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Mains Answer Writing

One of the key components of these exams is the written test, which consists of a number of essay and comprehension questions. Candidates are expected to write clear and well-structured answers that demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the topics being tested.


Q1) The amendment process of the Constitution appears complicated, but it is merely diverse. It has proven itself to be one of the most ably conceived aspects of the Constitution. Discuss.


The power of parliament to make changes to the constitution and its processes is covered in Article 368 in Part XX of the Constitution.

The amendment process of the Indian Constitution is diverse and well-conceived, despite appearing complicated. Here’s an explanation of its key aspects:

  • Complexity vs. Diversity: The amendment process may seem complicated due to the

procedural requirements, multiple stages, and majority support needed for amendments to be passed.

  • Ex, the amendment process requires the support of a two-thirds majority in both houses of Parliament, ensuring that diverse opinions are taken into account and that amendments have widespread backing.
  • Protecting Constitutional Principles: It allows for necessary modifications to rectify any inconsistencies or address emerging challenges while upholding the constitutional ethos.
  • Ex – The 86th Amendment Act of 2002, which amended Article 21A to make free and compulsory education for children between the ages of 6 and 14 a fundamental right, reflects the commitment to provide quality education to all.
  • Flexibility and Adaptability: Amendments can be made to various aspects of the Constitution, including fundamental rights, directive principles, and the division of powers between the central and state governments.
  • Ex – The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added the words “socialist” and “secular” to the Preamble of the Constitution, reflecting the changing social and political aspirations of the country
  • Evolutionary Nature: The amendment process demonstrates the evolutionary nature of the Indian constitution, enabling it to adapt and grow with the changing needs of society.
  • Ex – The 97th Amendment Act of 2011, added Article 19(1)(c) to enable citizens to form cooperative societies, recognizing the importance of cooperative movements in the country’s socio-economic development.
  • Democratic Participation: The amendment process encourages democratic participation by providing opportunities for elected representatives and stakeholders to engage in the process.
  • Ex – The 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts, which brought about the decentralisation of power to local bodies, were the result of grassroots movements and demands for greater participatory governance.

In summary, the amendment process of the Indian constitution, although appearing complicated, is actually diverse, allowing for multiple perspectives to be considered. It is well-conceived, with deliberate stages of scrutiny, democratic participation, and a track record of successfully adapting to societal needs.

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