Everything You Need To Know About 11 Dec 2023 : Daily Current Affairs

11 Dec 2023 : Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs


1. Key COP document calls for progress in adapting to climate change by 2030.

Topic: GS3 – climate action.


  • By 2025, all countries are required to have a detailed plan in place to adapt to current and future impacts of climate change.

Additional information on the news:

  • Demonstrable progress in implementing the adaptation plan is expected from each country by 2030.
  • The draft of this key climate document was released, and a final version is anticipated to be part of the agreement at the United Nations’ COP-28 climate summit in Dubai.
  • The focus of the annual talks is not only on mitigation but also on adaptation, recognizing the need for adjustments in ecological, social, and economic systems in response to climate-related disasters.
  • Global temperatures have already risen by 1.1 degrees Celsius since pre-industrial times, leading to an increase in climate-related disasters.
  • Adaptation actions are country-specific and can include measures such as building flood defenses, implementing early warning systems for cyclones, adopting drought-resistant crops, and redesigning government policies.
  • The emphasis on adaptation complements efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, highlighting the dual approach necessary for addressing climate change effectively.

2. On listing of cases in the Supreme Court.

Topic: GS3 – Indian polity

Dushyant Dave’s Letter:

  • Dave’s open letter to Chief Justice Chandrachud raises concerns about “irregularities” in case listing.
  • Cases involving human rights and institutions shifted abruptly between Benches.
  • Matters deviated from established rules, with cases following the puisne judge instead of the original presiding judge.
  • Dave calls for the Chief Justice, as the ‘master of the roster,’ to address the issue.

Prashant Bhushan’s Letter:

  • Bhushan writes to the Supreme Court Registry, focusing on UAPA-related petitions.
  • Initial listing before Justice Chandrachud, but later handled by a different Bench.
  • Bhushan notes a departure from normal listing procedures and suggests referral to the Chief Justice for administrative orders.

Issues Raised:

  • Movement of Listed Cases:
    • Concerns about cases listed before one Bench being transferred to another.
    • Questions about whether a case can “follow” a puisne judge when the senior judge is available.
  • Master of the Roster’s Powers:
    • Dave and Bhushan emphasize the Chief Justice’s role as the master of the roster.
    • Request for a response regarding administrative control over case allocation.

Supreme Court Rules and Handbook:

  • Rules of 2013 are silent on the master of the roster’s powers but refer to the Chief Justice’s instructions.
  • The Handbook (2017) specifies that the Registry operates based on the Chief Justice’s instructions regarding case allocation.

Cited Rules and Breaches:

  • Dave refers to the section on ‘cases, coram, and listing,’ emphasizing that once listed or noticed, a case must remain before the first coram.
  • Bhushan cites Clause 15 of the ‘Overview of the New Scheme for Automated Listing of Cases,’ claiming arbitrary breaches of this clause and Handbook procedures.

Supreme Court’s Response:

  • As of now, no official response from the Supreme Court.
  • Supreme Court Bar Association president, Adish C. Aggarwala, expresses shock about Dave’s letter, stating that case assignment is not open to question judicially or administratively.
  • Past judgment underscores the Chief Justice’s role as sui generis, securing the court’s position as an independent safeguard for personal liberty.

3. Freebie politics will take a toll on economy: Dhankhar

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity.


  • Dhankhar addresses the issue of freebies in politics, expressing concern over the “mad race” for such initiatives.
  • Emphasizes the distortion of expenditure priorities and the need to empower human minds and resources, not just pockets.

Arguments in favour of election freebies:

  • Reduce poverty and inequality:Freebies like food subsidies, healthcare benefits, and education scholarships can directly benefit the poor and marginalized, improving their living standards and reducing the gap between rich and poor.
  • Boost economic growth:Freebies can stimulate demand, leading to increased consumption and investment. This can help businesses grow and create jobs.
  • Increase political participation:Freebies can incentivize people to vote, especially those who may not be politically engaged otherwise. This can strengthen democracy and lead to more representative governments.
  • Improve public trust in government:Providing freebies can show that the government is concerned about the welfare of its citizens, leading to increased trust and legitimacy.
  • Fulfill essential needs:Freebies can provide essential goods and services to those who cannot afford them, such as food, shelter, and healthcare. This can improve the quality of life for many people.

