13 March 2024 : Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs

13-March -2024- Top News of the Day

1. ‘Citizenship comes under domain of Centre, State governments have no role in CAA implementation’

Topic: GS2 – Indian Polity – Functions & responsibilities of the Union & the States.
GS2 – Governance – Government policies – Issues arising out of their design & implementation.
UPSC candidates need to grasp CAA’s implications on citizenship, secularism, and constitutional principles for comprehensive understanding and analysis.
  • The Tamil Nadu Chief Minister’s opposition to implementing the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) has minimal impact, as the Union government cited citizenship falls under the Union government’s jurisdiction.

 Additional information on this news:

  • Tamil Nadu Chief Minister’s statement against the implementation of the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), 2019 is noted but deemed to have no impact, as citizenship falls under the Union government’s jurisdiction.
  • Citizenship applications under CAA will be processed by Postal and Census officials under the Centre, with background checks conducted by Central security agencies like the Intelligence Bureau.
  • The online application process limits the involvement of State government officials or local police.
  • Empowered committees, headed by the Director (Census Operations) in each state, will decide on applications, including officers from various departments and security agencies.
  • District-level committees, led by the Superintendent of the Department of Post, will sift through applications, with a state government representative as an invitee.
  • Applicants must register online, pay ₹50, and submit various documents, including those issued by government authorities in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan.
  • After scrutiny, applicants will be notified to appear before the district-level committee for document verification and an “Oath of Allegiance.”
  • The MHA notified the Citizenship Amendment Rules, 2024, facilitating the implementation of CAA, providing citizenship to specific undocumented communities from neighbouring countries with a reduced eligibility period.
The Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA)

  • The Act seeks to amend the definition of illegal immigrant for Hindu, Sikh, Parsi, Buddhist, Jains and Christian (but not Muslim) immigrants from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, who have lived in India without documentation.
  • They will be granted fast track Indian citizenship in 5 years (11 years earlier).
  • The Act (which amends the Citizenship Act 1955) also provides for cancellation of Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) registration where the OCI card-holder has violated any provision of the Citizenship Act or any other law in force.

Who is eligible?

  • The CAA 2019 applies to those who were forced or compelled to seek shelter in India due to persecution on the ground of religion. It aims to protect such people from proceedings of illegal migration.
  • The cut-off date for citizenship is December 31, 2014, which means the applicant should have entered India on or before that date.
  • The act will not apply to areas covered by the Constitution’s sixth schedule, which deals with autonomous tribal-dominated regions in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
  • Additionally, the act will not apply to states that have an inner-line permit regime (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram).

Citizenship: Union Government’s Jurisdiction and Conflict with State Governments
  • The Constitution of India defines citizenship and provides exclusive authority to the Union government for matters related to citizenship.
  • The Union government has the power to enact laws and policies governing citizenship through the Citizenship Act, 1955.
  • The Act outlines the acquisition, renunciation, and termination of Indian citizenship, establishing uniform principles across the country.
  • Conflict may arise when state governments attempt to influence or challenge citizenship-related decisions, such as in case of CAA – leading to jurisdictional disputes.
  • The Union government retains the authority to adjudicate on matters of citizenship, ensuring a centralized approach to maintain uniformity.
  • The National Register of Citizens (NRC) and the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) are recent examples of Union government initiatives that have sparked debates and disagreements with some state governments.
  • State governments have raised concerns over the potential impact of these policies on their residents, leading to legal and political tensions.
  • The Constitution empowers the Union government to resolve such conflicts through legal channels, including the Supreme Court.
  • Balancing centralized authority with state’s concerns remains an ongoing challenge, requiring a delicate interplay between the Union and state governments to uphold constitutional principles.

Practice Question:  Examine the potential constitutional and socio-political implications of the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) in India.
(150 Words /10 marks)

2. Pokhran witness to self-reliance, confidence and glory, says PM

Topic: GS3 – Internal Security
UPSC aspirants should note Bharat Shakti event, highlighting Aatmanirbharta in defence, showcasing national security, indigenization, and strategic self-reliance.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi witnessed a live demonstration, “Bharat Shakti,” showcasing India’s Aatmanirbharta (self-reliance) in defence at Pokhran.
  • The event displayed indigenous equipment, emphasizing self-sufficiency in defence production.

