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At 99Notes, each study and article is meticulously crafted through the collaborative expertise of seasoned professionals, ensuring the production of highly comprehensive and pertinent study materials tailored specifically for IAS aspirants. Our commitment to excellence in collective efforts results in an unparalleled resource for those seeking top-notch preparation. Lead Writer : Mr. Abhinav Kumar Supporting Writers : Mr. Pulakit Bharti , Mr. Chandan Kumar , Mr. Rajneesh Pandey , Ms. Anomitra Roy

Download UPSC Syllabus Download UPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF Click Here Download UPSC Mains Syllabus PDF Click Here Download UPSC Optional Syllabus PDF Click Here Understanding the Comprehensive UPSC Syllabus: Your Key to Success Are you planning to join the ranks of India’s finest civil servants? Then you’re probably preparing for the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examinations, one of the most prestigious and challenging tests in the country. The vast scope of the syllabus is one of the most daunting aspects of these examinations. At 99notes.in, we’re committed to making your journey simpler and clearer. This detailed guide on the…

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The Bhakti Movement in IndiaIntroduction of Bhakti MovementThe Bhakti movement was a medieval religious reform movement that preached direct devotion to God without the mediation of a priest. It aimed to reform society by removing the boundaries of caste, creed and sex between the devotee(bhakta) and God (bhagwan).Bhakti is rooted in the Sanskrit word “Bhaj”, meaning to serve. ‘Bhakti’ literally means fondness for, homage, faith or love, devotion, worship, and piety. The central theme of the Bhakti movement is that when devoted to God, a person must forget all distinctions and boundaries.Main principles of Bhakti MovementMain principles of the Bhakti…

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Socio-cultural Impact of the Delhi SultanateThe Delhi sultanate introduced Persian art, architecture, and language, fostering a blend of Indian and Islamic cultures. It led to grow the Indo-Islamic art and the spread of Islam in India.Economy of Delhi SultanateAgricultureNorth part of the empire produced Wheat, Oilseed East and south had rice and sugarcane.Two crops per year could be produced as the soil was fertile. Rice was grown three times a year. Other crops grown were Sesame, Indigo and Cotton.Reforms under Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq (1325-1351)Increased the land revenue of the Doab region, due to which the peasants started abandoning their lands.Introduced Takkavi Loans…

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Delhi SultanateThe Delhi Sultanate known as one of the India’s rich historical time-period. This empire rulers from the 13th- 16th century, played a pivotal role in shaping the country’s culture, architecture, and society. Delhi Sultanate was a series of Islamic dynasties that ruled over the Indian subcontinent. It began with Ghurid invasion in 1192, establishing first Muslim rule in Delhi. Over the period various dynasties, such as Slave Dynasty, Khilji Dynasty, Tuglaq Dynasty, Sayyid Dynasty and the Lodi Dynasty, left their marks on the region. Lets discuss in detail:Muizzuddin Muhammad, also known as Muhammad of Ghor, defeated the Chahmana ruler…

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Chola Dynasty The Chola Dynasty is one of the longest-ruling families in the history of the world. It rose in the Sangam Age as one of the three kingdoms alongside Cheras and Pandyas. However, very little is known about the Cholas after the end of the Sangam age till the mid-9th century. The Origin of Chola Dynasty The Imperial Chola Dynasty(850-1070CE)  The Imperial Chola dynasty was established with the accession of Vijayalaya in 850 CE. The important rulers of this dynasty are as follows: 1. Vijayalaya (850-871CE) Vijayalaya was the founder of Chola dynasty. He was initially a feudatory of…

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Gupta Empire The Kushanas and the Satvahanas became weaker in the middle of the 3rd century after providing 200-year-long political and economic stability. Then, after a brief period of confusion, Guptas emerged on the scene in North India and Vakatakas in South India. The Guptas may have been of Vaishya origin. They initially belonged to the Doab region of the Ganga plains. Prayag was the most important city in the Gupta empire. Guptas initially adopted the title of Adiraja, indicating that they were vassal states of a larger kingdom. However, they gained independence in the second decade of the 4th…

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Megaliths A megalith is a large stone used alone or in conjunction with other stones to build a prehistoric structure or monument. The History of South India in the Iron Age is marked by the Megalithic burials and the Sangam literature. We can recreate the history of this era with the aid of these burial sites and the Sangam literature. The usage of megalith was so widespread that it is sometimes called a Megalithic civilisation. Megaliths structure construction mainly began in the Neolithic and persisted into the Chalcolithic, Bronze, and Iron Ages.  Brahmagiri A skeleton buried with 33 gold beads,…

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We have several sources that help us to reconstruct the Mauryan empire. These can be classified as either literary sources or Archaeological sources. Literary Sources of Mauryan Empire These are the texts that describe the Mauryan Empire. These are either contemporary or non-contemporary. Contemporary texts – These are books written during the time of the Mauryan Empire. Non-Contemporary texts – Archaeological Sources of Mauryan Empire Numismatics – Study of coins –  Name Metals used Rupyarupa/Karshapana/Pana Silver coins Tamrarupa /Mashaka Copper coins Suvarnarupa /Niskha Gold coins Sisarupa Lead coins Inscriptions – Indian inscriptions are engraved into stone or other durable materials, such…

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Mauryan Economy Direction Trade routes South-West route Sravasti to Pratishthana South-East route Sravasti to Rajgriha East-West route Taxila to Patliputra following the river course of Ganga and Yamuna, known as Uttarpatha(modern-day Grand Trunk road) Mauryan Society during the Mauryan empire Free labour Karmaharas/Bhritakas Slaves  Dasas Mortgaged Slaves Ahitaka Religion during the Mauryan Empire People in Mauryan Society were great patrons of Nastika Philosophy(Heterodox school of Indian Philosophy), which includes Jainism, Buddhism and the Ajivika sect. However, Hinduism too flourished during the Mauryan reign. Jainism ● Chandragupta Maurya converted to Jainism, abdicated his throne, and moved with his spiritual mentor Bhadrabahu…

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Mauryan Empire Under the Nanda dynasty rule (343BC to 321BC), Magadha was a formidable power during Alexander’s invasion (326BC). But the Magadh reached its peak during the Mauryan empire. First time in the history of India, a large part of the Indian subcontinent, extending up to the far northwest, was under a single paramount power, the Mauryan empire. The Mauryan Empire, foundation to India’s historical and cultural framework, flourished from 321 to 185 BCE, establishing itself as the first extensive political entity across the Indian subcontinent. Founded by Chandragupta Maurya around 321 BCE under the strategic guidance of his advisor…

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