Arguments against election freebies:

  • Fiscal burden:Freebies can place a significant strain on government finances, leading to higher taxes, borrowing, and inflation.
  • Economic inefficiency:Freebies can be poorly targeted and inefficient, benefiting those who do not need them while neglecting those who do.
  • Political manipulation: Freebies can be used by politicians to buy votes and manipulate elections, undermining democracy and fair play.
  • Long-term dependence: Freebies can create a culture of dependence on government handouts, discouraging people from working and contributing to the economy.
  • Crowding out productive expenditure: Government spending on freebies can crowd out funds for essential public services like education, healthcare, and infrastructure.

Way forward:

  • Targeted and needs-based:Freebies should be targeted to the most vulnerable and needy sections of the population, ensuring they reach those who benefit most.
  • Fiscally responsible:Freebies should be implemented within sustainable fiscal limits to avoid jeopardizing the economy.
  • Transparent and accountable:The cost and benefits of freebies should be transparent to the public, with clear accountability mechanisms in place.
  • Long-term strategy:Freebies should be part of a broader poverty reduction strategy that focuses on creating jobs, promoting education, and empowering people to become self-sufficient.
  • Public debate and consensus:Freebies should be subject to public debate and consensus to ensure they are aligned with the needs and priorities of the people.

Question: Critically examine the arguments for and against the use of election freebies in India. Suggest a balanced policy approach that addresses the concerns of both pro and anti-freebie camps.

4. ‘Cauvery basin lost nearly 12,850 sq. km of green cover’.

Topic: GS3 – environment and ecology


  • Over a span of 50 years from 1965 to 2016, approximately 12,850 sq. km of natural vegetation in the Cauvery basin was lost, according to a paper published by scientists and researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru.

More information on the news:

  • Karnataka has experienced the highest loss, accounting for three-fourths of the total lost vegetation in the Cauvery basin, while Tamil Nadu’s share is around one-fifth.
  • The study reveals a significant reduction in natural vegetation cover by approximately 46% during the 50-year period.
  • Dense vegetation witnessed a reduction of 35%, equivalent to 6,123 sq. km, while degraded vegetation decreased by 63%, covering 6,727 sq. km.
  • Specific areas, including the Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park, and the Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary, suffered adverse changes in forest cover extent.
  • The moist deciduous forest area in Bannerghatta National Park, which was 50% in 1973, decreased to 28.5% in 2015 due to “anthropogenic pressure” on the National Park and its surroundings.

5. Switzerland, Norway Ministers arriving for dialogue on trade

Topic: GS2 – International relations


  • The EFTA grouping, consisting of Nordic countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland), is intensifying trade negotiations with India.
  • The four-nation EFTA grouping has already signed pacts with 30 countries, but outstanding issues, including trade tariffs, mobility of services, and market access, remain unresolved.

More on the news:

  • Trade Ministers from Switzerland and Norway are visiting Delhi, expressing optimism about reaching a trade pact with Nordic countries in the next few months.
  • Talks on the Trade and Economic Partnership Agreement (TEPA) and Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) with India have been ongoing for 15 years, with 20 rounds of negotiations.
  • This week is considered a “critical moment” for potential breakthroughs in the India-EFTA negotiations.
  • The EFTA grouping has signed 30 free trade agreements (FTAs) with other countries and is engaged in ongoing negotiations with India, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Kosovo, and MERCOSUR.
  • The visit of Norwegian Trade Minister and Swiss State Secretary for Economic Affairs follows discussions on TEPA and BIT during a visit by MEA Secretary (West) to Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
  • Challenges in the negotiations include high tariffs on EFTA countries’ exports, requiring substantial reductions, especially for high-value-added products.
  • Indian trade negotiators are concurrently involved in negotiations with the U.K. and Australia, facing challenges in finalizing free trade agreements.
  • Challenges in India’s negotiations include ongoing talks with the U.K., slow progress in India-EU comprehensive Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) talks, and delays in signing the India-Australia Comprehensive Economic and Commercial Agreement (CECA).
  • The logjam in India-EFTA negotiations is not specified, but issues related to trade tariffs, mobility of services, and market access remain unresolved.

6. How fractals offer a new way to see the quantum realm.

Topic: GS3 – Science and technology.

Quantum Physics and Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle:

  • Quantum physics is challenging for many due to its counter-intuitive features, including Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
  • This principle prevents knowing certain quantum phenomena with great certainty, as obtaining information about a particle’s position involves actively checking for it.
  • Gaining information about a particle collapses its wavefunction, a mathematical object containing information about the particle.

