26 March 2024 : Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs

26-March -2024- Top News of the Day

1. EU probe into tech giants for ‘violation’ of new law may trigger hefty fines.

Topic: GS2 – International relations – Effect of policies and politics of developed countries on India’s interests

The EU’s investigations into tech giants for potential DMA violations hold significance for global tech regulation and competition.

●     The European Union launches probes into Apple, Alphabet, and Meta for potential Digital Markets Act violations regarding anti-competitive practices and user choice restrictions.

 Additional information on this news:

  • The European Union initiated probes under the Digital Markets Act (DMA) against tech giants Apple, Alphabet (Google), and Meta (Facebook) for potential violations.
  • DMA aims to regulate ‘gatekeepers’ like Apple, Alphabet, Meta, Amazon, ByteDance (TikTok), and Microsoft, with fines up to 10% of global revenues for violations.
  • Apple previously fined €1.84 million for anti-competitive behavior in streaming app distribution, faces DOJ case for alleged competition stifling in smartphones.
  • Investigations focus on alleged anti-steering practices by Alphabet and Apple, limiting communication between app makers and users, and on Apple’s restrictions on user choice and uninstalling apps.
  • Meta’s “pay or consent” policy, requiring payment for ad-free Facebook/Instagram use, and Alphabet’s potential favoring of its services in Google Search are also under scrutiny.
  • The probes aim to ensure compliance with DMA regulations, with completion expected within 12 months. Apple expresses confidence in compliance.
More about EU’s Digital Markets Act:

●   The Digital Markets Act (DMA) is a legislative proposal by the European Union aimed at regulating the behaviour of large online platforms, also known as “gatekeepers,” to ensure fair competition and protect consumers’ interests.

●   Its primary goal is to address the dominance of big tech companies such as Google, Facebook, Amazon, and Apple, which wield significant market power.

● The DMA proposes a set of rules to prevent unfair practices, including the abuse of dominant positions, self-preferencing, and leveraging data to gain a competitive advantage.

● It introduces obligations for gatekeepers, such as providing access to their services on fair and non-discriminatory terms, sharing data with competitors under certain conditions, and allowing users more control over their data.

● The act also includes measures to enhance interoperability and data portability, enabling users to switch between platforms more easily.

●  Violations of the DMA could result in hefty fines of up to 10% of a company’s global turnover.

● The DMA aims to create a level playing field for businesses in the digital market, fostering innovation, and protecting consumer choice and privacy.

●  It has garnered both support and criticism, with proponents arguing it’s necessary to rein in the power of tech giants, while opponents claim it could stifle innovation and harm consumers.

PYQ: The term ‘Digital Single Market Strategy’ seen in the news refers to

c) EU
d) G 20

Answer – option C  – EU (UPSC Prelims 2017)

Practice Question:  What is the primary objective of the Digital Markets Act proposed by the European Union, and what measures does it introduce to address concerns regarding the dominance of large online platforms? (150 Words /10 marks)

2. ‘Water crisis in Bengaluru linked to urbanisation of Kodagu’

Topic: GS3 – Environment – Environmental pollution and degradation

Understanding urban water crisis crucial for UPSC as it assesses candidates’ grasp on sustainable development challenges.


● The news pertains to the Save Kodagu and Cauvery Campaign’s concerns over unchecked commercial land conversion in Kodagu, potentially impacting Bengaluru’s water supply.

 Additional information on this news:

  • The Save Kodagu and Cauvery Campaign highlights rampant commercial land conversion and urbanization in Kodagu as a key factor contributing to water shortages in Bengaluru.
  • They advocate against issuing No Objection Certificates (NOCs) for land conversion for commercial purposes in Kodagu, the birthplace of the Cauvery River.
  • The campaign urges legislators to pressure Chief Minister Siddaramaiah to issue strict directives against land conversion and to impose a moratorium on Bengaluru’s further expansion.
  • Continued growth and destruction of Kodagu’s landscape could lead to a significant impact on Bengaluru’s water supply and agricultural regions like Mandya and Mysuru.
  • If the trend persists, areas in Kodagu could develop into large cities, potentially leading to severe water scarcity and invoking the National Disaster Act in times of drought.

Water crisis in Indian cities:

●    Problem: Many Indian cities face acute water shortages, with a gap of over 25% between demand and supply.

●    Data:

○   NITI Aayog report (2023) suggests 600 million lack adequate water access.

