|Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Regional and global groupings
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of International Relations and Global Politics.
- The world’s elite are at Davos for a meeting that shows a sober acknowledgement of the upheavals brought about by economic nationalism and resurgent great power conflicts.
- The Washington Consensus and globalisation, which defined the post-Cold War era, allowed for the free flow of labour, capital, products, and services.
- Nevertheless, the planned peaceful world order has been upset by recent geopolitical developments, such as the conflict in Ukraine and the alliance between China and Russia.
- There have been several obstacles to the globalised philosophy of the Davos Man, which has ruled the globe since the 1990s.
- The emergence of nationalistic beliefs, personified by the election of Donald Trump in 2016, and the ensuing “greenlash” against climate change policies have highlighted the shortcomings of the Davos agenda.
- While focusing on national interests and recalibrating global economic goals, Joe Biden’s presidency has not entirely reversed these tendencies.
- Defying its conventional mission, Davos must adapt to a swiftly changing world as Trump runs for reelection and promises a return to nationalism.
- Trump’s possible comeback points to an ongoing conflict between nationalist and globalist forces.
- There is a newfound political passion for the Global South during the NAM and G77 conferences in Kampala.
- But for these organisations, which have always championed solidarity and collective bargaining but have struggled to make significant progress, this enthusiasm hasn’t yet translated into real results.
- The emergence of regionalism in the Global South has diminished the power of the NAM and G77.
- The importance of regional organisations like the African Union and ASEAN has increased, and the BRICS alliance has appropriated elements of the former NAM and G77 agenda, undermining their continued relevance.
- Even though China is not a traditional member, its active participation in both forums adds complexity to the outdated North-South paradigm.
- China uses projects like the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) to alter the global order on its terms, positioning itself as the defender of the Global South.
- India aims to promote integration and reform while navigating global developments, highlighting its traditional position in the NAM and G77.
- Both countries see the need to adjust to changing institutions and strive for more influence in the Global South.
- In an effort to boost interaction, ministerial representatives from China and India will be present in Davos and Kampala.
- Both countries are looking for Western finance in Davos, but their goals are very different.
- In Kampala, China challenges US supremacy by presenting itself as an alternative to the current global system.
- Beijing is highlighting its position as a significant global player in an attempt to alter the global economic system to its advantage.
- India’s Focus on Integration and Reform
- In Kampala, however, India presents itself as a link between the North and the South.
- Rather than questioning the tenets of the current global order, its emphasis is on integration and reform within it.
- India hopes to contribute positively to the changing dynamics of international politics.
- The simultaneous summits in Kampala and Davos highlight the dynamic and complexity of the world political scene in 2024.
- The difficulties Davos had in adjusting to a changing global order and the shortcomings of the NAM and G77 in converting political fervour into real progress underscore the necessity for big global entities such as China and India to be flexible and strategically positioned.
- These summits offer a window into the different paths countries are pursuing in response to the shifting geopolitical landscape as the globe struggles with structural changes.
|Practice Question: Discuss the implications of the simultaneous summits in Davos, Switzerland, and Kampala, Uganda, in the context of the shifting global political landscape in 2024. (200 words/12.5 m)