Fractal Dimensions in Quantum Systems:

  • Physicists respond to uncertainty by exploring non-integer small dimensions, known as fractal dimensions, in quantum systems.
  • Dimensionality is crucial in studying quantum properties; for example, electrons exhibit different behaviors in one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems.
  • Fractal geometry, with dimensions like 1.55 or 1.58, is used to study quantum systems, offering insights between one and two dimensions.

Nature of Fractals:

  • Fractals exhibit self-similarity, seen in shapes like the Koch snowflake, where parts at smaller scales resemble parts at larger scales.
  • Fractals, with higher dimensions, have a greater ability to fill space as their shape evolves.
  • Fractality is present in various natural phenomena, from human fingerprints to tree stumps, river networks, and even in the quantum realm.

Fractals in the Quantum Realm:

  • Quantum materials, such as neodymium nickel oxide, exhibit fractal arrangements in magnetic domains due to their quantum physical properties.
  • Graphene, a single-atom thick sheet of carbon, demonstrates almost fractal distribution in the surface density pattern of electrons.

Applications of Fractality:

  • Fractals have historical applications in physics, notably for Brownian motion, describing rapid, random motion of particles in a liquid.
  • Fractals provide new insights into systems’ order, and applications include data compression, compact antenna design, studying patterns in galaxies, and analyzing bacteria cultures in cell biology.
  • Fractal geometry finds applications in chromatography, ion-exchange processes, and other scientific fields.


  • Fractals, rooted in geometry, offer valuable perspectives in understanding quantum mysteries and have diverse applications across scientific disciplines, showcasing self-similar structures in various natural processes.

7.Genes that boost fertility also shorten our life, suggest studies

Topic: GS3- Science and Tech


  • German biologist August Weismann postulated in the 19th century that death and ageing were necessary evolutionary processes that cleared out the weaker members of the population to create place for the younger, stronger ones.
  • George Williams, an American evolutionary biologist, refuted this theory, claiming that natural selection largely affects genes that are passed down through generations and has little direct bearing on the end of life.

George Williams’ Alternative Theory: Aging as an Evolutionary Byproduct

  • Williams presented a novel theory in 1957 that suggested genetic abnormalities that increase fertility could unintentionally cause harm later in life, accumulating a burden that ultimately leads to mortality.
  • With the help of this hypothesis, the emphasis was moved from ageing as an evolutionary tactic to ageing as an unexpected result of natural selection.

Recent Study Supporting Williams’ Theory

  • Williams’ theory is supported by a recent study that looked at human DNA from the UK Biobank, a genetic database including information from half a million participants.
  • It was published in Science Advances. Numerous variants associated with higher fertility in youth were found by researchers, who also connected these variations to physical harm in later life.
  • This extensive investigation supports the theory that the same genetic differences that affect reproduction also affect longevity.

Examination of Genetic Variations and Life Traits

  • By examining the UK Biobank’s data, the researchers found connections between genetic variants and characteristics associated with longevity and reproduction.
  • It was discovered that variations linked to higher fertility had an almost five-fold higher likelihood of affecting longevity than variations unrelated to reproduction.
  • Variants that were better suited for procreation also seemed to have a greater chance of having a shorter lifespan.

Implications and Evolutionary Persistence

  • The results of the study not only corroborate Williams’ theory but also raise the possibility that evolution’s influence on ageing could last a long period.
  • People born in 1940 had fewer reproduction-enhancing mutations than people born in 1965, suggesting that evolution is still going on and altering human life histories.

Expert Perspective and Conclusion

  • University of Alabama at Birmingham expert on ageing emphasised the importance of the study’s findings.
  • The pattern of genetic polymorphisms influencing lifespan and reproduction that has been found is still consistent across time, despite notable shifts in life expectancy.
  • This study supports George Williams’ seminal theory by offering strong evidence that ageing is essentially an inadvertent consequence of natural selection’s effect on fertility.

8. ‘Historic’ deal by EU: What world’s first law on regulating AI proposes; its significance

Topic: GS3- Science and Tech


  • In Brussels, European Commissioner Thierry Breton made history by announcing a tentative agreement on the world’s first complete set of legislation governing the use of artificial intelligence (AI).
  • The accord, which established a precedent for international AI rules, came about after a protracted 37-hour negotiation between the European Parliament and EU member states.
  • The proposed AI Act is expected to go into effect by 2025 and will be put to a vote by the European Parliament early in 2019.