○  20 cities, including Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai, are predicted to face severe water scarcity by 2030.

Reasons for Water Crisis:

●    Population Growth: Rapid urbanization has led to a surge in demand for water, outstripping supply capacities.

● Poor Infrastructure: Inadequate infrastructure for water storage, distribution, and treatment exacerbates scarcity issues.

●  Climate Change: Irregular rainfall patterns and rising temperatures result in unpredictable water availability.

●   Groundwater Depletion: Over-extraction of groundwater due to lack of regulation and unsustainable practices.

●  Pollution: Industrial discharge and untreated sewage contaminate water sources, making them unfit for consumption.

● Mismanagement: Inefficient water management practices, such as leakage in distribution networks, contribute to wastage.

●   Lack of Awareness: Limited public awareness about water conservation and sustainable usage aggravates the crisis.

Way Forward:

● Investment in Infrastructure: Upgrade water infrastructure to enhance storage, distribution, and treatment capacities.

●  Water Conservation: Promote water conservation practices through public awareness campaigns and incentives.

●   Rainwater Harvesting: Encourage rainwater harvesting in urban areas to recharge groundwater and reduce reliance on external sources.

● Regulation and Enforcement: Implement stringent regulations to prevent over-extraction of groundwater and pollution of water bodies.

●  Community Participation: Engage communities in water management initiatives to foster a sense of ownership and responsibility.

● Technological Solutions: Deploy advanced technologies for water treatment and recycling to maximise resource utilisation.

● Integrated Planning: Integrate water management into urban planning processes to ensure sustainable development.

Addressing the water crisis in Indian cities requires a multi-faceted approach. Collaboration between government bodies, private sectors, and civil society is essential to secure water sustainability for future generations.

PYQ: India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity. (200 words/12.5m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-1 2015)

Practice Question:  In the context of the water crisis in Indian cities, discuss the key factors contributing to the scarcity of water resources and propose measures for sustainable urban water management. (250 Words /15 marks)

3. El Nino impact leaves Malawi and region on the edge of a hunger crisis.

Topic: GS1 – Geography – World’s physical geography.

El Niño’s impacts on weather, agriculture, and disaster management are crucial for understanding global climate dynamics in UPSC exams.

●     This news highlights the severe drought-induced humanitarian crisis in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, exacerbated by El Niño and exacerbated by climate change.

 Additional information on this news:

  • Malawi declares state of disaster due to drought in 23 of 28 districts, seeking $200 million in aid.
  • Zambia and Zimbabwe also face drought-related crises, with crops decimated.
  • Southern Africa, including Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, on brink of hunger crisis due to El Niño.
  • Nearly 50 million people in southern and central Africa facing food insecurity.
  • Driest February in 40 years for Zambia and Zimbabwe, severe rainfall deficits in Malawi and Mozambique.
  • Millions rely on crops for survival, staple food corn badly affected.
  • El Niño exacerbated by climate change, causing extreme impacts.
  • WFP and USAID launching feeding programs in affected areas.
  • Over 6 million people in Zambia facing acute food shortages and malnutrition.
  • Malawi’s President reports 44% corn crop failure, 2 million households impacted.
  • Malawi previously hit by tropical storms, floods, and cholera outbreak in 2022.
What is El Niño:

●     El Niño is a climate phenomenon characterised by warmer-than-average sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean.

●   It typically occurs irregularly every two to seven years and can last for several months to over a year.

●   El Niño disrupts normal weather patterns worldwide, leading to various impacts on weather and climate.

●  Effects of El Niño include increased rainfall and flooding in some regions, such as South America, while causing droughts in others, like Australia and Indonesia and India.

●     It can also influence tropical cyclone activity, leading to more storms in some areas and fewer in others.

●    El Niño events can impact agriculture, fisheries, and water resources, affecting food security and economic stability.

●   The phenomenon often correlates with shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns globally, affecting ecosystems and biodiversity.

●  El Niño events are monitored and predicted by meteorological agencies worldwide, allowing for preparedness and mitigation measures to be implemented.

●  La Niña is the counterpart to El Niño, characterized by cooler-than-average sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern Pacific, often with opposite impacts on weather and climate.

PYQ: Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree? (150 words/10m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-1 2014)
Practice Question:  In what ways does the El Niño phenomenon impact global weather patterns and socioeconomic systems? Discuss with reference to its effects on precipitation, agriculture in India. (250 Words /15 marks)

4. On campaigning in the name of religion

Topic: GS2 – Indian Polity

Understanding legal provisions and ethical conduct in elections is crucial for governance and upholding democratic principles in UPSC exams.

