Everything You Need To Know About Yojana Magazine Summary November 2023

Yojana Magazine Summary November 2023: G20 – One Earth, One Family, One Future

Yojana Magazine Summary November 2023

Yojana magazine is monthly magazine published by government of India’s Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. In this page we will explore Yojana Magazine Summary for November 2023 edition. It provides a comprehensive analysis of recent government initiatives aimed at fostering inclusive growth and addressing social inequalities. Below are major insights from November 2023 edition:

1. Pro-People, Pro-Planet.

Overview of Global Challenges:

  • The contemporary world is fraught with conflicts, displacements, climate change, natural disasters, diseases, financial uncertainty, and inequality.
  • Vulnerable groups, particularly children and women, bear the brunt of these global challenges.

India’s G20 Presidency:

  • India assumed the G20 Presidency, viewing it as a transformative opportunity to address urgent international issues.
  • The New Delhi Leader’s Declaration emphasized the ethos of ‘one earth, one family, one future,’ calling for tangible action and sustained cooperation.

Evolution of Global Order:

  • Over the last eight decades post-World War II, global dynamics have shifted significantly due to economic growth, decolonization, technological advancements, health and infrastructure improvements, sectoral reforms, and enhanced international cooperation.
  • There’s a growing recognition of the need for multilateralism to effectively address the interconnected global challenges of the 21st century.

Focus on Inclusivity and Equal Participation:

  • A key focus was on fostering global inclusivity, ensuring the equal involvement of all stakeholders, with a particular emphasis on the Global South.
  • The inclusion of the African Union as a permanent member of the G20 was a strategic move to address its concerns, aspirations, and enhance its participation in international partnerships.
  • The vision for the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (iMec) aimed at promoting integration between Asia, the Arabian Gulf, and Europe to advance economic development.

Commitment to Sustainable Development:

  • India demonstrated its commitment to sustainable development by adopting the Green Development Pact during the G20 presidency.
  • The formation of the Global Biofuel Alliance highlighted a spirit of constructive collaboration that characterized India’s leadership.

Transition to Brazil’s Presidency:

  • With the G20 presidency transitioning to Brazil, there are expectations to build on the foundation laid during India’s tenure.
  • India’s leadership prioritized inclusive development, digital infrastructure, and sustainability.
  • The New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration underscored human-centric development, gender equality, and women-led development.

Multifaceted Impact and Legacy:

  • Reflection on the multifaceted impact of India’s G20 presidency across economic, environmental, diplomatic, technological, and social sectors.
  • The legacy of India’s presidency is expected to continue influencing global policies, partnerships, and actions with a pro-people and pro-planet approach.
  • The New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration’s defining statement emphasized the importance of avoiding war in today’s era.


 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration (NDLD): A Unanimous Stand

  • Under India’s G20 Presidency, the New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration (NDLD) comprising 83 paragraphs was a significant achievement with no dissenting voices.
  • The NDLD represents a paradigm shift from conflict and division to development and cooperation, portraying India as a global leader dedicated to enhancing policy coherence among G20 countries.

Prioritizing Strong, Sustainable, Balanced, and Inclusive Growth

  • The declaration emphasizes the need for strong, sustainable, balanced, and inclusive growth, acknowledging the pivotal role of private enterprises, particularly MSMEs and startups, in fostering innovation and employment opportunities.
  • Advocacy for the promotion of trade and investment policies, World Trade Organization (WTO) reform, and commitment to addressing skill gaps and promoting decent work for sustainable development.
  • The NDLD reaffirms a steadfast commitment to fostering transparency, accountability, and integrity in both public and private sectors.

Accelerating Progress on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

  • An action plan for accelerating SDG progress has been delivered under India’s Presidency, emphasizing the critical role of data in driving development.
  • The G20 Deccan High-Level Principles (HLPs) on Food Security and Nutrition 2023, along with the promotion of ancient grains like millet, aim to ensure global food and nutritional security.
  • Recognition of the profound impact of climate change on health and establishment of a Global Initiative on Digital Health.

