Everything You Need To Know About Yojana Magazine: July 2023

Yojana Magazine: July 2023

 Chapter 1: Sahakar Se Samruddhi.

Ministry of Cooperation (MoC) for Prosperity and Progress:

  • Establishment (July 2021): The Ministry of Cooperation (MoC) was founded in July 2021 with the overarching goal of fostering prosperity and progress through cooperation. This initiative aimed to harness the power of collaborative efforts to drive economic development and societal advancement.
  • Motto: “Sahakar se Samriddhi” (Prosperity through Cooperation): The motto encapsulates the essence of the ministry’s mission. It emphasizes that by embracing cooperation, India can achieve sustainable and holistic growth that benefits individuals, communities, and the nation as a whole.
  • Embracing Cooperative-Led Movement: The MoC has actively promoted and supported the cooperative-led movement. By encouraging the establishment and growth of cooperatives across various sectors, the ministry envisions a more balanced regional development landscape and aims to empower local entrepreneurs to expand their reach globally. This approach aligns with the broader economic and social objectives of the nation. 

The magnitude of Indian Cooperatives:

  • India’s cooperative landscape is vast, with approximately 8.54 lakh cooperatives spanning 98% of the country’s villages and engaging around 29 crore members. These cooperatives operate across diverse sectors, ranging from agriculture to finance and more.
  • These cooperatives are categorized into non-credit and credit cooperatives.
  • Non-credit cooperatives comprise 80% of the total and encompass various sectors beyond financial activities.
  • On the other hand, credit cooperatives, constituting 20%, primarily focus on extending credit services to their members.

Historical Development and Recognition:

  • The origins of cooperative recognition in India trace back to the Cooperative Credit Societies Act of 1904. This act marked the formal acknowledgement of the cooperative movement’s significance in addressing socio-economic challenges.
  • The movement experienced a pivotal shift following the Maclagan Committee Report. This shift transitioned the movement’s focus from merely providing relief to a more comprehensive endeavour aimed at improving socio-economic welfare, particularly for marginalized and rural communities.

Post-Independence Integration and Policy Embrace:

  • After India gained independence, the cooperative movement gained recognition in the perspective plans of the Indian government.
  • This integration underscored the movement’s crucial role in fostering development and inclusivity, aligning with the nation’s development agenda.

Addressing Challenges through 4 Ps and 4 Es:

  • The cooperative movement faces multifaceted challenges, which are being tackled through a strategic framework.
  • The 4 Ps encompass Policy formulation to create a conducive environment, Professionalization to enhance operational excellence, People’s Participation to foster community engagement, and Public Investment to ensure sustainable growth.
  • The 4 Es encompass Education to empower members, Equity to promote fairness, Empowerment to elevate local communities, and Ethical Standards to ensure integrity and accountability. 

Government Initiatives:

  • The government has launched several initiatives to bolster the cooperative ecosystem.
  • The ‘SQUAD’ framework explores emerging areas for cooperatives, enabling diversification and innovation.
  • The National Cooperation Policy aims to unify cooperative efforts across sectors. Strengthening Primary Agriculture Credit Societies (PACS) includes model by-laws, integration with other sectors, and expansion.
  • The establishment of a comprehensive cooperative database enhances informed decision-making, while the National Cooperative University fosters education and skill development.
  • These initiatives collectively reinforce the cooperative movement’s foundation and growth potential.

Challenges and the Path Forward:

  • The cooperative movement faces various challenges, such as regional imbalances, complex regulatory environments, governance issues, coordination hurdles, and infrastructural constraints.
  • Addressing these challenges is essential to unlock the sector’s full potential.

Cooperatives and Economic Progress:

  • Cooperatives play a pivotal role in realizing India’s economic aspirations, including the goal of achieving a $5 trillion economy. Their inclusive nature, community-driven approach, and focus on socio-economic progress make them a crucial component of India’s development journey.


In conclusion, the establishment of the Ministry of Cooperation and the adoption of a cooperative-led movement highlight India’s commitment to inclusive growth and societal well-being. The cooperative sector’s vast reach, historical significance, and strategic initiatives position it as a powerful force for achieving both economic prosperity and holistic progress.

 Chapter 2: Strategic diversification of cooperative and Business competitiveness.