●  The news pertains to complaints filed by the BJP and DMK with the Election Commission of India regarding alleged violations of religious appeal norms by Rahul Gandhi and the Prime Minister.


Legal Provisions Regarding Appeals in Elections:

  • Section 123(3) of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, prohibits appeals based on religion, race, caste, community, or language, deemed as corrupt electoral practices.
  • Section 123(3A) condemns attempts to foster enmity or hatred among citizens on such grounds.
  • Violation of these provisions can lead to debarring a candidate from contesting elections for up to six years.

Model Code of Conduct (MCC):

  • The MCC, a set of norms for political parties and candidates, prohibits activities that exacerbate existing differences or create tension between different groups.
  • Parties and candidates are bound to respect and observe the MCC’s principles, which include refraining from appeals to caste or communal feelings to secure votes.
  • Despite lacking statutory backing, the MCC has gained strength over the past three decades due to strict enforcement by the Election Commission of India (ECI).

Historical Context and Amendments:

  • Prior to 1961, the RP Act included the term ‘systemic’ in Section 123(3), implying that appeals on religious, racial, caste, or communal grounds would constitute corrupt electoral practices.
  • The 1961 amendment omitted ‘systemic,’ broadening the scope to include even isolated appeals based on religion or narrow communal affiliations.

Past Instances and Enforcement:

  • Several instances exist where leaders across political parties have appealed for votes on religious grounds, leading to cases under the RP Act and Indian Penal Code.
  • Notable among these was the conviction of Bal Thackeray of Shiv Sena in 1995.
  • The ECI typically bars leaders from campaigning for short periods for MCC violations.

Supreme Court Rulings:

  • In Abhiram Singh versus C. D. Commachen (2017), a majority ruling interpreted Section 123(3) purposively, prohibiting appeals for votes based on the religion of both candidates and voters.
  • The Court emphasized the secular nature of elections and the need to prevent the mixing of religious considerations with the state’s secular functions.

Recommendations for Ensuring Secularism:

  • Political parties and candidates should address citizens’ legitimate concerns without jeopardising the secular fabric of the country.
  • Avoiding appeals in the name of religion can prevent further polarisation in society.
  • The use of places of worship for campaign purposes should be discouraged.
  • The ECI and courts should establish swift mechanisms to address violations of laws regarding appeals on religious grounds.


  • Upholding the secular nature of elections is paramount, requiring strict adherence to legal provisions and the MCC by political actors.
  • Balancing citizens’ concerns with the need to preserve secularism is essential for maintaining the integrity of the electoral process.
Practice Question:  In what ways do legal provisions and ethical guidelines regulate religious appeals in elections? Discuss with reference to recent cases. (150 Words /10 marks)

5. India’s Fertility Rate to Plummet to 1.29 by 2050: Implications and Challenges Ahead

Topic: GS1 – Society – Population and associated issues
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains as this article highlights the social and economic implications of declining fertility rates, including labor force shortages and changes in family dynamics.


  • India’s total fertility rate (TFR), projected to fall to 1.29 by 2050 according to a study published in The Lancet, has far-reaching implications for the country’s demographic landscape and socio-economic dynamics.
More about the news:

Historical Trends and Projections:

  • The decline in India’s TFR has been steady since Independence, with figures dropping from 18 in 1950 to 1.91 in 2021.
  • The projected rate of 29 by 2050 indicates a significant departure from the replacement level of fertility, which stands at 2.1.

Factors Driving the Decline:

  • Several factors contribute to the falling fertility rate in India.
  • Firstly, the post-Independence population control efforts have played a crucial role.
  • Additionally, the rise in female literacy and workforce participation has empowered women to make informed choices about family planning, leading to delayed childbirth and smaller family sizes.
  • Moreover, changing societal norms, particularly in urban areas, have seen many couples opting not to have children at all.

Economic Considerations:

  • Economic factors also influence fertility decisions, with parents weighing the costs of raising children against perceived benefits.
  • As economic conditions evolve, the traditional expectation of children providing support in old age diminishes, influencing parental decisions regarding family size.

Long-term Consequences:

  • The declining fertility rate will have profound consequences, particularly in terms of demographic shifts.
  • The proportion of elderly individuals in the population is expected to rise significantly, posing challenges such as labor force shortages and potential social imbalances due to gender preferences.