Green Development Pact and Mission LiFE

  • The ‘Green Development Pact’ outlines a comprehensive roadmap for addressing the environmental crisis through global cooperation, pledging to pursue environmentally sustainable and inclusive economic growth.
  • Commitment to align Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) with Paris Agreement goals and enhancing climate action across mitigation, adaptation, and means of implementation.

Climate Finance

  • Calls for substantial financial and technological support from the Global North to combat climate change and support sustainable development.
  • We urge nations to set a New Collective Quantified Goal of climate finance by 2024 and advocate doubling collective adaptation finance by 2025.

Multilateral Banks and Technological Transformation

  • Emphasis on better, larger, and more effective Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and exploring measures for a more responsive international development finance system.
  • Recognition of India’s developmental model and global influence of digital public infrastructure (DPI), leading to the establishment of the G20 Framework for Digital Public Infrastructure.
  • Support to Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) for the growth of their DPI systems through the One Future Alliance.

Gender Equality and Empowering All Women and Girls

  • The declaration champions women-led development, economic and social empowerment, gender-inclusive climate action, and women’s food security, exemplified by establishing the Women’s Working Group.

Voice of the Global South and People’s G20

  • Advocacy for including the African Union (AU) as a permanent member of the G20, recognizing the Global South’s role in driving global economic growth.
  • People’s G20 initiative, including Jan Bhagidari events, Engagement Groups, and innovative methods to enhance public involvement, demonstrates collective action’s power.

Conclusion: A People-Driven and Human-Centric G20 Presidency

  • India’s G20 Presidency, focused on collective action, demonstrated the power of a people-driven and human-centric approach in shaping a more equitable global future.

 3. Bhashini App: Bridging the Digital Divide with Language Diversity

Key Highlights of BHASHINI

  • Bhashini, developed under the theme ‘One Earth, One Family, One Future,’ focuses on inclusivity by breaking language barriers.
  • A digital symphony harmonizing with Indian languages, providing voice-based access to the digital universe.
  • Mission to empower every Indian with the ability to navigate the internet and access digital services in their native language.
  • Bhasha Daan section facilitates crowd-sourcing initiatives, fostering collaboration and community.
  • Enables last-mile delivery of services in the language and dialect people speak, promoting inclusivity.
  • Utilized for filling out forms in native dialects through feature phones (IVR), enhancing accessibility.


Challenges Faced During India’s Presidency

  • The global context during India’s G20 Presidency included the impact of the Covid pandemic, the Ukraine conflict, and threats of a global recession, high inflation, and crises in energy, food, and debt.

India’s Human-Centric Approach

  • India adopted a human-centric and democratic approach during its presidency, prioritizing diversity as a unifying force on the global stage.
  • The G20 journey began with showcasing India’s celebration of diversity, exemplified by the use of Madhubani painting, a Geographical Indication (GI)-tagged art form originating from Bihar.

Landmark Initiatives Launched

  • India launched significant initiatives like the India – Middle East – Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC) and the Global Biofuel Alliance.
  • The Jan Bhagidari initiative, spanning 37 areas of human endeavor, involved citizens globally, bringing ideals into everyday lives.

Involvement of States and Whole-of-Government Approach

  • Over 200 G20 meetings were held across India, involving each state to leave a cultural imprint on visiting delegates.
  • The transformative approach welcomed the world to India and showcased India’s best practices globally.
  • The G20 was transformed into a ‘People’s G20,’ with over 1.5 crore citizens participating through Jan Bhagidari events and innovative university connect programs.

