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At 99Notes, each study and article is meticulously crafted through the collaborative expertise of seasoned professionals, ensuring the production of highly comprehensive and pertinent study materials tailored specifically for IAS aspirants. Our commitment to excellence in collective efforts results in an unparalleled resource for those seeking top-notch preparation.

Lead Writer : Mr. Chandan Kumar

Supporting Writers : Mr. Pulakit Bharti  , Ms. Anomitra Roy , Mr. Rajneesh Pandey

Madhvacharya Madhvacharya was a revered Hindu philosopher and theologian, made a lasting impact on Indian philosophy. He is best known for introducing the Dvaita (dualistic) school of Vedanta, which proposed a fundamental distinction between the individual soul (Atman) and the ultimate reality (Brahman).  Early Life of Madhvacharya Madhvacharya also known a Purna -Prajna and Ananda Tirtha, a significant figure of the Bhakti movement and a profound philosopher. He was born in a Brahmin family in a small village near Udupi, Karnataka, India. The exact date of his birth and life span is not confirmed but historian has controvercy between two…

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What is Social Infrastructure?Meaning of Social Infrastructure is to creating and maintaining facilities and structures that support the delivery of social services, which are essential for social development and, thereby, the overall development of a country.Social Infrastructure is the set of organisational arrangements and investments in society’s systems, relationships, and structures that enable us to generate a just, equitable, more resilient, and sustainable world. It comprises social, economic, environmental and cultural assets.For example, the more the number of public schools, the more equitable shall be the economic opportunities in society. More the number of public parks healthier the society will be.…

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Social Infrastructure Social infrastructure forms the foundational services and structures that add to the citizens’ quality of life and indirectly contribute to economic development through increased income, better productivity and technological advancement. Quality of life encompasses various factors: Basic income and employment opportunities Education levels; Healthcare, Social security, Connectivity etc. Therefore, a robust social infrastructure customized to the country’s diversity and citizens’ unique needs can ensure the quality of life. The government has integrated the broader perspective of the concept of quality of life into its agenda for social infrastructure development. This recognition is echoed in India’s adoption of the…

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Mughal EconomyThe Indian economy was strong till the Mughal times. By 1700, India’s share of world GDP was 24%, the largest in the world, larger than any other region. India, then, was producing about 25% of the world’s industrial output up until the 18th century.AgricultureDuring the Mughals, large tracts of land were freshly brought under Agriculture, a process that was continued till Aurangzeb. This led to the expansion of the economy and brought revenue to the Empire.A large variety of crops were cultivated, such as:Food grains such as Wheat, rice, gram, barley, pulses, bajra, etc., were cultivated.Cash crops such as…

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Decline of Mughal EmpireLet’s understand The decline of Mughal Empire.After the demise of Aurangzeb in 1707, we see a drastic decline in the power and prestige of the Mughal Empire.The political boundaries of the Empire shrank, and the administrative structure built by rulers like Akbar and Shah Jahan also collapsed.Aftermath the collapse of the Mughal power, several independent principalities emerged in all parts of the Mughal Empire.Causes of Decline of Mughal Empire1. Weak successorsThe Mughals, like their ancestors, did not follow any particular succession law like the law of primogeniture.The war of succession after Aurangzeb weakened the Mughal Empire.The successors…

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Maratha EmpireThe Maratha Empire, flourishing from the 17th to the 18th century was a strong and key force in Indian History, known for its strong military, innovative governance,  and resilience against foreign invasions. The Maratha’s rise in the Deccan began in the early 17th century under the leadership of Shivaji. He carved his territories out of Bijapur, Ahmednagar and GolkondaShahji, Shivaji’s father, joined the services of Bijapur as a Zamindar in 1636 and obtained Poona as a grant.Born at Shivneri (Poona) in 1627, Shivaji was the youngest son of Shahji and Jija Bai. In 1637, Shivaji inherited the Poona jagir…

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Mughal Empire Babur, a Central Asian ruler descendant of the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timor, founded the Mughal Empire. He laid the foundation of the mighty Mughal Empire, which was consolidated by Akbar, and lasted for about two centuries. The Mughal Empire reached its zenith during Aurangzeb’s rule, after which its decline started, catalysed by its conflict with the Marathas. Mughal Rulers List with Timeline: Babar Humayun Akbar (1556-1605) Jahangir (1605-1627) Shah Jahan (1627-1658) Aurangazeb (1657-1707) Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712) Jahandar Shah (1712) Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719) Rafi Ul-Darjat (1719) Shah Jahan II (1719) Muhammad Shah (1719-1748) Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748-1754) Alamgir II (1754-1759) Shah Jahan…

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Waterways TransportIndia is a land of rivers surrounded on three sides by ocean. It has around 7500 kilometres of coastline and 14,500 km of potentially navigable waterways. Moreover, it is strategically located on key international trade routes. This unique natural resource and strategic geographic location endow India with vast potential in trade through Waterways transport. And most importantly, the maritime sector is becoming critical from the geostrategic perspective.Types of Waterways TransportWaterways transport includes 2 categories:1. maritime transport2. Inland water transport.1. Maritime TransportMaritime Transport is a critical infrastructure for the economic development of a country. It influences the pace, structure, and…

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Civil Aviation Sector in IndiaCivil aviation infrastructure is one of the most complex infrastructure systems. It majorly comprises aircraft manufacturing, air traffic control, and airport. But it also includes cargo-handling facilities, telecommunications, navigation and surveillance facilities, tourism, repair and overhaul resources, avionics manufacturing, repair and design capabilities, and flight training facilities.Importance of Civil Aviation:Civil aviation is an important sector well-aligned with the aspirations of India as a developed and prosperous nation.Multiplier Effect: Investment in Civil Aviation produces a huge multiplier effect. For every ₹1 spent on air transport, a benefit of ₹3.5 accrues to the economy, and for every direct…

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Padma GuptaPadmagupta, a renowned figure of the Indian literature and an illustrious contributor during its golden age for classical Sanskrit poetry. He lived around 10th century CE and is best known as the author of a Sanskrit epic, “Navasahasanka-charita” on the exploits of King Sindhuraja from Paramara dynasty.Life and Background of PadmaguptaWhile the information about Padmagupta’s biography is rather scarce, it is generally assumed that he worked as a court poet of the Parmara king Sindhuraja and was the son of Mriganka-gupta. His works offer a peek into the socio-cultural atmosphere of his period saying much about Sanskrit literacy and…

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