 Additional information on this news:

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi emphasized the importance of Aatmanirbharta (self-reliance) in meeting India’s defence needs during a triservices live fire and manoeuvre exercise named Bharat Shakti in Pokhran, Rajasthan.
  • Modi highlighted Pokhran’s historical significance, being the site of India’s nuclear test, and now witnessing the strength of indigenization in defence capabilities.
  • In the last decade, India procured ₹6 lakh crore worth of equipment from Indian companies, doubling the country’s defence production to over ₹1 lakh crore.
  • Over 150 defence start-ups have emerged, receiving orders worth ₹1,800 crore from the defence forces.
  • Modi stressed the integral role of Aatmanirbhar Bharat in the vision of Viksit Bharat (developed India), extending from edible oils to fighter jets.
  • The live exercise, Bharat Shakti, showcased India’s self-reliance in defence through a diverse array of equipment, including T-90 (IM) tanks, Dhanush and Sarang artillery guns, Akash surface-to-air system, logistics drones, robotic mules, light combat aircraft, and advanced light helicopters.
  • The demonstration simulated multi-domain operations, displaying integrated capabilities of the Indian armed forces across land, air, sea, cyber, and space domains.
  • The success of Aatmanirbharta in defence was evident in India’s tanks, cannons, fighter jets, helicopters, and missile systems, as highlighted by the Prime Minister.
Self Reliance (Aatmanirbharta) in defence sector
Significance of Aatmanirbharta (Self-Reliance) in India’s Defence Sector:

  • National Security: Aatmanirbharta ensures a self-sufficient defence sector, reducing dependence on foreign countries for critical defence technologies and equipment.
  • Strategic Autonomy: It enhances India’s strategic autonomy by reducing vulnerability to geopolitical pressures and sanctions, allowing independent decision-making in defence matters.
  • Economic Growth: Promoting indigenous defence production contributes to economic growth, creating jobs and fostering innovation in the defence industry.
  • Technological Advancements: Self-reliance drives research and development, fostering the growth of cutting-edge technologies crucial for a modern and effective defence force.


  • Technological Gaps: India faces challenges in bridging technological gaps, requiring substantial investments in research and development.
  • Dependency on Imports: Historical reliance on imports for defence equipment has hindered the development of a robust indigenous defense industrial base.
  • Bureaucratic Hurdles: Cumbersome bureaucratic processes can slow down decision-making and hinder the efficient implementation of self-reliance initiatives.
  • Private Sector Participation: Encouraging private sector participation is crucial but involves overcoming obstacles such as regulatory issues and limited experience.

Steps taken by Indian government in this regard:

  • Policy Reforms: Introduced defence policy reforms to promote indigenous manufacturing and reduce dependency on imports.
  • Make in India Initiative: Launched the “Make in India” campaign to encourage domestic production of defence equipment and technologies.
  • FDI Liberalisation: Liberalised foreign direct investment (FDI) in the defence sector to attract foreign collaboration and investments.
  • Technology Transfer: Emphasised technology transfer agreements with foreign partners to enhance indigenous capabilities.
  • DPP Amendments: Implemented amendments in the Defense Procurement Procedure (DPP) to streamline procurement processes and prioritise domestic products.
  • Innovation Fund: Established an innovation fund to support research and development in defence technologies.
  • Public-Private Partnerships: Encouraged public-private partnerships to leverage the strengths of both sectors for defence production.

Way Forward:

  • Strategic Planning: Develop a comprehensive and long-term strategic plan for defence self-reliance, outlining specific goals, timelines, and resource allocations.
  • Streamlined Procurement Processes: Simplify and expedite procurement processes to encourage faster acquisition of indigenous technologies and products.
  • Investment in R&D: Increase investments in research and development to promote innovation and technological advancements in defence capabilities.

In conclusion, achieving Aatmanirbharta in the defence sector is imperative for India’s national security and strategic autonomy. Overcoming challenges through strategic planning, partnerships, streamlined processes, and increased investments will pave the way for a self-reliant and technologically advanced defence sector.

PYQ: Foreign direct investment in the defence sector is now said to be liberalised. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run? (200 words/12.5m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2014)
Practice Question:  Discuss the significance of Aatmanirbharta (Self-Reliance) in India’s defense sector, highlighting the challenges faced and suggesting viable strategies for promoting indigenous capabilities.
(150 Words /10 marks)

3. ‘India was the top arms importer in 2019-2023’

Topic: GS2 – Internal Security
Critical for UPSC: India’s top arms importer status, changing supplier dynamics, and defense budget allocation reflect geopolitical and strategic implications.
  • India topped global arms imports in 2019-23, a 4.7% increase, as per SIPRI.
  • Russia’s share dropped to 36%, the first time since 1960-64. European imports rose 94%.