In an era marked by rapid technological advancements and shifting consumer preferences, the cooperative sector finds itself at a crossroads. The traditional notion of cooperatives solely focusing on localized agriculture or credit services is undergoing a transformative shift. Strategic diversification has become the mantra for modern cooperatives to navigate the complexities of the global economic landscape.

Business diversification is becoming increasingly important for cooperatives as they seek to ensure their growth and relevance in a dynamic and competitive global economy. Here’s why diversification matters:

Need for business diversification for cooperatives:

  • Resilience: Diversification spreads risk, making cooperatives more resilient to economic fluctuations.
  • Market Expansion: Cooperatives can tap into new markets, increasing their revenue streams and sustaining growth.
  • Competitive Edge: Diversification enhances competitiveness by leveraging existing resources across different sectors.
  • Member Satisfaction: Offering a broader range of products and services meets evolving member needs and fosters loyalty.
  • Innovation: Diversification drives innovation as cooperatives adapt to new sectors and technologies.
  • Community Development: Cooperatives contribute to holistic community development by creating jobs and driving economic growth.
  • Resource Utilization: Existing infrastructure and networks can be leveraged, reducing costs for new ventures.

Challenges and Opportunities:

  • However, strategic diversification is not without challenges. Cooperatives must navigate regulatory complexities, access funding for expansion, and manage operational intricacies.
  • But within these challenges lie tremendous opportunities. Cooperatives can collaborate with other cooperatives, engage in joint ventures, and leverage the power of collective bargaining to overcome hurdles.

Ways of diversification:

  1. Product Diversification:
    • Cooperatives expand product offerings to cater to changing consumer preferences.
    • Amul diversified to include ice creams, cheese, butter, etc.
    • Credit unions offer services beyond savings and loans, like insurance and investments.
  2. Geographic Diversification:
    • Cooperatives expand to new regions with different demand patterns.
    • Karnataka Milk Federation’s Nandini brand expanded to multiple states.
    • Cooperative banks open branches in new areas for financial inclusion.
  3. Service Diversification:
    • Cooperatives extend services for added value to customers.
    • Anjarakandi Urban Cooperative Bank offers coconut-based products.
  4. Joint Ventures:
    • Cooperatives collaborate with other entities for combined resources.
    • IFFCO and Congelados De Navarra formed a food processing joint venture.
  5. Vertical Integration:
    • Cooperatives incorporate upstream or downstream activities.
    • Amerli District Cooperative Milk Producers Union partnered for animal feed supply.
  6. Horizontal Integration:
    • Cooperatives merge or acquire similar entities for scale and market share.
    • Centrum Finance Ltd acquired Punjab and Maharashtra Cooperative Bank.

Case Studies of Success:

  • Several cooperatives have set remarkable examples of strategic diversification.
  • Amul, a dairy cooperative, expanded from milk production to processed dairy products and beyond, becoming a global brand.


In conclusion, Chapter 2 expounds on the critical role of strategic diversification in enhancing the competitiveness of cooperatives. This transformative journey holds the promise of economic growth, sustainability, and empowerment. By aligning diversification efforts with cooperative values, principles, cooperatives can leverage their collective strength.

 Chapter 3: Empowering Agriculture Cooperatives through Digitisation.


 Cooperative credit institutions have a rich history of catalyzing social and economic development in India. Particularly in rural areas, these institutions have played a pivotal role in aggregating credit for agricultural production, which is the backbone of the nation’s economy.

About Cooperative Credit Institutions:

  • The foundation of the short-term rural cooperative credit structure (STCCS) is a three-tier framework comprising State Cooperative Banks (StBs), District Central Cooperative Banks (DCCBs), and Primary Agriculture Credit Societies (PACs) at the village level.
  • StBs and DCCBs are overseen by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and supervised by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).
  • PACs, the grassroots units, extend beyond mere financial services; they act as enablers of self-help, community engagement, and localized control over resource allocation and utilization.

Challenges Confronting Cooperative Credit Institutions:

  • Fierce competition from commercial banks and microfinance institutions encroaching upon their rural credit stronghold.
  • A hesitance to embrace advanced technologies limits their scope for growth and innovation.
  • A tendency to stick to traditional services, such as short-term loans, rather than offering more comprehensive solutions like financial advisory and marketing support.