Key Features of the EU Legislation

  • The importance of the legislative framework increases as nations like China, the US, and the UK compete to set the benchmark for AI rules.
  • Clear precautions against the use of AI across the continent are included in EU rules, along with particular recommendations for law enforcement organisations to follow.
  • Customers have the ability to report such infractions, and the law places stringent limitations on the use of facial recognition software and artificial intelligence to manipulate behaviour.
  • The regulations include provisions for governments to use real-time biometric surveillance in public locations only in cases of grave threat, as well as penalties for firms that violate them.

Risk-Based Categorization of AI Applications

  • AI applications are divided into four risk groups under EU law, with some uses like widespread facial recognition being outright prohibited.
  • High-risk apps are allowed as long as they pass certification and have their backend methods examined, such as AI tools for self-driving automobiles. Applications that pose a moderate risk, such as chatbots using generative AI, can be implemented without limitations, but they need to follow transparency requirements.
  • Developers must make sure users are aware that they are engaging with AI by providing thorough documentation on the technology’s operation.

EU’s Leadership in Tech Regulation

  • Over the past ten years, Europe has shown leadership in tech regulation, especially with the 2018 introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
  • Building on this base, the EU’s approach to AI legislation differs from that of the US, which recently released an executive order on the subject.
  • Europe’s strict laws stand in stark contrast to the UK’s lax enforcement and demonstrate the EU’s dedication to protecting individual rights and privacy.

Global Perspectives on AI Regulation

  • Global policymakers are examining generative AI technologies more closely as they address issues with system bias, privacy, and intellectual property rights.
  • The EU’s strategy emphasises risk and invasiveness while dividing AI regulation according to use-case situations.
  • The US falls somewhere in between these two extremes, while the UK chooses a “light-touch” strategy that is more innovation-friendly.
  • China has also implemented its own AI regulation measures. India, which is well-known for its Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) strategy, hopes to use a similar tactic with artificial intelligence (AI) to establish itself as a nation that uses technology for governance solutions efficiently and extensively.


Topic: Prelims


  • At a meeting in Paris on December 10, 1975, the United Nations General Assembly overwhelmingly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • This historic agreement placed a strong emphasis on fundamental liberties and rights while attempting to create a common benchmark for success for all individuals and countries.

The Content of the Declaration

  • The short text that outlines fundamental human rights has thirty articles, including a preamble.
  • It is called the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • All people are equal and free by birth, according to Article 1, which also states that everyone has the same rights and dignity.
  • According to Article 2, no one is denied these liberties and rights on the grounds of race, colour, sex, language, religion, or social standing.

Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

  • Essential human rights such as the right to life, liberty, and personal security are highlighted in a number of articles.
  • Torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment are expressly forbidden by the statement.
  • It upholds people’s freedom to apply for refuge abroad in order to avoid persecution.
  • The right to peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and freedom of opinion and expression are all protected by this article.

Right to Education and Global Impact

  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights places a strong emphasis on the right to education among its provisions, acknowledging that this right is essential to creating a society that respects individual rights and human dignity.
  • The declaration has guided moral and legal standards globally over the years, acting as a basic framework for international human rights law.

Challenges and Progress Over the Decades

  • In the decades after its adoption, the declaration’s ideals have not always been easily realised in practice, despite its lofty aims.
  • Nonetheless, it continues to serve as a guide for activists and institutions that support and defend human rights around the world.
  • As we mark the 75th anniversary of this groundbreaking proclamation, it serves as a reminder of the continuous effort required to guarantee that everyone’s human rights are realised.

“Comprehensive Anti-Terror Operations in Jammu and Kashmir: Impact, Criticism, and Legal Clampdown”

Topic: GS3- Internal Security


  • The security forces in Jammu and Kashmir have expanded their counterterrorism efforts over the last four years, focusing not only on militants but also on what they consider to be “larger terror networks and funding structures.”
  • A crackdown on Over-Ground Worker (OGW) networks accused of giving insurgents logistical support is part of this broader strategy.
  • An important part of this endeavour has been the use of anti-terror legislation, such as the Public Safety Act (PSA) and the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA).Everything You Need To Know About 11 Dec 2023 : Daily Current Affairs

Crackdown on Over-Ground Worker (OGW) Networks

  • More than 1,900 people who are reportedly connected to OGW networks have been arrested as a result of the heightened use of anti-terror laws.
  • These activities have gained impetus from the establishment of the State Investigation Agency (SIA) and the multi-agency Terror Monitoring Group (TMG) by the Jammu and Kashmir government.
  • This operation targets not only terrorists but also individuals who provide financial and logistical support to the group.

