Mains Answer Writing
The Harrapan or Indus Valley civilization was a bronze age civilization, whose mature phase lasted from circa 2600 BCE to circa 1900 BCE. The Harrapan civilization marked significant achievements in urbanization, as can be seen from:
- Planned cities: The Harrapan cities show the elements of advanced urbanization and planning. E.g., Mohenjo-Daro had a planned layout with rectilinear buildings arranged on a grid pattern.
- Flourishing trade and commerce: The Harrapan civilization mark a high point in trade and commerce. E.g., bull seal, pashupati seal etc; extensive trade relations between Harrapan and Mesopotamian civilizations.
- Urban/municipal facilities: The cities had access to various municipal services including well-maintained drainage system/sewerage system (with corbel technique); waste collection system public structures (like the great bath) and storage structure including the granaries (found in Harappa).
- Modern architecture and civil engineering: The structures like the citadel, the granaries, the great bath, etc. are unique and indicate engineering prowess of the Harappan people.
- Connectivity/transportation: The urban centers in the IVC were well connected. E.g., tidal port at Lothal; evidence suggest use of wheeled carts.
The cultural influence of the IVC exceeded far beyond its times as can be seen from its impact upon the present-day culture of the Indian subcontinent:
- Religious worship/practices:
- Worship of mother goddess, a prominent practice in the Indus Valley civilization is a continued and a much-revered practice in the present-day culture. E.g., celebration of Navratri festival across India.
- The pashupati seal found in the IVC is believed to be proto-shiva. Worship of Siva is a common present-day practice across the length and breadth of Indian subcontinent.
- Performing arts: The presence of a robust ecosystem for performing arts in the country can said to have its roots in the IVC. E.g., dancing girl found at Mohenjodaro.
- The forms of apparels/clothing found to be existing in the IVC continue to be a significant part of present-day culture. E.g., the shawl like clothing worn by the bearded priest (Mohenjodaro).
- The practice of wearing ornaments in the present-day culture can be traced back to the IVC. E.g., ample evidences of bangles, beads, amulets etc., have been found in the IVC.
- Agriculture: The importance of agriculture in the IVC also resonates in the present-day culture. E.g., ploughed fields at Kalibangan; use of cotton etc.
- Scientific influences:
- Planned cities, efficient drainage system etc., are the direct influence of the IVC.
- Standardized system of weights and measures found at the IVC.
- Concepts of numbers and numerical system was evident in the IVC. E.g., the dimension of bricks was 4:2:1.
The IVC reflected the epitome of urbanization which has had a lasting influence on the present-day culture of the Indian subcontinent
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