6 April 2024 : Daily Answer Writing

Q1) What makes the India-USA relationship unique is the presence of enormous depth and breadth in the bilateral ties that co-exist with several differences. Examine.

(250 Words/15 Marks)

India and the US as the world’s largest and oldest democracies share a “Comprehensive Global and Strategic Partnership”. The deep mutual cooperation and trust has made co-existence of differences and convergences to flourish in tandem.

The depth and breadth in the India-USA bilateral ties can be seen from:

  1. Defence cooperation:
  2. India and USA are committed to extend cooperation on law enforcement, information sharing, and counter terrorism.

E.g., US-India Counter Terrorism Joint Working Group.

  1. Efforts for co-production and technology transfer.

E.g., initiative to manufacture F- 414 engines in India (for HAL LCA Mk2).

  1. Partnership between universities, startups, industry and think tanks to facilitate joint defence technology innovation.

E.g., India-U.S Defence Acceleration Ecosystem (INDUS-X).

  1. DTTI, LEMOA, COMCASA etc., to promote peace and stability in Indo-Pacific.
  2. India and USA have mutual interest in preserving a rules-based order, especially in Indo- Pacific and checking the rise of a unilateral China.

E.g., Both are members of Quadrilateral dialogue.

  1. High technology and space: Both the countries have shown rising convergence in the matters of high technology.

E.g., recently (Jan 2023) concluded Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technology; launch of strategic trade dialogue (June 2023); joint development and commercialization of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and quantum technologies, signing of Artemis Accords; civil nuclear deal etc.

  1. Clean energy partnership: The two countries have consistently worked towards inclusive energy transition.

E.g., New and Emerging Renewable Energy Technologies Action Platform, aims to accelerate cooperation in green hydrogen, offshore and onshore wind power, and other emerging technologies.

  1. Global Growth:
  2. Building resilience in supply chains.

E.g., IPEF.

  1. Revitalizing global financial governance.

E.g., talks for reforming of Multilateral Development Banks during India’s G-20 presidency.

  1. Partnership for building an inclusive Digital Public Infrastructure.
  2. Bilateral trade exceeding 191 billion USD in 2022 is an engine for global growth.
  3. India-US partnership shows convergence in shared values such as democracy, freedom, liberty, human-rights etc. Also, the two countries bolster a strong people to people ties.


However, divergences in India-US relations can be seen as:

  1. Unilateral sanctions by the USA stands in dichotomy with India’s stated stance of strategic autonomy.


  1. Divergences in response to the ongoing Ukraine crisis.

E.g., US President Joe Biden termed India’s response as shaky. Also, the formation of AUKUS (example of Anglo-Saxon unity) may have the effect of diminishing the relevance quadrilateral dialogue.

  1. The unilateral withdrawal of US from Afghanistan may have an adverse impact on India’s internal and external security.
  2. Challenges to free movement of human resources are a cause for concern.

E.g., Issue of H1-B Visa by USA to Indian IT professionals.

  1. Divergences over trade and commerce continue to exist.

E.g., US terminating India’s benefit under GSP, dispute in WTO over various subsidies etc.

  1. India highlights poor transfer of technology and funds from western countries including USA to mitigate the effects of Climate Change.


Despite some divergence, the common interests have kept the partnership strong:

  1. Regular high-level engagement such as 2+2 dialogues have bolstered dialogue and mutual cooperation.
  2. India-US cooperation during the Covid-19 crisis helped in containing the effects of the pandemic.
  3. India-US continue to exhibit strong global partnership through various groups.

E.g., Quadrilateral dialogue.

  1. 4. Strong cooperation between the two countries continue to exist in matters of climate and environment.

E.g., Climate Action and Finance Mobilisation Dialogue (CAFMD)

As India and the U.S. partnership grow closer, engaging in economic and strategic parameters, it calls for a deeper engagement that goes beyond government and entails strong people to people ties.

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