Mitigation Strategies:

  • Addressing the challenges posed by declining fertility rates requires a multi-faceted approach.
  • Investments in healthcare, affordable childcare, and initiatives to promote gender equity are crucial.
  • Additionally, economic policies focusing on stimulating growth, job creation, and social security reforms will be essential to mitigate the impact of demographic changes.

Global Perspective:

  • India’s experience mirrors a global trend, with researchers predicting that the majority of countries will fall below the replacement level of fertility by 2050.
  • This underscores the need for ethical and effective immigration policies to offset population decline in the absence of sustainable fertility rates.
                       What is Total Fertlity Rate (TFR)?
  • In layman’s words, total fertility rate (TFR) is the total number of children born or expected to be born to a woman in her lifetime if she were subject to the population’s average age-specific fertility rate.
  • TFR referred to as replacement-level fertility is around 2.1 children per woman. When the TFR is less than 2.1 children per woman, it means that a generation is not reproducing at a rate that will eventually result in a complete decline in the population.


PYQ: “Empowering women is the key to control population growth”. Discuss (150 words/10m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-1 2019)
Practice Question:  Discuss the implications of India’s declining fertility rate on its socio-economic landscape. Evaluate the factors contributing to this trend and analyze potential strategies to address the challenges posed by demographic shifts. (250 words/15 m)


6. Pakistan Signals Potential Shift: Considers Restoring Trade Ties with India

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Bilateral Relations

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of understanding developments in India-Pakistan relations which provides valuable insights into bilateral dynamics, regional geopolitics, and diplomatic strategies.


  • Pakistan’s Foreign Minister Muhammad Ishaq Dar’s recent remarks indicate a potential shift in Pakistan’s diplomatic stance towards India.
  • During a press conference in London following his participation in the Nuclear Energy Summit in Brussels, Dar expressed that Pakistan would “seriously” consider restoring trade ties with India, which have been suspended since August 2019.
  • This statement suggests a willingness to reevaluate Pakistan’s approach to its neighbor, reflecting the eagerness of Pakistan’s business community to resume trade activities with India.
More about the news:

Business Community’s Interest in Resuming Trade:

  • Dar emphasized the eagerness of Pakistan’s cash-strapped business community to resume trade with India.
  • The desire for trade resumption highlights the economic considerations driving Pakistan’s potential diplomatic shift.
  • The resumption of trade ties with India could offer economic benefits for both countries, particularly amid the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Context of Diplomatic Relations:

  • Pakistan downgraded its diplomatic ties with India following the Indian government’s decision to abrogate Article 370 of the Constitution, revoking the special status of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Islamabad viewed this move as undermining the environment for bilateral talks.
  • Pakistan has consistently urged India to undo its “unilateral” steps in Kashmir as a precondition for dialogue, while India maintains that the entirety of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh are integral parts of the country.

India’s Position and Preconditions for Dialogue:

  • India has dismissed Pakistan’s suggestion and emphasized that the onus is on Islamabad to create an environment free of terror and hostility for engagement.
  • India desires normal neighborly relations with Pakistan but asserts the need for Islamabad to address concerns related to terrorism and cross-border hostility.
  • This stance underscores India’s insistence on addressing security challenges as a prerequisite for meaningful dialogue.

Prospects for Diplomatic Thaw:

  • Recent interactions between Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Shehbaz Sharif, who became the head of Pakistan’s government, have raised hopes for a diplomatic thaw.
  • Modi’s congratulatory message to Sharif and the latter’s response indicate a potential willingness to engage diplomatically.
  • However, the extent of this thaw remains uncertain and contingent upon various factors, including Pakistan’s actions regarding security issues and bilateral relations.
Reasons of Conflict  


