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7 June 2024 : Daily Answer Writing

Q1) The internal security of a nation is intricately tied to peace and prosperity in the neighbouring countries. Discuss with special reference to India’s north-east region.

(250 Words/15 Marks)


In an interconnected world, no country exists in isolation; internal security, peace and prosperity of a nation invariably depends on the conditions in neighboring countries and broader regions.

Peace in the neighboring country is directly linked to the internal security of the country, as can be seen from:

1. India’s North East:

a. Instability in India’s eastern neighborhood have seminal spill over consequences for the country.

E.g., insurgents from North East found safe-haven in Myanmar after attacking an army convoy, killing 15 Indian army personnels.

b. Lack of peace in the neighborhood is a major push factor for the migrants, disturbing the demographic profile in the North-Eastern states. Also, such migrants provide easy fodder for waging a proxy war against the country.

E.g., migration from Bangladesh; Government cited the threat to internal security due to Rohingyas in the SC.

c. Porous and open borders, especially along the eastern front, make the country vulnerable to a slew of security threats, which get further amplified in absence of peace in the region.

E.g., Gun-running across India-Myanmar border; drug trafficking etc.

d. Absence of peace, prosperity, and stability runs the risk of aggravating ethnic strife in India’s eastern frontier.

E.g., in the recent Manipur violence, the Meitei people have accused Kukis of illegally settling the Chin people from Myanmar in Manipur hills.

e. Chinese incursion in India’s neighborhood, exploiting socio-economic instability may pose threat to India’s internal security.

E.g., Myanmar and Bangladesh as important pearls in China’s string of pearls strategy helping it realize its five-finger policy.

2. The ascendence of Taliban in Afghanistan and consequent instability in the region may deteriorate security situation in Jammu and Kashmir.

E.g., Taliban’s takeover of Afghanistan in the 1990’s pushed a wave of insurgents into Jammu & Kashmir through Pakistan; Chinese footprints in Afghanistan, as per experts, are antithetical to Indian sovereignty.

3. Economic instability in India’s neighborhood does not augur well for security of the country.

E.g., possible adverse impacts of economic crisis in Pakistan and Sri-Lanka on India.

4. Political instability in Nepal can be leveraged by inimical actors, jeopardizing internal security of the country.

E.g., FICN rackets fuel the activities of organized crime networks.

In order to cater to the threats from unstable neighborhood, India needs to take an all-encompassing approach:

1. Along the Eastern Frontiers:

a. Border management:

I. Leveraging technology.

E.g., Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS).

II. Socio-economic development of local population can counter drug trafficking and gun-running.

III. Erecting barriers to deter illegal cross-border migration.

E.g., barbed wire fencing along India-Myanmar border is a step in the right direction.

b. Encouraging dialogue and diplomacy.

E.g., supporting peaceful and amicable resolution of Rohingya issue.

c. Interagency coordination.

E.g., operation all clear with Bhutan; operation sunrise with Myanmar.

2. Engagement with like-minded nations for extending development activities.

E.g., joint efforts of India and Japan to develop gas import terminals in Sri-Lanka.

3. Joint training with the security forces of the neighboring countries, boosting interoperability.

E.g., Exercise Surya Kiran.

4. As a net security provider, India should take concerted efforts to counter the emerging threats.

E.g., initiatives against information warfare.

5. Building a resilient framework for human security to counter radicalism/extremism.

E.g., enhancing trade linkages to boost the regional GDP of South Asia.

Regional peace in South Asia is invariably linked with peace and stability of its constituents. In this light, it is an imperative for India to take the lead in building a peaceful, stable and prosperous neighborhood.

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