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Mains Answer Writing

One of the key components of these exams is the written test, which consists of a number of essay and comprehension questions. Candidates are expected to write clear and well-structured answers that demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the topics being tested.

5-September-2023

1) NHRC holds a major profile in India, but it lacks the teeth due to various other factors. Examine

 Answer:

NHRC is an autonomous statutory body in India established under the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993, which is responsible for promoting and protecting human rights by investigating and addressing complaints of violations.

Major Profile of NHRC:

  • Investigating and Addressing Human Rights Violations: NHRC investigates and addresses human rights violations by government authorities, exemplified by its intervention in Tamil Nadu’s custodial death cases in 2020, resulting in accountability and justice.
  • Landmark Recommendations and Policy Reforms: NHRC recommends abolishing death penalty for drug offenses, leading to 2014 amendment of NDPS Act, reducing capital punishment scope.
  • Monitoring and Reporting on Human Rights Situations: NHRC monitors and reports on human rights, sparking policy changes on bonded labour, child rights, and environmental degradation.
  • Engaging in international human rights discourse: NHRC actively engages internationally, contributing to the development of human rights standards and improving India’s record through its active participation in the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process at the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC).
  • Promoting awareness on human rights: NHRC’s campaigns, workshops, and outreach empower vulnerable communities, such as organizing workshops in rural areas to educate marginalized groups about their rights and provide them with tools to seek justice.

Factors Which Edentate NHRC:

  • Limited enforcement power: NHRC recommended action against police officers in a custodial death case in Tamil Nadu, but faced resistance in implementing its recommendations, resulting in delayed justice and limited accountability.
  • Inadequate resources and Systemic Issues: NHRC’s inadequate resources and infrastructure hamper its capacity to address systemic human rights issues like caste-based violence and discrimination, impacting its ability to handle complaints, conduct investigations, and respond to violations promptly.
  • Incomplete jurisdiction and legal limitations: NHRC limited jurisdiction excludes non-state actors and armed forces, hampering its ability to comprehensively address human rights violations, particularly in conflict areas like Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Political interference or influence: NHRC’s recommendation to compensate victims of police encounters in Uttar Pradesh faced political resistance, raising concerns about interference in implementing the NHRC’s directives.
  • Lack of public awareness and engagement: NHRC’s report on bonded labour highlighted the challenge of victims’ lack of awareness about their rights and available avenues for seeking redress, hindering their ability to approach the NHRC or other authorities for assistance.

Way Forward

  • Technology-driven monitoring: To leverage AI, data analytics, and digital platforms for effective human rights monitoring.
  • Grassroots empowerment: NHRC should support and empower local human rights defenders through training, resources, and legal assistance.
  • Youth engagement: NHRC can involve youth through campaigns and forums to raise awareness and promote human rights values.
  • Strengthening enforcement power: NHRC should collaborate with law enforcement agencies and promote transparency in investigations.
  • Allocating adequate resources: NHRC needs increased funding and resources for addressing systemic human rights issues effectively.

Conclusion

With the concerted efforts, the NHRC can pave the way for a future where human rights are respected, protected, and upheld for every individual, fostering a more just and inclusive society.

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2. Discuss the merits and challenges of implementing the ‘one nation one election’ proposal in India. What measures should be taken to ensure a balanced and effective transition to synchronized elections?

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3. In the context of the prevailing moral dystopia and societal shifts, critically analyze the challenges posed to ethical values, and the role of individuals in upholding humanism, justice, and freedom in contemporary India. (GS4)

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4. What are the gender-specific challenges women in developing countries face in the context of climate change?

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5. Discuss the challenges and potential solutions in regulating and managing minor mineral extraction in India.

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