  • Historical Reasons: The division of India and Pakistan in 1947, which led to the creation of separate countries based on religious lines, laid the foundation for ongoing tensions.
  • Kashmir Issue: Both countries claim sovereignty over the region, and it has been a focal point of armed conflicts and tensions. The issue remains unresolved, and efforts to find a peaceful solution have been challenging.
  • Border Dispute: The LoC serves as the de facto border between the two countries, and violations and skirmishes along the border have resulted in casualties and escalated tensions.
  • Cross-Border Terrorism: Pakistan has been accused of supporting and harboring militant groups that carry out terrorist activities in India. Several major terrorist attacks, such as the 2008 Mumbai attacks, the 2019 Pulwama attack, Uri attack (2016), Poonch-Rajouri Attack (2023) and 2016 Pathankot attack have been attributed to groups operating from Pakistani territory.
  • Failure to Trial Terror Groups: India has repeatedly urged Pakistan to take stronger action against terrorist organizations operating from its soil. However, the lack of progress in prosecuting individuals responsible for attacks, such as the Mumbai attacks, has been a significant point of contention.
  • Revocation of Article 370: Unilateral actions taken by both countries have added to the conflict. For example, India’s decision to revoke the special status of J&K in 2019 and Pakistan’s subsequent measures, such as downgrading diplomatic relations and suspending bilateral trade, have further strained relations.
  • Lack of Trade Cooperation: Limited trade cooperation between India and Pakistan has hampered economic ties and people-to-people exchanges. The low volume of bilateral trade and the failure to implement measures to boost trade have prevented the potential benefits of economic integration.
  • Fishermen Disputes: Disputes over the maritime boundary and the arrest of fishermen from both countries crossing into each other’s waters have added to the tensions. The issue of Sir Creek in the Kutch region remains unresolved, exacerbating the problem.
  • International Influence: The involvement of external powers and their interests in the region, particularly China’s growing closeness with Pakistan, has also impacted the India-Pakistan relationship. The Kashmir issue has been raised at international forums, increasing the complexity of the conflict.


PYQ: Terrorist activities and mutual distrust have clouded India-Pakistan relations. To what extent the use of soft power like sports and cultural exchanges could help generate goodwill between the two countries? Discuss with suitable examples. (200 words/12.5m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2015)
Practice Question:  Analyze the factors driving Pakistan’s reconsideration of its diplomatic stance towards India and evaluate the challenges and opportunities associated with the resumption of trade between the two countries. (250 words/15 m)

7. Ancient Human Adaptability Unveiled: Discoveries in Northwestern Ethiopia Challenge Migration Theories

Topic: Important facts for Prelims 
This topic is relevant for Prelims in the context of understanding how ancient humans adapted to environmental challenges which contributes to a broader understanding of human evolution and societal development.


  • In 2002, a crew of paleoanthropologists stumbled upon chipped stones and fossilized animal bones in northwestern Ethiopia, indicating an ancient human settlement.
  • After extensive excavations, it was revealed that hunter-gatherers inhabited the area approximately 74,000 years ago.
  • The findings, published in Nature, shed light on the remarkable adaptability of these ancient humans, who not only crafted tools for hunting but also survived environmental upheavals.

More about the news:

Significance of Adaptability:

  • The adaptability displayed by these ancient humans offers insights into the success of human expansion out of Africa and into Eurasia.
  • According to John Kappelman, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Texas, this adaptability underscores the sophistication of human societies during that era.

Archaeological Discoveries at Shinfa-Metema 1:

  • At the site known as Shinfa-Metema 1, researchers uncovered thousands of bones, including those from gazelles, warthogs, and giraffes, suggesting a hunting lifestyle.
  • Additionally, the discovery of 215 ostrich eggshell fragments hints at the possibility of egg consumption or shell usage as containers.
  • Precise dating of the shell fragments to 74,000 years ago coincides with the eruption of the Toba volcano in Indonesia.

Impact of the Toba Eruption:

  • The eruption of the Toba volcano led to environmental changes globally, with ash and toxic gases blocking the sun for months.
  • Despite these challenges, the humans at Shinfa-Metema 1 demonstrated resilience and adaptation strategies, transitioning from mammal-hunting to fishing as a response to changing environmental conditions.

Insights into Human Migration:

  • The study at Shinfa-Metema 1 provides valuable insights into the mystery of human migration out of Africa.
  • While previous hypotheses suggested migration during wet periods when deserts were traversable, the findings challenge this notion.
  • Instead, the adaptability of ancient humans, as evidenced by their survival and resource exploitation strategies during environmental fluctuations, suggests that migration might have occurred through different pathways, even during harsh conditions.


  • The discoveries at Shinfa-Metema 1 offer a glimpse into the ingenuity and resilience of ancient human populations.
  • By understanding their adaptive behaviors in response to environmental challenges, researchers gain valuable insights into the complexities of human migration and settlement patterns, challenging conventional theories and opening new avenues for exploration in paleoanthropology.

8. Study Shows Significant Warming Trends in March and April Across India, Heightening Concerns Over Hot Weather Conditions

Topic: GS1– Geography – Climate Change: Effects of Climate change.