Impact on Security Dynamics

  • According to official data, there has been a noticeable decrease in violence against security forces.
  • Specifically, the number of events that were started by terrorists fell from over 760 in the four years prior to August 2019 to 450 in the four years that followed.
  • Over the same period, the number of attacks on security forces has decreased by half, from approximately 600 to 300.
  • Targeted attacks on civilians have decreased from roughly 190 to roughly 150, but they are still concerning despite this slight decline.

Focus on Effective Prosecution and Clampdown Under UAPA and PSA

  • Attacking terror infrastructure has shown to be an effective method in combating terrorism in the area.
  • This calls for an all-encompassing strategy that addresses the financial and logistical connections as well as the efficient prosecution of the network as a whole.
  • The implementation of anti-terror laws, specifically the UAPA and PSA, has been a crucial aspect of this approach.
  • Over 2,700 people were booked under the UAPA rules between 2019 and 2021, representing a rise in cases under these regulations.

Criticism and Special Investigation Units (SIU) Response

  • Political leaders in the Valley have criticised the security forces’ crackdown, claiming that the authorities are assaulting and prosecuting normal people.
  • To address the large volume of UAPA cases, the Jammu and Kashmir police created Special Investigation Units (SIU) in each police district in 2022.
  • The goal is to assign district-level police to conduct efficient investigations with the goal of obtaining court convictions.

11. “Supreme Court’s Verdict on Article 370: Constitutional Debates, Autonomy, and Historical Perspectives”

Topic: Polity


  • On petitions contesting the Center’s decision to amend Article 370 and reorganise Jammu and Kashmir into the Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh, the Supreme Court is scheduled to render a decision.
  • The main issue in the case is whether Parliament’s ability to change Article 370 and remove the state’s unique status without the Constituent Assembly’s approval is constitutional.

Arguments from Petitioners: Constitutional Processes and Autonomy

  • Petitioners contend that because the Constituent Assembly for Jammu and Kashmir did not make a resolution, Article 370 which was originally intended to be a transitory provision became permanent.
  • They highlight the possible ramifications for the future of the country and wonder if Parliament had the right to take over the Constituent Assembly’s role in making amendments.
  • The petitioners further emphasise the historical singularity of J&K’s relationship with the Union, pointing to the Instrument of Accession and the need to preserve the state’s independence.

Petitioners’ Concerns: Accession, Sovereignty, and Legislative Processes

  • The petitioners argue that J&K and the Union never entered into a merger agreement and that admission through the Instrument of admission was the sole way sovereignty was transferred.
  • They emphasise how crucial the J&K government’s approval is for laws that are not covered by the Instrument of Accession but are listed in the Union List or Concurrent List.
  • The Governor’s function and the prospect for downgrading to a Union Territory without the approval of the J&K Legislative Assembly are brought up as possible examples of representative governance norms being broken.

Criticisms of Clampdown and Questions on Article 370’s Effectiveness

  • Critics point out that political figures in the Valley have criticised the security apparatus’s crackdown, accusing it of harassing regular people.
  • They contest the necessity of making sudden modifications to Article 370, arguing that it had successfully and successfully united J&K and India for seven decades.
  • The possible repercussions of making Article 370 permanent have drawn criticism.

Centre’s Defense: Due Process, Sovereignty, and Constitutional Competence

  • Rejecting accusations of Constitutional fraud, the Centre maintains that presidential proclamations were issued in accordance with due process.
  • It makes a distinction between internal sovereignty and autonomy and contends that J&K gave away its sovereignty upon accession.
  • The Centre cites declarations made by people like Karan Singh as proof that the state already gave up its sovereignty.
  • Without offering a timetable for when statehood would be restored, it casts doubt on the concept of having two constitutions and supports the current Union Territory status.
  • The Supreme Court takes into account a number of factors, such as where Article 370 is placed, Parliament’s function, and how long the Union Territory status lasts throughout the processes.


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