has economic and social benefits. For example, protected areas can attract tourists, and the use of sustainable resources can provide a source of income for local communities.