3 June 2024 : Daily Answer Writing

Q1) What are the reasons for the persistence of Naxalism in certain areas of the country? What measures can be taken to control it?

(150 Words/10 Marks)


Naxalism refers to the armed conflict between the far-left radical communists and the government of India. According to the government data, Naxalism has affected 40% of India over the past decades.

Naxalism prevails in many parts of the country due to the following reasons:

  1. Security Failure:
  2. Lack of coordination among various state police and with CAPFs is exploited by Naxalists.

E.g., the trijunction of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana is a hot-bed of Naxal activity.

  1. Capacity constraint in CAPFs such as shortage of trained manpower, and equipment like mine-protected vehicles (MPVs).
  2. Poor infrastructure:
  3. Poor access to schools, hospitals, modern market economy perpetuate exclusion from development.
  4. It undermines the reach of state in Naxal-affected areas. At the same time, the parallel system of Naxals in remote areas promotes disaffection towards the Indian state.
  5. Negatively affects counter-insurgency operations of police and CAPF in Naxalism affected areas. E.g., guerilla warfare.
  6. Policy failures:
  7. a) Ownership of land: Poor implementation of land reforms has created resource poverty.
  8. b) Forest rights: Ineffective implementation of laws like PESA 1996, FRA 2006 has created grievances over rights and livelihood of forest tribes.
  9. Governance failure: Corruption, bureaucratic apathy, intimidation by officials and security forces alienates people. Naxal extort levies from traders and businesses including corporates.
  10. Urban Naxalism: Ideological and logistical support from academics and intellectuals to increase influence and capacity of Naxals E.g., Bhima-Koregaon caste violence, financial support, education in warfare tactics, supply of modern weapons etc.

In recent years, there has been a significant decline in the geographical spread of Naxalism. Government initiatives such as rehabilitation program, SAMADHAN initiative etc. have helped but many areas remain affected by the Naxalism.

The following measures can be adopted to eradicate Naxalism root and branch:

  1. Development should focus on successful implementation of various initiatives on Jal-Jungle- Jamin (Water, Forest, Land). It will help undercut the ideological basis of Naxal movements.
  2. Restrict financial support through effective area domination and ensuring security to contractors, businessmen and corporate houses operating in Naxal-affected areas.
  3. Forces should be used in small groups for maintaining greater efficiency.

For example, one of the most successful operations (the Greyhounds) involved the use of small teams that operate on solid human intelligence.

  1. Employ more local people in the administration to reduce alienation. Education in local languages such as through Eklavya Model Residential Schools can help reduce Naxalism’s influence.
  2. Special officers are needed to monitor the implementation of constitutional safeguards on lines of aspirational district programme.
  3. Enhancing capabilities of state police forces, improving ground-level intelligence and coordination among states and with center.

Naxalism is sustaining development deficit in affected areas in a parasitic manner, causing suffering to people and threat to state. Through a holistic approach focusing on development and security related interventions, naxalism can be successfully tackled.

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