 Additional information on this news:

  • Indian Arms Imports: India was the world’s top arms importer in 2019-23, with a 4.7% increase compared to 2014-18, according to SIPRI. Russian deliveries accounted for 36%, marking the first time since 1960-64 that it constituted less than half of India’s arms imports.
  • European Arms Imports: European countries experienced a 94% increase in arms imports between 2014-18 and 2019-23, notably due to the war in Ukraine. Ukraine became the fourth-largest arms importer.
  • Budget Allocation: India allocated ₹6.2 lakh crore for defense in the 2024-25 budget, with ₹1.72 lakh crore earmarked for new procurements, a 5.78% increase from the previous year.
  • Global Arms Exports:S. arms exports grew by 17%, while Russian exports declined by over half. France emerged as the world’s second-largest arms supplier, with 42% of exports to Asia and Oceania and 34% to West Asia.
  • European Role: Europe, responsible for a third of global arms exports, saw over half of its imports coming from the U.S., reflecting its robust military-industrial capacity.
  • French Exports: France became the second-largest arms supplier, with India accounting for nearly 30% of its exports, primarily due to combat aircraft deliveries to India, Qatar, and Egypt.
  • Future Projections: With numerous high-value arms orders, including nearly 800 combat aircraft and helicopters, European arms imports are expected to remain substantial.
Practice Question:  Analyze the changing dynamics of India’s arms imports, emphasizing the geopolitical implications and the impact on strategic autonomy. (150 Words /10 marks)

4. How is nuclear waste generated?

Topic: GS3 – Environment – Environmental Pollution and Degradation
Crucial for UPSC: India’s nuclear advancements, waste management challenges, and energy independence ambitions highlight geopolitical and strategic considerations.
  • India advances its nuclear program with the loading of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor core, reaching the second stage.
  • The focus on thorium and challenges in nuclear waste management underscore the nation’s ambitions for energy independence.

 India’s Advancement in Nuclear Technology: PFBR and Three-Stage Nuclear Program

  • PFBR Loading: India loaded the core of its Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), signalling progress toward the second stage of its three-stage nuclear program, powered by uranium and plutonium.
  • Thorium Ambition: India’s three-stage nuclear program aims to utilize its vast thorium reserves in the third stage for energy independence.

Understanding Nuclear Waste: Source and Characteristics

  • Fission Reactor Process: In fission reactors, neutron bombardment of certain elements’ nuclei produces nuclear waste when unstable nuclei break apart, releasing energy and forming different elements.
  • Fuel-Generated Waste: Nuclear waste includes radioactive fission products produced during energy generation and elements resulting from uranium conversion.
  • High Radioactivity: Nuclear waste is highly radioactive, necessitating secure storage to prevent leakage and environmental contamination.

Challenges in Nuclear Waste Management

  • Spent Fuel Handling: Managing hot and radioactive spent fuel, requiring underwater storage for cooling before transferring to dry casks for long-term storage, poses a significant challenge.
  • Global Accumulation: Countries with nuclear power programs, like the U.S., Canada, and Russia, have accumulated substantial inventories of spent fuel, necessitating secure, long-term storage solutions.
  • Liquid Waste Treatment: Nuclear power plants have liquid waste treatment facilities, with some countries discharging treated water into the environment. Proper disposal methods for other liquid waste types are crucial.

Nuclear Waste Disposal Methods

  • Dry Cask Storage: Once spent fuel cools, it can be moved to dry cask storage, involving sealing fuel in large steel cylinders surrounded by inert gas and placed inside secure chambers.
  • Geological Disposal: Some experts advocate burying nuclear waste underground in special containers within granite or clay for long-term isolation from human activity.
  • Reprocessing: Reprocessing, separating fissile from non-fissile material in spent fuel, offers higher fuel efficiency but presents challenges, including the generation of weapons-usable plutonium.

Issues Associated with Nuclear Waste Management

  • Decontamination Challenges: Cases like the Asse II salt mine in Germany and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in the U.S. highlight challenges in decontaminating and managing nuclear waste, posing risks to the environment.
  • Uncertainties in Liquid Waste Treatment: Questions about the effectiveness of vitrification plants and the amount of liquid waste, especially high-level waste, yet to be treated pose concerns.
  • Global Repository Failures: Many countries attempting to establish repositories have faced failures, emphasizing the difficulty in finding safe and accepted solutions.