Way Forward: Empowering Cooperative Credit Institutions through Technology:

  • Digitization of STCCS:
    • Introduction of Centralized Online Real-time Exchange (CORE) based Banking Solutions (CBS) has streamlined operations at StBs and DCCBs. This integration enhances regulatory oversight and allows customers to access banking services anywhere, anytime.
    • Standardized technology-driven office management systems can significantly enhance efficiency and governance across these banks.
  • Technology Adoption for PACS:
    • While DCCBs need process digitization, PACS necessitate fundamental computerization to bolster their efficiency.
    • The digitization of PACS aims to elevate service delivery, digitize operations, and establish seamless connections with DCCBs and StBs.
    • Addressing challenges like inadequate rural infrastructure, power supply, internet connectivity, and computer literacy is essential.
  • Technology Adoption for Customer Interface, Service Delivery, and Decision Making:
    • Exploring cutting-edge technologies such as mobile banking and Internet banking opens up new channels for customer interaction and service delivery.
    • Incorporating technologies like drones for field monitoring enhances precision in assessing agricultural conditions.
    • Blockchain technology can bolster cybersecurity and transparency in financial transactions, instilling trust among stakeholders.
  • Collaborative Partnerships with Fintech Firms:
    • Cooperative credit institutions can form alliances with fintech companies to provide user-friendly digital interfaces, extend advisory services, and develop tailored financial products.
    • These partnerships can enable efficient customer acquisition, accurate credit profiling, and a diverse array of financial services.


  • Digitization empowers cooperatives, enhancing services and financial inclusion.
  • With policy support, these institutions leverage technology for rural development, ensuring prosperity in evolving agricultural landscapes.

Chapter 4: Ushering development pathways for non-credit cooperatives. 


  • Cooperative societies, with 8.5 lakh entities and 29 crore members, are vital to India’s economy.
  • The growth of cooperatives varies across states due to diverse state administrative strategies.

Structure of Cooperatives in India:

  • Cooperative societies operate under the Cooperative Society Act 1912, covering the Cooperative Thrift Society Act and Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act 2002.
  • Two types of cooperative structures: State Cooperative Societies (state government) and Multi-State Cooperative Societies (central government).

Impact of Globalization on Cooperatives:

  • Despite concerns, cooperatives like Amul, HOPCOMS, and IFFCO succeed due to factors such as end-to-end supply chains, diversification, technology adoption, and professional management.
  • The potential of cooperatives, particularly in the food processing sector, to contribute significantly to India’s economy.

Way Forward:

  • A tailored approach is required for non-credit cooperatives’ growth due to diversity.
  • Establishment of national-level cooperative societies for specific sectors.


  • Cooperatives can register as MSMEs on Udyam Portal.
  • Cluster-based programs offer funding for common facilities, processing centers, and skill development.
  • Udyam certification can provide access to program benefits and priority sector lending.

Awareness, Training, and Mentoring:

  • Promoting cooperatives as viable career options among students.
  • Capacity building through training and skill development for cooperative staff.
  • Mentorship programs encourage collaboration among cooperatives.

Government Initiatives:

  • Formation of National Multistate Cooperative Seed Society for seed production, marketing, and R&D.
  • Establishment of Multi-State Cooperative Organic Society for organic product aggregation, testing, and marketing.

Technology and Digitization:

  • Cooperatives must upgrade technology, production, and business models while embracing digitization.
  • Government support, including subsidies and credit facilities, can aid cooperatives in this transition.
  • Building physical infrastructure and linking cooperatives with cluster schemes.


  • The government’s focus on cooperation and development signifies a commitment to community-led progress.
  • Integrating state cooperatives into multi-state entities and emphasizing convergence, awareness, training, mentoring, technology upgradation, and digitization unlocks cooperatives’ potential.
  • Comprehensive approach vital for growth, efficiency enhancement, and rural prosperity.

Chapter 5: Strengthening cooperative entrepreneurship for economic development.


  • India boasts a rich history of entrepreneurship and cooperative movements.
  • The cooperative movement in India focuses on using financial and social resources for inclusion and community growth.