Outcomes and Achievements

  • India’s presidency produced an impressive 112 outcomes and documents, more than doubling the substantive work of previous presidencies.
  • The New Delhi Leader’s Declaration addressed global challenges, adopting principles on food security, blue/ocean economy, tourism, land restoration, and MSMEs access to information.
  • India’s proposal to include the African Union as a permanent G20 member was accepted, and the Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository and One Future Alliance were welcomed.
  • G20 committed to enhancing global food security, nutrition, and climate action, reflecting India’s proactive approach.

Conclusion: Paving the Way for a Resilient and Inclusive Future

  • India’s prioritization of the developmental agenda within the G20 set the stage for a more resilient and inclusive economic order.
  • India leaves behind a formidable legacy of leadership, influencing the G20 and the world towards a brighter and more harmonious future.

5. Green Development Pact: Roadmap to a Sustainable Future

G20 Presidency and Sustainable Development

  • As India took up the G20 Presidency in December 2022, climate and environmental sustainability were core topics.

Green Development Pact Adopted

  • The G20 adopted the Green Development Pact through the New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration, emphasizing ecosystem restoration and commitments to address environmental challenges.
  • Prevention and mitigation of forest fires, remediation of mining-degraded lands, and reducing land degradation by 50% by 2040 were key elements.

Technology and Circular Economy in Green Development

  • Recognition of the role of technology development and transfer, capacity building, and financing for impactful sustainability.
  • The G20 endorsed the multi-year Technical Assistance Action Plan (TAAP) and recommendations to overcome data-related barriers to climate investments.
  • Focus on the circular economy, extended producer responsibility, and resource efficiency, with the launch of the Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition (RECEIC).

High-Level Principles and Blue Economy

  • Adoption of High-Level Principles for a Sustainable and Resilient Blue/Ocean-based Economy, aiming to harness seas and oceans sustainably.

Conclusion: Strengthening G20 Efforts Towards SDG Targets

Implementation of the Green Development Pact is expected to strengthen G20 member states’ efforts towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets.


Global Challenges in Resource Consumption

  • Projected world population of nearly 10 billion by 2050 with annual global material extraction reaching 70 billion tonnes in 2010, expected to double by 2060.
  • Humanity’s demand for ecological resources exceeded Earth’s regeneration capacity in less than eight months of a year.
  • Increasing pressure on finite natural resources highlights the need for sustainable lifestyles aligned with SDG 12 on Responsible Consumption and Production.

Circular Economy Concept

  • Circularity emphasizes using materials for as long as possible at the highest value, covering the entire lifecycle of products.
  • Aims to reduce harmful environmental and socio-economic impacts, including minimizing waste generation.
  • Circular economy provides opportunities for green jobs, circular business, and contributes to sustainable development.

Four Essential Areas for Sustainable Lifestyles

  • Two-thirds of greenhouse gas emissions are associated with households and lifestyles.
  • Key areas for sustainable and low-carbon lifestyles include mobility, housing and energy use, dietary choices, food, and new business models.


G20’s Enhanced Focus on Circularity

  • G20 India Presidency adopted High-Level Principles on Lifestyles for Sustainable Development, acknowledging the role of circular economy and resource efficiency.

India’s Initiatives Towards Circular Economic Growth

  • Transition to circular economic growth can generate a net economic benefit of USD 624 billion annually in India by 2050.
  • Initiatives include Draft National Resource Efficiency Policy (2019), Steel Scrap Recycling Policy, Vehicle Scrapping Policy, and sectoral action plans on circular economy.
  • Guidelines on Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR) for plastic packaging strengthen circular economy for plastic waste.
  • India is a member of the Global Alliance on Circular Economy and Resource Efficiency (GACERE), advocating for a global circular economy transition.
  • Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition launched to enhance collaboration, capacity building, and actions for circular economy transition.
  • Mission LiFE, a global movement, aims for responsible consumption, enabling responsive markets, and influencing policies.
  • Sustainable tourism, aligned with Mission LiFE, and the ‘Travel for LiFE’ program contribute to low-carbon and circular business solutions.
  • India joined the Global Tourism Plastics Initiative (GTPI) to address plastic pollution in the tourism sector.


