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Mains Answer Writing

18-october-2023

1. Analyze the potential challenges and benefits involved in leveraging SHGs as platforms for skill development, entrepreneurship, and income generation among marginalized communities to effectively counter poverty.

ANSWER:

  • The SHG model of development has evolved as one of the most effective strategies for empowering members, skill development, entrepreneurship, and alleviating rural poverty through income generation. As of March 2018, a total number of 12 million SHGs with active bank linkages are operating in India of which over 90% of SHGs in India consist exclusively of women and other poor sections of society.

ROLE OF SHG IN ACHIEVING OBJECTIVES OF INCOME GENERATION, ENTREPRENEURSHIP, AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT

SHGs AND INCOME GENERATION

  1. SHG works on the principle of solidarity and helps the poor to come together to pool their savings and access credit facilities in the process. With the help of this credit, they tend to create movable and immovable assets including farm and business equipment, houses, etc.
  2. SHGs often create a scrupulous cycle of investment and return which helps in establishing a secure source of income.
  3. SHGs help members to create a buffer against exigencies like a disaster, crop failure, etc. which prevent members from falling into the poverty trap.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT

  1. SHGs linkage helps in the development of the agro-based industry as the machinery required is purchased by pooling savings and accessing credit facilities of the banks.
  2. SHGs often in linkage with corporate houses create businesses that generate employment and sustainable income. For e.g., Lijjat Papad which is a household brand started as an SHG, but later on, established itself as a big retail brand.
  3. SHGs promote employment in areas that are niche in skills and industry setup is difficult to establish due to lack of market, skilled labor, capital, etc.
  4. SHGs often inculcate entrepreneurial skills in women helping them in better utilization of government schemes like Stand-Up India which provides credit and assistance to women startups and businesses.
  5. For e.g., SEWA in Gujarat, TANWA in Tamil Nadu, etc. provide income security and asset creation for women through skill development and purchase of capital goods like sewing machines, embroidery machines, etc.

SHGS FACE PLENTY OF CHALLENGES

  1. Reluctance among SHG members to return loans taken from banks leads to the apathy of rural banks to provide funds to SHGs.
  2. Lack of knowledge and proper orientation among SHG members to take up suitable and profitable livelihood options
  3. Lack of awareness among SHG members regarding their own community resources often leaves them with limited options for income-generating activities which only produces marginal profits
  4. The dominance of patriarchal mentality across rural societies, often creates obstacles for women to join SHG.
  5. Because of a lack of proper communication and transportation linkages, very often rural banks cannot reach the geographically isolated or remote villages of our nation which discourages the formation of SHGs in such villages.
  6. Incidences of misappropriation of funds by SHG members are very often reported which malign the spirit and ideology of SHG formation.

Conclusion:

  • To utilize the true potential of self-help groups there is a need for heavy investment in capacity building of SHGs through both public and private resources. They not only help in providing local and sustainable solutions to local problems but also help in tackling the issue of rural distress and manage issues arising out of migration to urban areas.

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2. Examine the recent events related to freedom of speech and expression in India, and discuss their implications for democracy and the rule of law. What role can judiciary play in this regard?

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3. How can centralized procurement in healthcare, enhance cost efficiency and quality control? Discuss the challenges in implementing centralized procurement in government healthcare schemes and suggest measures to overcome them.

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4. Critically examine the Wildlife Protection (Amendment) Act, 2022, in light of the concerns raised by ecologists. Discuss the implications of the Act for conservation, people, and research.

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5. Discuss the potential benefits and challenges of integrating Ayurveda with the One Health approach in the context of addressing modern healthcare and environmental challenges.

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6. Examine the importance of wetlands. Discuss the challenges and solutions associated with the conservation and management of wetlands in India.

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7. Discuss the Supreme Court’s judgment on same-sex marriage in India. Critically examine the implications of the judgment for the LGBTQ+ community and for the future of same-sex marriage in India.

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8. Discuss the legal and social implications of the Centre’s stance against same-sex marriage in India. What are the arguments put forward by the advocates of LGBTQ community in favour of same-sex marriage.

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9. Discuss the transformation of the institution of marriage in contemporary society. Analyze the implications of these changes for individuals and society as a whole.

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