Reading about the legislature is an important topic for the UPSC Civil Services Exam (CSE) because the legislature is one of the three organs of the government of India, along with the executive and the judiciary. The legislature is responsible for making laws for the country and represents the will of the people.
In the Indian political system, the legislature is made up of the Parliament, which consists of the President and two houses: The Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). The Parliament has the power to make laws for the entire country and to levy taxes.
The UPSC CSE is a competitive examination that tests candidates on their knowledge of a wide range of topics, including Indian history, geography, economics, and current affairs. The functioning of the legislature and the role of the Parliament in the governance of the country are important aspects of the exam syllabus.
In the UPSC CSE, questions on the legislature and the Parliament may be asked in the general studies paper as well as in the optional subjects. It is therefore important for candidates to have a good understanding of the structure and function of the legislature and the Parliament, and to be able to apply their knowledge to real-life situations.
The Council of States, or the Rajya Sabha, is the upper house of the Parliament and consists of 250 members. It represents the states of the Union and the Union Territories, and its members are elected by the state and territorial legislatures. The Vice President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
The House of the People, or the Lok Sabha, is the lower house of the Parliament and consists of 543 elected members. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha presides over its proceedings.
The Parliament has the power to make laws for the entire country and to levy taxes. It also has the power to impeach the President and to remove the judges of the Supreme Court and the high courts for misbehavior or incapacity.
The President of India is a ceremonial head of state, but has some important powers and functions. The President has the power to appoint the Prime Minister and other ministers, and to summon and prorogue the sessions of the Parliament. The President can also dissolve the Lok Sabha and call for fresh elections.
The Prime Minister is the head of the government and is appointed by the President on the advice of the majority in the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister leads the Council of Ministers, which consists of the ministers in charge of various portfolios. The Council of Ministers is responsible for the administration of the government and is accountable to the Parliament.
The Parliament has the power to make laws on a wide range of subjects listed in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution.
These subjects are divided into three lists: the Union List, the State List, and the Concurrent List. The Union List consists of subjects that are of national importance and are within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Union government.
- The State List consists of subjects that are of local or state importance and are within the jurisdiction of the state governments.
- The Concurrent List consists of subjects on which both the Union and the state governments have the power to legislate.
The Parliament also has the power to approve the budget and to control the finances of the government. It has the power to scrutinize the conduct of the government and to hold it accountable through various means such as debates, question hour, and committees.
In summary, the legislature is an important organ of the government of India and plays a crucial role in the governance of the country. It is responsible for making laws and representing the will of the people.
The Parliament, which consists of the President and two houses, has the power to make laws for the entire country and to levy taxes. The UPSC CSE tests candidates on their knowledge of the legislature and the Parliament, and it is therefore important for candidates to have a good understanding of its structure and function.