Aspirants must be familiar with the Role of Civil Services in a Democracy in order to prepare for any GOVERNANCE test. It provides an overview of all the essential IAS Exam and Governance themes (GS-II.). Governance aspects of the UPSC examination place a premium on the role of the civil service in terms of democracy. As questions from this area of the IAS Syllabus may be asked in both the UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains examinations, IAS candidates should have a complete understanding of their meaning and application. Even these issues are closely related to contemporary events. Nearly every question they are asked pertains to current events. Additionally to normal textbooks, newspapers and news analyses should be consulted for these parts.
In a democracy, the role of the civil services is to serve as the non-partisan, professional backbone of the government and to ensure the smooth functioning of the administrative machinery. Civil servants are responsible for implementing the policies and programs of the government, providing a range of public services to citizens, and ensuring the smooth functioning of government.
Some specific ways in which the civil services contribute to democracy in India include:
- Implementing government policies and programs: Civil servants are responsible for implementing the policies and programs of the government at the national, state, and local levels. This helps to ensure that the government is able to carry out its mandate and fulfill its responsibilities to the citizens.
- Providing public services: Civil servants are responsible for providing a range of public services to citizens, including services related to education, healthcare, and social welfare. This helps to ensure that citizens have access to the services they need to lead healthy, productive lives.
- Ensuring the smooth functioning of government: Civil servants are responsible for ensuring the smooth functioning of the government by performing a range of administrative tasks, such as managing budgets, maintaining records, and coordinating with other government agencies. This helps to ensure that the government is able to effectively serve the needs of the citizens.
- Advising policymakers: Civil servants often serve as advisors to policymakers at all levels of government, providing them with expert knowledge and guidance on a range of issues. This helps to ensure that policymakers have access to the information and expertise they need to make informed decisions.
- Protecting the rights and interests of citizens: Civil servants are also responsible for protecting the rights and interests of citizens, including by enforcing laws and regulations and upholding the rule of law. This helps to ensure that citizens are able to exercise their rights and have their interests protected by the government.
Overall, the role of the civil services in a democracy is to serve as a non-partisan, professional backbone of the government and to ensure the smooth functioning of the administrative machinery, the implementation of policies and programs, and the provision of public services to citizens.
Since ancient times, India has had a system of well-organized public administration.
- The administration of Maurya disguised public officials as adhyakshas and other titles.
- According to Chanakya’s Arthashastra, public employees were selected on the basis of merit and excellence, and they had a rigorous investigational procedure.
- During the Mughal period, state administrators were in charge of the land taxation system.
- During the British era, the East India Company established a civil service to manage its commercial interests. The British administration in India established the civil services largely to strengthen their control over their Indian holdings.
- Lord Wellesley, who served as Governor-General of India from 1798 to 1805, founded the College of Fort William in 1800, requiring all Company employees to complete a three-year programme.
- The East India Company College was established in Hertfordshire, near London, to educate personnel about the civil service.
- In India’s post-independence period, the civil service was restructured.
- During the British Raj, civil service officers were primarily tasked with maintaining law and order and collecting taxes.
- After independence, when the government assumed the role of a welfare state, the civil services played a crucial role in executing national and state welfare and development goals.
- According to Articles 53 and 154, the President or Governor has executive power over the Union and the States, either directly or through subordinate offices. These officials, who make up the permanent civil service, are governed by Part XIV of the Constitution, titled “Services under the Union and States” (Articles 308-323).
- Indian Government (Business Transactions) Rules: These Rules stipulate how officials are to help the President or Governor in carrying out his or her executive responsibilities.
- Article 311 covers the dismissal, dismissal, or decrease in rank of people employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State.
- All India Services, per Article 312.
- In India, the civil service is crucial to the enforcement of rules and regulations. It plays a key role in the governance of India. The function of the civil service has developed throughout time.
- Rapid economic development has increased the number of available employment.
- The attitude of civil servants must shift from controllers to facilitators and from providers to enablers. They must acquire the required skills and abilities in order to face these new difficulties.