Costs and Impact on Nuclear Power Economics

  • Waste Management Costs: Waste management, accounting for about 10% of total costs, imposes economic burdens, with estimated costs of $1.6-7.1 per MWh of nuclear energy.

India’s Nuclear Waste Handling Practices

  • Reprocessing Facilities: India has reprocessing plants in Trombay, Tarapur, and Kalpakkam, with Trombay producing plutonium for stage II reactors and nuclear weapons.
  • On-Site Storage: Low and intermediate activity level waste generated during operation is treated and stored on-site, with continuous monitoring for radioactivity.
  • PFBR Challenges: Delays in PFBR’s operation raise concerns about the effectiveness of existing reprocessing facilities and the complexities associated with different fission product distributions.


  • In conclusion, as India advances in nuclear technology, the effective management of nuclear waste becomes pivotal.
  • The challenges include secure handling of spent fuel, global repository failures, and uncertainties in waste treatment methods.
  • India’s three-stage nuclear program, while promising, necessitates addressing the complexities associated with waste generation and disposal for sustainable and safe nuclear energy production.
PYQ: With growing energy needs should India keep on expanding its nuclear energy programme? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy. (250 words/15m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2018)
Practice Question:  Examine India’s progress in its three-stage nuclear program, emphasizing challenges in nuclear waste management and the geopolitical significance. (250 Words /15 marks)

5. Assam’s Majuli Island Heritage Receives Geographical Indication Tags for Traditional Masks and Manuscript Painting

Topic: GS1 – History – Indian Culture – Art Forms
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of understanding traditional art forms like Majuli masks and manuscript painting.
  • The recent conferment of Geographical Indication (GI) tags to the traditional Majuli masks and Majuli manuscript painting by the Indian government highlights the unique cultural heritage of Assam’s Majuli island.
  • GI tags serve as a recognition of the distinct characteristics and qualities of products originating from specific geographical regions, offering protection and identity in the international market.

More about the news:
Majuli Masks:

  • Origin and Tradition: The masks have been an integral part of Assam’s neo-Vaishnavite tradition since the 16th century, primarily used in bhaonas or theatrical performances with devotional messages introduced by Srimanta Sankardeva.
  • Variety and Craftsmanship: These handmade masks depict a wide array of characters including gods, goddesses, demons, animals, and birds, showcasing intricate craftsmanship. They range in size from face masks to full-head and body coverings, with varying complexities in design and production time.
  • Materials and Techniques: Crafted from bamboo, clay, dung, cloth, cotton, wood, and other locally available materials, the masks embody the cultural and environmental resources of the riverine surroundings.

Monastic Influence and Sattras:

  • Sattras as Cultural Hubs: Sattras, established by Srimanta Sankardev and his disciples, serve as centers of religious, social, and cultural reform in Assam.
  • They promote traditional performing arts like borgeet, xattriya, and bhaona, with the mask-making tradition concentrated in specific sattras such as Samaguri Sattra, Natun Samaguri Sattra, Bihimpur Sattra, and Alengi Narasimha Sattra.
  • Promotion of Art: Hemchandra Goswami, the administrative head of Samaguri Sattra, emphasizes the Sattra’s efforts to promote mask-making as an independent art form beyond its traditional use in bhaonas, reflecting a contemporary revival and adaptation of cultural practices.).

Majuli Manuscript Painting:

  • Historical Significance: Majuli painting, originating in the 16th century, involves painting on sanchipat or manuscripts made from the bark of the sanchi or agar tree, using homemade ink.
  • Patronage and Legacy: This art form, patronized by Ahom kings, showcases a rich artistic legacy intertwined with Assam’s historical and cultural narratives, contributing to the island’s cultural identity.


  • The conferment of GI tags on Majuli masks and manuscript painting underscores the importance of preserving and promoting Assam’s rich cultural heritage.
  • These traditional art forms not only serve as symbols of cultural identity but also contribute to the economic and social development of Majuli, reinforcing its status as a cradle of Assamese culture and spirituality.
What is a Geographical Indication (GI) Tag?