Cooperative Entrepreneurship:

  • Cooperative entrepreneurship is collective or joint entrepreneurship.
  • “Cooperative entrepreneurs” lead businesses democratically for collective benefit.
  • Pillars of cooperative governance: democratic governance, equality, one person, one vote.

Focus and Importance of cooperative entrepreneurship:

  • Emphasis on quality employment, wealth creation, and optimal resource use.
  • Potential for grassroots goods and services delivery, social bonding, and workplace control.

Present scenario:

  • Cooperatives play a significant role in various sectors: Agricultural financing, fertiliser distribution, sugar production, procurement.
  • Notable Indian cooperatives recognized globally: IFFCO, Gujarat State Cooperative Milk and Marketing Federation, state cooperative banks.

Growth Potential:

  • Cooperatives can address community issues and sectoral trends for growth opportunities.
  • Potential in sectors like manufacturing, services, renewable energy, tourism, and more.
  • The social welfare sector holds untapped potential for cooperative expansion.


  • Limited access to capital.
  • Legal restrictions on operations and membership.
  • The democratic decision-making process can be time-consuming and expensive.

 Way Forward:

  • Strengthen cooperative operations through strategic management, innovation, and creativity.
  • Dynamic governance mechanisms.
  • Employ qualified, competent, and committed human resources.
  • Implement modern management techniques for unity and growth.


  • Government support through campaigns like “Sahakar se Samridhi” and Ministry of Cooperation encourages sector expansion.
  • The inclusion of women and young individuals with cooperative values accelerates growth.
  • Cooperative values, as mentioned in the earlier part of the article, epitomize a simple and content life.

 Chapter 6: Atmanirbhar Bharat through cooperatives.


  • The concept of “Atmanirbhar Bharat” or “Self-Reliant India” envisions a nation that relies on its own strengths, resources, and capabilities to achieve sustainable growth and development.
  • Cooperatives, with their grassroots-driven and community-oriented approach, can play a pivotal role in realizing the vision of Atmanirbhar Bharat.

Cooperatives as Catalysts for Self-Reliance:

  • Cooperatives are inherently aligned with the principles of self-reliance.
  • They empower local communities to take charge of their economic and social progress by pooling resources, sharing risks, and collectively making decisions.
  • Through cooperative efforts, individuals can harness their collective potential and reduce dependence on external entities.

Advantages of Cooperatives for Atmanirbhar Bharat:

  • Local Resource Mobilization: Cooperatives mobilize local resources, capital, and skills, fostering self-sufficiency in various sectors such as agriculture, dairy, handicrafts, and more.
  • Community Development: By promoting community participation and ownership, cooperatives ensure that development efforts are tailored to local needs and priorities.
  • Entrepreneurship Promotion: Cooperatives encourage entrepreneurship by providing a platform for individuals to collaborate, innovate, and collectively start businesses.
  • Apart from this, there can be other advantages in sectors such as – food security, supply chain management, Energy security, preserving natural resources etc.

Cooperatives and Key Sectors:

  • Agriculture and Rural Development: Agricultural cooperatives enhance farmers’ bargaining power, improve access to inputs, and provide market linkages, thereby boosting rural self-reliance.
  • MSMEs and Local Industries: Cooperatives in the MSME sector enable collective production, marketing, and technology adoption, bolstering local industries and generating employment.
  • Healthcare and Education: Cooperatives promote affordable healthcare and education services, reducing dependency on centralized systems and ensuring access to essential services.

Challenges and Mitigation:

  • While cooperatives have immense potential, they also face challenges such as lack of awareness, inadequate training, governance issues, and limited access to finance.
  • These challenges can be mitigated through targeted capacity building, financial support, and policy reforms that create an enabling environment for cooperative growth.


  • Cooperatives align with Atmanirbhar Bharat, fostering self-reliance through local resources, community engagement, and entrepreneurship.
  • Government support and awareness can magnify their role in building a self-reliant India.

Chapter 7: Innovation and Technology – for making Indian cooperatives future ready.


  • In today’s rapidly evolving landscape, technology-driven cooperative entrepreneurship has emerged as a potent force for innovation, economic growth, and social empowerment.
  • This dynamic fusion of technology and cooperative principles is reshaping industries, fostering inclusive development, and propelling India toward a more sustainable future.