Nari Shakti Vandana Adhiniyam

  • Empowers women with a 33% reservation of seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies.
  • Provides reservation for SC and ST women within the allocated quota.
  • Demonstrates Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s commitment to gender equality and inclusivity.
  • Fosters female leadership, allowing women to participate in high-stakes decision-making.

Nari Shakti Progress: Women’s Empowerment in Various Sectors

  • Grants permanent commission to women officers in Defence services.
  • Opens Sainik schools to girls, providing equal opportunities in military education.
  • Allows entry for women candidates in the National Defence Academy (NDA).
  • Marks the first-ever deployment of rifle women along the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • India boasts the highest number of female pilots globally.
  • Involves more than 100 women in executing the Chandrayaan-3 mission.
  • 43% of STEM graduates in India are women, showcasing the highest percentage globallyEverything You Need To Know About Yojana Magazine Summary November 2023


G20 Leaders’ Declaration and India’s Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI):

  • The G20 Leaders’ Declaration during India’s Presidency highlights technology’s central role in fostering inclusive and sustainable development through Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI).
  • The G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration stresses the significance of secure and inclusive DPI.
  • India plans to establish and maintain a Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR) as a digital storage of DPI.

Role of DPI in India:

  • Digital Public Infrastructures (DPIs) like Aadhaar, Jan Dhan bank accounts, and Mobile phones in India have played a crucial role in shifting ownership of transaction accounts.
  • The JAM Trinity (Jan Dhan, Aadhaar, Mobile) has remarkably increased financial inclusion from 25% in 2008 to over 80% within the past six years.

Government-to-Person Programs & Unified Payments Interface (UPI):

  • India has implemented one of the world’s largest digital Government-to-Person (G2P) architectures using DPI, transferring approximately Rs 32.29 trillion directly to beneficiaries.
  • The Unified Payments Interface (UPI) in India, with over 10.586 billion transactions totaling Rs 15.76 trillion in August 2023, aligns with the G20’s focus on financial inclusion.

India Stack & Account Aggregator (AA) System:

  • India Stack, the fundamental DPI, has been effectively utilized to promote innovation, competition, expand market reach, address financial inclusion, bolster government revenue, and enhance public expenditure efficiency.
  • The Account Aggregator (AA) system in India ensures individuals have control over their financial information, with no data sharing without consent.

Key Initiatives:

Digital India Initiative & BharatNet Project:

  • As of September 11, 2023, Bharat Net project linked 202,028 Gram Panchayats, with 658,685 kilometers of optical fiber cables installed.

Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY):

  • As of September 13, 2023, PMJDY has 50.41 crore beneficiaries, with 27.98 crore being rural-urban females. Cumulative deposits reached Rs 20,494.18 billion, with 34.26 crore Rupay Debit Cards issued.

Make in India:

  • Make in India initiative has enhanced India’s self-reliance in technology, reducing dependency on imports.

Startup India:

  • As of May 31, 2023, India has 108 unicorns valued at $340.80 billion, with 99,380 DPIIT recognized startups supporting funding, mentorship, and regulatory reforms.

Smart Cities Mission:

  • Integrates digital infrastructure components.


  • Plays a crucial role in enabling digital services and identity verification.

UMANG & DigiLocker:

  • UMANG app provides secure and inclusive access to government services, while DigiLocker advances paperless governance.

Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC):

  • The launch of e-R by the Reserve Bank of India aligns with the G20 Leaders’ Declaration 2023 on CBDCs, representing India’s embrace of modern digital currency solutions.

Artificial Intelligence (AI):

  • The Ministry of Electronics and IT (Meity) accelerates AI implementation and development in India.


  • The G20 Leaders’ Declaration underscores DPI’s pivotal role in driving inclusive and sustainable development in an increasingly digital world.