  • A GI tag is a name or sign used on certain products that correspond to a specific geographical location or origin.
  • The GI tag ensures that only the authorised users or those residing in the geographical territory are allowed to use the popular product name.
  • It also protects the product from being copied or imitated by others.
  • A registered GI is valid for 10 years.
  • GI registration is overseen by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

Legal Framework and Obligations:

  • The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 seeks to provide for the registration and better protection of geographical indications relating to goods in India.
  • It is governed and directed by the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
  • Furthermore, the significance of protecting industrial property and geographical indications as integral components of intellectual property is acknowledged and emphasised in Articles 1(2) and 10 of the Paris Convention.
PYQ: Which of the following has/have been accorded ‘Geographical Indication’ status? (UPSC Prelims 2015)
1) Banaras Brocades and Sarees
2) Rajasthani Daal-Bati-Churma
3) Tirupathi Laddu
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans: (c)
Practice Question:  Discuss the significance of the recent grant of Geographical Indication (GI) tags to traditional Majuli masks and Majuli manuscript painting in the context of Indian cultural heritage and its implications for socio-economic development. Analyze the role of such recognition in preserving indigenous art forms and promoting sustainable tourism in the region. (250 words/15 m)

6. Silver Filigree Art of Cuttack, Odisha Receives Prestigious Geographical Indication (GI) Tag

Topic: GS1 – History – Indian Culture – Art Forms
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of understanding traditional art forms like Rupa Tarakasi which is crucial for UPSC aspirants as Indian art and culture are important components of GS Paper 1.

  • The recognition of Rupa Tarakasi, or silver filigree work, of Odisha’s Cuttack with a geographical indication (GI) tag marks a significant milestone in the preservation and promotion of India’s traditional craftsmanship.
  • This art form, rooted in centuries-old techniques, holds cultural and historical significance, reflecting the rich heritage of Odisha.

More about the news:
Origin and Meaning:

  • Etymology of Rupa Tarakasi: In Odia, ‘tara’ signifies wire, while ‘kasi’ refers to design, encapsulating the essence of silver filigree work.
  • The process involves the transformation of silver bricks into thin wires or foils, which are intricately fashioned into jewelry or ornamental showpieces.

Historical Context:

  • Legacy from the 12th Century: While the exact origins of filigree art in Cuttack are shrouded in antiquity, historical records trace its existence back to the 12th century.
  • The art form flourished under Mughal patronage, attaining remarkable skill and intricacy over time.

Cultural Influence and Global Connections:

  • Cross-Cultural Affinities: The Odisha government’s documentation submitted before the GI registry highlights the parallels between Cuttack’s silver filigree work and similar traditions in Arabia, Malta, Genoa, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, ancient Greece, Byzantium, and Etruria.
  • It suggests possible transmission routes through the Phoenicians, Arabs, Normans, and medieval trade networks.

Range of Products:

  • Iconic Creations: Rupa Tarakasi encompasses a diverse range of products, including the Durga Puja Medha (silver decorations for Durga idols and pandals), Odissi jewelry, religious and cultural artifacts associated with Odisha’s customs, and the distinctive Dama chain.
  • These items serve both aesthetic and ceremonial purposes, contributing to the cultural fabric of Odisha.


  • The conferment of the GI tag on Rupa Tarakasi not only celebrates the artistic prowess of Cuttack’s artisans but also underscores the enduring legacy of India’s traditional crafts.
  • By recognizing and safeguarding indigenous art forms like silver filigree work, Odisha’s cultural heritage is preserved and promoted, fostering socio-economic development and nurturing a sense of pride and identity among its people.
List of other GI Tags from Odisha
  • Kotpad Handloom fabric
  • Orissa Ikat
  • Konark Stone Carving
  • Pattachitra
  • Pipili Applique Work
  • Khandua Saree and Fabrics
  • Gopalpur Tussar Fabrics
  • Ganjam Kewda Rooh
  • Ganjam Kewda Flower
  • Dhalapathar Parda & Fabrics
  • Sambalpuri Bandha Saree & Fabrics
  • Bomkai Saree & Fabrics
  • Habaspuri Saree & Fabrics
  • Berhampur Patta (Phoda Kumbha)
  • Odisha Pattachitra (Logo)
  • Araku Valley Arabica Coffee
  • Kandhamal Haladi
  • Odisha Rasagolla
PYQ: India enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 in order to comply with the obligations to
(UPSC Prelims 2018)
(a) ILO
(b) IMF
(d) WTO
Ans: (d)
Practice Question:  Discuss the significance of the recent conferment of a Geographical Indication (GI) tag on Rupa Tarakasi, the traditional silver filigree work of Cuttack, Odisha. Also, examine the role of GI tagging in preserving India’s traditional crafts and promoting cultural heritage. (250 words/15 m)

7. California Man Faces Criminal Charges for Smuggling Greenhouse Gases: A Landmark Case in Environmental Law Enforcement

Topic: GS3 – Environment – Environmental pollution and degradation

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of knowing facts about the smuggling of greenhouse gases and the subsequent criminal charges highlight the environmental challenges associated with illegal trade and the need for stringent enforcement of environmental regulations.

