17 May 2024 : Daily Answer Writing

Q1) How will you explain that the anthropogenic factors enhance the intensity, increase the frequency, and amplify the impacts of natural disasters? Substantiate your answers with suitable examples.

(150 Words/10 Marks)

The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), adopted in 15th COP to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), is a global initiative that aims to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030; restore ecosystems and protect indigenous rights.

Key initiatives outlined in the GBF can be seen as:

  1. 30 X 30 target:
  2. a) Countries have agreed to conserve and restore 30% of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, increasing it from 17% of terrestrial and 10% of marine areas protected, presently.
  3. b) It would result in creation of network of biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, marine protected areas, etc. which acts as a core region of conservation.
  4. The GBF includes 23 targets for 2030 that are aligned with the long-term goals. They cover a wide range of issues such as reducing pollution, sharing benefits etc.
  5. GBF Fund is established under GEF to mobilise $200 billion per year from both public and private sources. This creates efficient channel to mobilise fund and support biodiversity projects.
  6. Corporate accounting and reporting related to biodiversity issues creates a sense of responsibility, transparency and leads to accountability.
  7. Countries are committed to identify and eliminate activities that threaten biodiversity.

E.g., phasing out subsidies, reducing pesticide usage $500 billion annually.

  1. National action plans on lines of UNFCCC to create competition among nations in order to fast track and effectively implement the framework.

However, the framework suffers from certain key challenges:

  1. No legal binding: Lack of penal provision disincentivise fast tracking the interventions under National Biodiversity Plans.
  2. Lack of deadline: As per environmentalists, absence of clear deadlines may render the implementation of plans ineffective.
  3. Funding constraints: 200 billion USD mobilisation every year amidst global slowdown is a herculean task to achieve for GEF, already under financial constraints.
  4. Self-reporting by corporates may result in greenwashing of reports, limiting the utility of the exercise.
  5. As per experts, limited efforts were made to allay the concerns of all the stakeholders.

E.g., opposition by Republic of Congo was overlooked.


The GBF is a key step in right direction to arrest the rapid decline of biodiversity. It is also crucial in achieving some of the important SDGs like SDG 13 (Climate action), SDG 14 (Life below water), and SDG 15 (Life on land).

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