India’s success in DPI serves as an inspiration for countries aiming to create resilient and inclusive digital futures.


G20 Formation and Agenda:

  • Formed in 1999 in response to the Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 to ensure global financial stability.
  • Expanded agenda includes the digital economy, trade, sustainable development, health, agriculture, energy, environment, climate change, and anti-corruption.

Digital Economy Significance:

  • The digital economy contributes over 15% of the global GDP, according to the World Bank.

G20 Digital Economy Working Group:

  • Focused on three key pillars: Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI), Security in the Digital Economy, and Digital Skilling.
  • Outcome Document details consensus on key issues.

Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) Definition:

  • Defined as a set of shared digital systems that should be secure, interoperable, built on open standards, and deliver equitable access to public and/or private services at a societal scale.
  • Governed by applicable legal frameworks, enabling rules, aiming to drive development, inclusion, innovation, trust, competition, and respect human rights and fundamental freedoms.

G20 Framework for DPIs in LMICs:

  • A significant outcome of the G20, providing a roadmap for the development and deployment of DPIs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs).
  • India’s plan for the Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDIPR) aligns with this, serving as a virtual repository for DPI.
  • The One Future Alliance (OFA) proposal can aid in capacity building and offer technical assistance and funding support for implementing DPIs in LMICs.

Security in Digital Economy:

  • During India’s G20 Presidency, emphasis on safety, security, resilience, and trust in the digital economy for effective transformation.
  • G20 High-Level Principles to Support Businesses in building safety, security, resilience, and trust in the digital economy will be crucial.
  • Concerns raised about potential risks impacting vulnerable sections, especially children and youth, including cyber bullying, grooming, child sexual abuse, and exploitation.
  • Women and girls disproportionately affected by technology-facilitated gender-based violence.

G20 Toolkit on Cyber Education and Awareness:

  • Developed under the Indian presidency, it will serve as a guide for all countries in addressing risks and ensuring the safety of children and youth in the digital space.


  • The article highlights the G20’s pivotal role in shaping the digital economy, with a focus on Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) and security.
  • The agreement on DPI definitions and the G20 Framework for LMICs, coupled with India’s initiatives like the GDIPR and the One Future Alliance proposal, exemplify a collective effort towards inclusive and secure digital transformation.
  • The emphasis on safety, resilience, and trust, along with the G20 Toolkit, underscores a commitment to address potential risks, especially for vulnerable populations.

 9. Green Development Pact.

G20’s Focus on Sustainability:

  • Core Theme in India’s G20 Presidency: India prioritized sustainability during its G20 presidency, aligning economic and ecological aspects in development.
  • Significant Global Impact: G20 collectively represents 2/3rd of the world population, 85% of GDP, and 75% of international trade, making its sustainability efforts globally impactful.
  • Adoption of Green Development Pact: G20 leaders recognized sustainability’s importance, culminating in the adoption of the Green Development Pact, highlighting a collective commitment.

Key Initiatives for Green Economy:

  • Global Biofuel Alliance: An initiative reinforcing G20’s dedication to a green economy.
  • LiFE Mission: Introduced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during COP26, LiFE encourages sustainable lifestyles to combat climate change.
  • Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR): Guidelines on EPR for plastic and e-waste management rules signify steps towards a green transition.
  • Circular Economy Initiatives: The Global Alliance on Circular Economy and Resource Efficiency, and Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition launched by India support the transition.
  • Job Creation in Circular Economy: Emphasizes that a circular economy model generates employment in repair, manufacturing, research, recycling, and waste management.

Green Development Pact Overview:

  • Key Themes: Encompasses resource efficiency, sustainable consumption, just energy transition, climate and sustainable finance, principles for a Blue Economy, and building disaster-resilient infrastructure.
  • Global South Focus: Aims to address development needs of the Global South, promoting global sustainability and bridging gaps between nations.
  • Ecological Restoration Commitment: Targets restoring 30% of degraded ecosystems by 2030, emphasizing environmental restoration.