The Transformative Potential:

  • The integration of technology empowers cooperatives to overcome traditional constraints, opening doors to new possibilities.
  • From e-commerce platforms for agricultural cooperatives to blockchain-based supply chain tracking, technology enhances efficiency, transparency, and customer engagement.
  • This not only boosts cooperative business viability but also bolsters their ability to create positive societal change.

Empowering Economic Growth:

  • By embracing digital platforms, these enterprises access global markets, streamline operations, and optimize resource utilization.
  • This results in enhanced profitability, job creation, and improved livelihoods for members and their communities.

Modern Technologies for Cooperative Advancements:

  • Cloud Computing: Scalable data storage and collaboration.
  • AI: Informed decisions through data analysis.
  • IoT: Real-time insights for operations optimization.
  • Blockchain: Transparent and secure transactions.
  • E-commerce Platforms: Global market access for members.
  • Renewable Energy Solutions: Clean energy generation.
  • Big Data Analytics: Identifying trends and preferences.

Challenges and Solutions:

  • While the potential is vast, challenges such as digital literacy, infrastructure gaps, and financial constraints persist.
  • Cooperatives address these challenges through capacity-building programs, partnerships with tech-savvy organizations, and government support.
  • Collaborations bridge knowledge gaps and pave the way for successful technology integration. 

Success Stories:

  • Numerous examples illuminate the success of technology-driven cooperative entrepreneurship. In India, the dairy cooperative Amul harnessed technology for efficient supply chain management, enabling rapid milk collection and distribution.
  • Digital platforms like IFFCO iMandi empower farmers with market information, enhancing their bargaining power.


  • Technology-driven cooperative entrepreneurship is rewriting the narrative of cooperative success.
  • By embracing technology while upholding the values of cooperation, they are not just surviving but thriving, exemplifying how collaborative efforts and cutting-edge technology can forge a path toward prosperity and progress.

    Chapter 8 – Fishery Cooperative – A blue ocean for economic development. 


  • The fisheries sector in India is a mosaic of diverse sub-sectors, including marine, inland, brackish water, cold water, and ornamental fisheries.
  • With a vast coastline of over 8,000 km, an expansive, exclusive economic zone spanning 2 million square km, and numerous freshwater bodies, the sector holds significant economic promise.

Fishery cooperative sector:

  • At the heart of this sector’s progress lie fishery cooperatives, pivotal in ensuring livelihood, nutritional, and social security for vulnerable communities.
  • These cooperatives impact the lives of around 4 million individuals, primarily through primary fishery cooperatives.
  • However, in the evolving economic landscape, their role necessitates consideration at every level, accompanied by financial support for infrastructural development and the creation of progressive supply and value chains for sustained growth.

Recognizing the potential within the fisheries domain, the Government of India has rolled out strategic initiatives to foster its development:

  1. Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan: This flagship initiative seeks to infuse vitality into the fisheries sector by announcing a Rs 20 lakh crore economic package dedicated to job creation and growth.
  2. Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY): Launched in 2019-20, this comprehensive scheme boasts a project outlay of Rs 20,050 crore, aiming to invigorate India’s economy through fisheries development. The PMMSY operates as a harbinger of transformation.
  3. Fisheries & Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF): A dedicated fund of Rs 7,522 crore has been earmarked for the augmentation of fisheries and aquaculture infrastructure, paving the way for modernization and expansion.
  4. Blue Revolution: Initiated in 2014, this movement propels fish production and infrastructure development, bolstering the fisheries sector’s contributions to the economy.

Historical perspective:

  • The roots of the fishery cooperative movement dig deep into India’s history, germinating in 1913 with the establishment of the first fishermen’s society, the ‘Karla Machhimar Cooperative Society in Maharashtra.
  • This movement has gained significant momentum since the establishment of the Ministry of Cooperation in 2021, underscoring its growing importance.

Creation of a national database:

  • The National Database of Fisheries Cooperatives is an ambitious endeavour aiming to encompass every panchayat across the nation, reaching a target of 2 lakh cooperatives over the next five years.
  • This collaborative effort between the National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), FISHCOPFED, and State/UT authorities is poised to bridge sectoral gaps, foster growth, and bring about holistic progress.