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains as this analysis provides insights into the effects of global warming on regional climates and ecosystems, aligning with the section on climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.


  • Since 1970, there has been a noticeable increase in temperatures during March and April across India, raising concerns about uncomfortable and potentially hazardous hot conditions.
  • According to a study by Climate Central, both months have seen a significant warming trend, with northern and western regions experiencing the most substantial increases relative to 1970 levels.
  • For instance, Jammu and Kashmir recorded the highest rise in average temperature, approximately 2.8 degrees Celsius, while Mizoram reported a notable increase of about 1.9 degrees Celsius in April.
More about the news:

Impact on Temperatures around Holi:

  • The study also examined temperatures around the festival of Holi and found that the likelihood of temperatures exceeding 40 degrees Celsius in late March has increased significantly since the early 1970s.
  • Initially, only three states had more than a 5% chance of such extreme temperatures, but now nine states, including Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Telangana, are in this category.
  • Maharashtra has reported the highest probability of 14%.

City-specific Risks:

  • Analyzing data from 51 cities across India, the study revealed that nearly 73% of these cities now have at least a 1% chance of experiencing temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius, with 11 cities having a 10% or greater probability.
  • Bilaspur stands out with the highest risk (31%) of crossing 40 degrees, reflecting a significant increase compared to the 1970s.

Global Warming’s Influence:

  • The primary driver behind the warmer March and April temperatures is attributed to global warming.
  • The substantial release of heat-trapping greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution has led to a spike in global temperatures, with the Indian subcontinent experiencing a rise of 0.7 degrees Celsius since 1900.
  • Experts from the National Centre for Atmospheric Science underscore the role of greenhouse gases in favoring an early arrival of hot weather in India, emphasizing the heightened vulnerability to heat-related illnesses during outdoor festivals like Holi.

Financial Outlay and Approval:

  • The Union Cabinet approved the NQM with a total outlay of Rs. 6003.65 Crore for eight years.
  • The recent approval by the Mission Governing Board (MGB) to invite pre-proposals for technology hubs underlines the mission’s centrality and strategic importance.


  • The study’s findings underscore the significant impact of global warming on India’s climate, with March and April witnessing a pronounced warming trend over the past five decades.
  • This trend poses serious health risks, particularly during outdoor festivals like Holi, and underscores the urgent need for climate mitigation measures to address the escalating temperatures and associated challenges.
Global efforts to tackle climate change:


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC):

  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a United Nations body responsible for conducting scientific assessments related to climate change. In which there are 195 member countries.
  • It was established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
  • Its purpose is to provide regular scientific assessments of climate change, its impacts and potential future risks, as well as to inform policymakers’ strategies for adaptation and climate change mitigation.
  • IPCC assessments provide governments at all levels with scientific information that can be used to develop climate-resilient policies.
  • IPCC assessments play an important role in international negotiations to combat climate change.
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC):
  • It is an international agreement aimed at controlling the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
  • This agreement was made during the Earth Summit in June 1992. After the signing of this agreement by various countries, it came into force on March 21, 1994.
  • Annual meetings of the UNFCCC have been organized continuously since 1995. Under this, the much-discussed Kyoto Protocol was signed in the year 1997 and targets were set by the developed countries (countries included in Annex-1) to control greenhouse gases. Under the Kyoto Protocol, 40 industrialized countries have been kept in a separate list Annex-1.
  • The annual meeting of the UNFCCC is known as the Conference of the Parties (COP).
  • Paris agreement:
  • The Paris Agreement is an international agreement to deal with climate change.
  • From 30 November to 11 December 2015, representatives of governments from 195 countries met in Paris to discuss a possible new global agreement to combat climate change.
  • The Paris Agreement, consisting of 32 pages and 29 articles aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, is recognized as a landmark agreement to curb global warming.
  • Climate change issues and India’s efforts:
  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC):
  • The National Action Plan on Climate Change in India was launched in the year 2008.
  • Its objective is to sensitize public representatives, various agencies of the government, scientists, industry and communities about the threat posed by climate change and measures to combat it.


PYQ: ‘Climate Change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change? (250 words/15m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2017)
Practice Question:  Discuss the findings and implications of the recent study published by Climate Central regarding the warming trends in March and April across India. Also, examine the role of global warming in shaping India’s climate patterns and suggest measures for climate mitigation and adaptation in light of the study’s findings.” (250 words/15 m)Top of Form

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