  • India’s G20 presidency, with a core focus on sustainability, signifies a pivotal commitment to intertwining economic and ecological development.
  • The Green Development Pact, complemented by initiatives like LiFE and circular economy efforts, demonstrates a collective resolve toward a greener future, addressing global challenges and fostering a sustainable, resilient world.


AI’s Transformative Impact:

  • AI is revolutionizing human interactions, industries, and societal structures, with applications in data analysis, logistics, decision-making, autonomous systems, cybersecurity, and various sectors like agriculture, fintech, healthcare, manufacturing, and climate change.

G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration:

  • The G20 Summit in New Delhi emphasized Responsible AI (RAI) in the New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration.
  • It commits to a pro-innovation regulatory approach, considering benefits and risks, reaffirming the 2019 G20 AI Principles focused on a human-centered approach.
  • Emphasis on investment in human capital development for AI.

Ethical Risks and Concerns:

  • Critics highlight concerns about gender and racial bias, ethical issues like copyright infringement, privacy violations, and misuse of AI in defense and cybersecurity.
  • Deepfakes pose a significant threat, creating synthetic media that is challenging to verify.

Responsible AI (RAI) Framework:

  • RAI involves designing, developing, and deploying AI responsibly, impacting society fairly.
  • India, since 2018, focuses on RAI, with NITI Aayog’s seven principles: safety, equality, inclusivity, privacy, transparency, accountability, and protection of human values.
  • NASSCOM embedded these principles into India’s first RAI Hub and Toolkit in 2022.

India’s Role in GAPI:

  • India chairs the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI), contributing to responsible AI development through its Responsible AI working group.
  • Hosting the annual GPAI Summit in December 2023, India addresses the underrepresentation of the Global South in the forum.


  • The intersection of AI, ethics, and responsibility is crucial, with G20’s commitment to RAI and India’s leadership in GPAI reflecting a concerted effort to navigate AI’s transformative potential while addressing ethical challenges.


 India’s Renewable Energy Transition:

 Need for Transition:

  • India, with a population of over 1.4 billion and rapid economic growth, emphasizes a sustainable and secure energy supply.
  • The shift from fossil fuel-led growth to renewable sources aligns with environmental commitments and addresses health implications.

Steps Taken:

  • Policies and Schemes: National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) laid the groundwork, and the National Solar Mission, launched in 2010, aimed at promoting solar energy technologies.
  • Increased Renewable Share: The target for renewable energy increased to 500 GW by 2030, with 172 GW installed by FY 2023, constituting 22.5% of the energy mix.
  • RPO and ESO: Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) and Energy Storage Obligation (ESO) trajectories till 2030 issued to boost renewable energy consumption.
  • Green Energy Corridor: Launched for effective evacuation of green power, with extended ISTS charges waiver for renewable projects.

Additional Initiatives:

  • Solar Parks, PM-KUSUM, and RTS: Schemes targeting 40 GW, 30.8 GW, and 4 GW, respectively, to enhance solar capacity.
  • National Green Hydrogen Mission (NGHM): Launched in 2023 with a 5 MMTPA production target by 2030.
  • Production-Linked Incentive (PLI): Introduced in the renewable energy manufacturing sector.
  • Skill Development: Suryamitra, Vayumitra, and Jal-Urjamitra programs aim at improving skills in the renewable energy sector.

Challenges and Path Ahead:

  • Intermittency Challenges: Renewable energy’s intermittent nature poses a challenge in balancing supply and demand.
  • Infrastructure Upgrades: Integrating renewables into the grid requires significant investments and upgrades.
  • Land and Regulatory Issues: Challenges include land availability, state government compliance with RPO, timely tariff adoption, and transmission infrastructure planning.

