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Mains Answer Writing

One of the key components of these exams is the written test, which consists of a number of essay and comprehension questions. Candidates are expected to write clear and well-structured answers that demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the topics being tested.

17-July-2023

Q.  The wars fought by the British to establish supremacy in India were fuelled by the spirit of global colonialism and ended only with the blood of Indians. Justify. (250 Words)

In order to establish supremacy, the British fought major and difficult wars with the French, Maratha and Mysore.

The Carnatic Wars were the immediate result of anglo french rivalry in Europe and India. A series of military conflicts during the mid-18th century in the Carnatic region (a dependency of Hyderabad State) changed the political scenario of contemporary India. Between 1744 and 1763 AD, three Carnatic Wars were fought.

These wars were fuelled by the spirit of colonialism: •

Economic Motive: By the 17th century, India became the world’s largest economy and manufacturing power, producing about a quarter of global GDP before fragmenting and being conquered over the next century. The ‘commerce of India was the commerce of the world and who can control it could be the dictator of Europe’. It shows India’s strategic and economic importance to the colonial powers. •

Global context in the Carnatic wars: •

First Carnatic War (1740-48) broke with the Austrian War of Succession in Europe. The British were drawn into the war in 1744 on the opposite side of France and its allies. The conflict came to an end after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and the captured Madras fort was returned to the British in exchange for the French fort captured by the British in North America. •

Second Carnatic War (1749-54): It broke with the succession struggle in Hyderabad and Arcot, respectively, but became critical with the participation of Europeans in local politics. The conflict ended with France’s defeat in England’s hand during the anglo French war in North America. In India, the war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry. •

Third Carnatic War (1749-54) outbreak was parallel with the Seven Years’ War in Europe in 1756 resulted in renewed conflict between British and French forces in India. This was concluded with the decisive battle of Wandiwash in 1760.

Aftermath: In the end British became the sole power in the Indian ocean. Indian Blood on both sides:

1. Indian soldiers fought: In these wars. French General Duplix found that Indian soilders with European training and discipline were best fighters and it were the Indians who eventually were killed in these wars.

2. Indian expense: Often the cost of wars were charged upon the Indian princes.

Conclusion Therefore, the subtle context in all the wars that were fought in India was the spirit of colonialism. Although the British colonial rule in the USA ended, but British remained a colonial power in the Caribbean islands and many other places with the resources gathered from India. It shows that the victory of the British in India Facilitated its dominance on the global stage.

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