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The Hindu Editorial

30-December-2023

1. A call for disability inclusion that must be needed.

Topic: GS2 – Social Justice – Vulnerable Sections. Critical for UPSC as it addresses global health challenges, interdisciplinary approaches, and inclusivity in sustainable development.
Context:
  • The article highlights the need for innovative solutions in neuropsychiatry, focusing on rehabilitation services.
  • It emphasizes a holistic approach, professional empowerment, and the impact of scientific advances to enhance the lives of individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders globally.
 Introduction:
  • Reflects on the importance of International Day for Persons with Disabilities (December 3) and emphasizes the need for innovative solutions in neuropsychiatry.
Global Neuropsychiatric Disorders Landscape:
  • Range across the lifespan from childhood (autism, ADHD, intellectual disability) to adolescence and adulthood (anxiety, depression, addiction, schizophrenia) to old age (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s).
  • Significant impact on global population with millions affected, emphasizing the need for effective interventions.
Rehabilitation Challenges and Opportunities:
  • WHO reports 2.41 billion individuals needing rehabilitation, contributing to 310 million Years of Living with Disabilities (YLD).
  • Rehabilitation often overlooked, considered disability-specific, leading to under-resourcing.
  • Awareness needed that disablement can be treated, even reversed, in many cases.
  • Call to prioritize rehabilitation as an essential service and encourage multidisciplinary approaches.
Multidisciplinary Approach to Rehabilitation:
  • Rehabilitation services must address a wide spectrum of neurological and mental health problems.
  • Beyond doctors and nurses, professionals like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, and caregivers crucial.
  • Emphasis on enhancing professional profiles, improving training, and creating opportunities for career development.
Scientific Advances in Neuropsychiatry:
  • Non-invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) procedures like rTMS and FMS have proven effectiveness in various conditions.
  • Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TES) shows promise in improving memory, cognition, mood, and behavior.
  • Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tA-VNS) gains importance post-COVID-19 era, investigated for depression, migraine, and dysautonomia.
Collaborative Solutions for Inclusion:
  • UNs call for disability inclusion aligns with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  • 80% of people with disabilities reside in developing countries.
  • Collaboration between governments, public and private sectors crucial for finding innovative solutions, making the world more accessible and equitable.
Conclusion:
  • It is high time to make global commitment to making the world more accessible and equitable for the one billion people with disabilities, especially in developing countries.
PYQ: The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 remains only a legal document without intense sensitisation of government functionaries and citizens regarding disability. Comment. (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2022) (150 words/10 m)
Practice Question: Discuss the significance of holistic rehabilitation services in addressing global neuropsychiatric disorders. Propose strategies for implementation. (150 words/10 m)
 

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