Economic and Environmental Benefits:

  • Economic growth in the renewable sector stimulates job creation, technological innovation, and foreign investment.
  • Reduced fossil fuel imports enhance energy security and decrease vulnerability to global energy market fluctuations.
  • Environmentally, the transition significantly reduces carbon emissions, mitigates pollution, and safeguards public health.


  • India’s commitment to renewable energy, backed by policies, schemes, and international initiatives, reflects a comprehensive approach to address climate change and ensure sustainable and secure energy for its growing population.

12. Remembering Professor MS Swaminathan – The Father of The Indian Green Revolution.


  • The article highlights Prof MS Swaminathan’s the pivotal role of agriculture in India’s development, focusing on job-led growth and sustainable practices.
  • It also delves into the challenges of stubble burning in Punjab, proposing solutions through crop rotation and innovative concepts like rice bio parks.

Agricultural Centrality:

  • Stresses India’s agricultural prominence, advocating for the acknowledgment of its pivotal role in national development.
  • Emphasizes job-led growth, asserting agriculture’s capacity to absorb labor.

Productivity Pathway:

  • Advocates are maximizing crop productivity over expanding agricultural land for sustainable growth.
  • Recommends growing crops at higher productivity levels to enhance the efficiency of the food system.

Quality and Export Focus:

  • Highlights the need to consider grain quality, such as Basmati, for export, envisioning increased rice cultivation.
  • Proposes that enhanced exports can lead to using India’s vast rice-cultivating area.

Crop Rotation and Stubble Burning:

Challenges in Punjab:

  • Discusses the challenge of stubble burning resulting from rice and wheat crop rotation in Punjab.
  • Proposes early-harvest rice varieties to mitigate the overlap with wheat planting, addressing the stubble burning problem.

New Crop Rotation Practices:

  • Observes a shift in crop rotation practices in Punjab.
  • Advocates consider both rice and wheat yields together for a holistic approach.

Policy Recommendations:

  • Prof Swaminathan’s insights provide valuable policy recommendations, emphasizing sustainable agricultural practices and addressing challenges in crop rotation.

Legacy and Influence:

  • Recognizes Prof Swaminathan’s influence, knowledge, and enduring impact on agricultural discourse in India.
  • The interview excerpts serve as a tribute to his contributions and guidance to future scientific communities.

Rice Bio Park Concept:

Utilization of Every Part:

  • Proposes the establishment of rice bio parks utilizing every part of the rice plant.
  • Stresses the need for economic value to encourage farmers to adopt sustainable practices.

Stubble Burning and Economic Value:

  • Highlights the connection between stubble burning and the lack of perceived economic value.
  • Advocates are purchasing stubbles for cattle feed from neighbouring states, emphasizing their nutritional value.

Technological Solutions for Stubble Utilization:

  • Calls for providing farmers with technology to convert rice straw into valuable end products.
  • Refers to ancient farming systems, emphasizing the need for adapting methods to different zones.

Economic Uses of Stubble:

  • Identifies economic uses of stubble, such as raw material for paper production and soil fertility improvement.
  • Stresses the importance of disseminating information on the economic value of stubble to deter burning.

Awareness of Climate Issues:

  • Acknowledges awareness of climate problems in India.
  • Highlights the significance of agriculture as the main source of renewable energy.

Promotion of Renewable Energy:

  • Calls for behavioral change at the household level to promote renewable energy.
  • Advocates energy management at household, institutional, and city levels.

Role of Panchayats:

  • Proposes the establishment of climate management societies in every Panchayat.
  • Emphasizes public education as a collective responsibility to combat climate change.

Democratic Society’s Strength:

  • Points out India’s strength as a democratic society with various levels of governance, scientific institutions, and universities.
  • Advocates are making public education on climate change everyone’s business.


Prof MS Swaminathan’s multifaceted vision encapsulates sustainable agriculture, climate resilience, and the imperative of collective action. His wisdom continues to guide India towards a future where agriculture thrives in harmony with the environment.

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