Success stories in the fisheries sector:

  • Matsyafed-Kerala, established in 1984, stands tall with achievements in fish sales, exports, and retail outlets
  • Operating mat-making and processing plants, it showcases the multiplier effects of cooperative efforts.


  • In conclusion, the fisheries sector holds the promise of being a sunrise sector in India, offering economic prospects and employment opportunities.
  • Fishery cooperatives are the bedrock of this progress, fostering food security and livelihoods
  • With the government’s unwavering commitment, driven by robust policies and financial support, the cooperative and fisheries ministries are poised to join hands, steering the sector towards a prosperous future.

Chapter 9: One PACS – One Drone.  


  • The article focuses on technology use, particularly drones, in the Indian cooperative sector.
  • Drone: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated remotely or autonomously.
  • Indian government initiatives boost drone manufacturing, empower Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS).

Indian Governments Initiatives:

  • Strengthening PACS:
    • Financial aid and training to bolster PACS.
    • Enhance farmer services and rural development.
  • Liberalised Drone Rules 2021:
    • Ministry of Civil Aviation’s rules for global drone hub by 2030.
    • Easier, faster approvals for drone operations.
    • Drone promotion council to facilitate regulatory environment.Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme:
  • Strengthening Cooperative Movement:
    • Growing government focus on nationwide cooperative movement.

Drones in Agriculture:

  • Drone roles: Land mapping, agrochemical spraying, seeding, yield assessment, analytics.
  • Spray benefits: 25-90% input cost reduction, 90% skin exposure decrease, yield improvement.
  • Mapping significance: Precision agri, land dispute reduction via drone-based mapping.
  • Farm mechanization: Drones raise productivity, reduce costs, augment mechanization levels.
  • Pest control: Drones combat pests with precision pesticide and fungicide spraying.
  • Farmer support: Drones optimize inputs and reduce costs with surveying, seeding, spraying, and pollination.

One PACS One Drone: Action & Benefits

  • Nationwide multipurpose PACS with a drone each.
  • Drones transform agriculture, boost GDP by 1-1.5%.
  • 5 lakh new jobs, digital prosperity era.
  • Eligible rural entrepreneurs with pilot licenses fly drones.


  • Drones’ role in cooperatives holds rural economy transformation potential.
  • Government actions for drone manufacturing and PACS strengthening are pivotal.
  • India’s drone leadership, ‘Sahakar se Samriddhi’, is feasible with the right policies and investments.

Chapter 10: Regenerative agri-supply chain management.


  • Agriculture Supply Chain Management (ASCM) ensures the effective flow of agricultural commodities.
  • Challenges like climate change, disruptions, and market volatility affect supply chains.
  • Transition to smart regenerative supply chain alleviates social and environmental pressures.

Importance of Supply Chain Management:

  • Ensures food security and agricultural development.
  • Aids farmers in procurement, marketing, and distribution.
  • Addresses storage, transportation, and inventory concerns.

Role of Cooperatives in Agricultural Supply Chains:

  • Cooperatives provide technical, financial, and operational support.
  • Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) aid in bulk purchasing, credit facilitation.
  • Facilitate information flow, marketing, transportation, and distribution.
  • Enhance produce quality through input supply and credit facilities.
  • Cooperative marketing societies improve storage, management, and waste reduction.
  • Transition towards regenerative supply chains via sustainable practices.

Primary Agricultural Credit Society (PACS) in Storage & Supply Chain Management:

  • PACS a multi-service centre for procurement, marketing, and credit.
  • Storage of implements, agri-inputs ensures quality inputs for farmers.
  • PACS as common service centres delivering services to villages.

Initiatives Taken:

  • Ministry of Cooperation establishes sector-specific cooperative societies.
  • Seed societies aid in seed production, processing, storage, and distribution.
  • Export societies handle procurement, processing, marketing, and branding.
  • Organic societies offer certification, standardization via laboratory networks.

Way Forward:

  • Explore by-product knowledge and utilization.
  • Sensitize members about supply chain advancements.
  • Manage supply chain risks through digitalization, data analytics.


  • Regenerative supply chains benefit cooperatives economically, socially, and environmentally.
  • Cooperative-driven transformations enhance agricultural supply chains’ resilience and effectiveness.

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