  • The case of a California man facing criminal charges for smuggling greenhouse gases (GHGs), specifically banned refrigerants used in cooling appliances, highlights a new frontier in environmental law enforcement.
  • The prosecution marks a significant step towards addressing the illicit trade of substances contributing to global warming, signaling increased vigilance in protecting the environment.

More about the news:

The Accusation:

  • Modus Operandi: Michael Hart is accused of purchasing banned refrigerants in Mexico and smuggling them into the US concealed in his car. He then allegedly sold these refrigerants online through various marketplaces.
  • Extent of Smuggling: The indictment suggests that Hart engaged in the illegal sale of dozens of canisters of refrigerants in mid-to-late 2022, indicating a systematic operation with significant potential environmental impact.

Banned Refrigerants and Environmental Impact:

  • Types of Refrigerants: The refrigerants in question include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and a form of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), namely HCFC22, which are known for their potent greenhouse gas properties.
  • Historical Context: The transition from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to HFCs and HCFCs in the 1990s was driven by environmental concerns over ozone depletion. However, it became evident that these alternative refrigerants also contribute to global warming.

Montreal Protocol and Regulatory Framework:

  • International Agreement: The Montreal Protocol, signed in 1987 by nearly 200 countries, aimed to phase out ozone-depleting substances, including CFCs and HCFCs, by freezing their production and consumption.
  • Kigali Amendment: In 2016, the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol set targets for reducing the consumption of HFCs, with the potential to significantly mitigate global warming if successful.
  • US Legislation: The implementation of the Montreal Protocol in the US through the Clean Air Act led to regulations on HCFCs, with a ban on the import of HCFC22 for purposes other than transformation or destruction since 2020. Additionally, bulk imports of regulated HFCs require permission since January 1, 2022.


  • The prosecution of individuals involved in the illegal trade of greenhouse gases underscores the global commitment to combating climate change.
  • By enforcing regulations and agreements such as the Montreal Protocol and the Kigali Amendment, authorities aim to mitigate the environmental impact of refrigerants while sending a strong message against illicit activities that contribute to global warming.
  • However, effective enforcement and international cooperation remain critical in addressing this complex environmental challenge.
What are Greenhouse Gases?
  • Everything You Need To Know AboutGreenhouse gases are a type of atmospheric gases that have the capability of raising the surface temperature by absorbing solar radiation.


  • Carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapor.


  • The greenhouse effect, which is caused by greenhouse gases, is a natural phenomenon that is necessary for life to thrive on earth.
  • However, if the greenhouse effect is amplified more than that is necessary, it leads to a phenomenon known as global warming.


  • The amount of carbon dioxide and other radiation absorbing gases have increased due to anthropogenic activities such as industrial and vehicular emissions, paddy cultivation, fossil fuel extraction etc.
  • Excessive emission of these greenhouse gases reduces the ability of the earth to sequester them naturally, leading to global warming.
  • Effects of Greenhouse Gases:
  • Warming of Earth: Due to greenhouse gases, the sun’s heat gets trapped in Earth’s atmosphere. This process makes Earth much warmer.
  • Melting of Polar Ice: Due to rise in global temperatures, polar ice gets melted. This could affect Earth’s climate drastically.
  • Depletion of Corals: Rise in sea surface temperatures could harm the survival of corals, which are vulnerable to hot temperatures.
  • Rise in Sea Levels: The melting of polar ice could lead to rise in sea levels, which could inundate low lying coastal areas.
  • Climate Vagaries: Climate change, which is a consequence of the greenhouse effect, will create vagaries in climate. It could lead to disasters such as cyclones, floods, landslides etc.

Everything You Need To Know About

PYQ: Discuss global warming and mention its effects on the global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gases which cause global warming, in the light of the Kyoto Protocol, 1997.

(UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2022) (250 words/15 m)

Practice Question:  Examine the challenges and implications of illegal trade in greenhouse gases. Discuss the environmental impact of smuggling such gases, the effectiveness of regulatory measures in preventing illicit activities, and the role of international cooperation in addressing transboundary environmental crimes. (250 words/15 m)

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