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22-February-2024- Top News of the Day

1. Eminent Jurist Fali S Nariman: A Legal Luminary Who Shaped India's Judicial Landscape

Topic: Important Topic for Prelims
Context:
  • Eminent jurist and Senior Advocate Fali S Nariman, renowned for his illustrious legal career spanning over 75 years, passed away at the age of 95.
  • Throughout his tenure as a Senior Advocate at the Supreme Court of India, Nariman left an indelible mark on the legal profession through his involvement in numerous landmark cases.
More about the news: Advocacy in the Second Judges Case:
  • In the Second Judges Case of 1981, Nariman played a pivotal role in advocating for judicial independence by challenging the decision that gave the Centre final authority in judicial appointments and transfers.
  • His arguments led to the establishment of the Supreme Court collegium system, emphasizing the importance of consultation between the Chief Justice of India and the President.
Involvement in the Third Judges Case:
  • Nariman’s expertise was evident in the Third Judges Case of 1998, where he assisted the Supreme Court in clarifying the procedure for judicial appointments.
  • His submissions led to the mandate that the Chief Justice must consult other senior judges before making recommendations for judicial appointments, thereby expanding the collegium system.
Opposition to the NJAC Act:
  • Nariman’s legal acumen was further demonstrated in his opposition to the National Judicial Appointment Commission (NJAC) Act, 2014.
  • He argued against the Act, contending that it would undermine judicial independence by allowing the executive and legislature to participate in the selection and appointment of judges.
  • His efforts resulted in the Supreme Court striking down the NJAC Act as unconstitutional.
Defending Fundamental Rights:
  • In the Golaknath Case of 1967, Nariman intervened to defend fundamental rights, arguing against Parliament’s power to curtail these rights through constitutional amendments.
  • His advocacy contributed to the Court’s ruling that Parliament cannot infringe upon fundamental rights, setting a precedent for upholding constitutional freedoms.
Legal Representation in High-Profile Cases:
  • Nariman’s legal prowess extended to high-profile cases such as the Union Carbide Case and the TMA Pai Foundation Case, where he championed the rights of victims and minorities, respectively.
  • His representation in these cases underscored his commitment to justice and constitutional principles.
Role in Resolving Political Crises:
  • Nariman’s involvement in cases like the Arunachal Political Crisis Case showcased his dedication to upholding constitutional norms and democratic principles.
  • His arguments before the Supreme Court helped restore democratic governance in the face of political turmoil.
Legacy in Water Dispute Resolution:
  • Nariman’s contributions in resolving the Cauvery water-sharing dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu exemplified his skillful negotiation and commitment to federalism.
  • His efforts in securing interim orders and advocating for Karnataka’s interests were lauded by the Supreme Court, highlighting his exceptional legal prowess.
Conclusion:
  • Fali S. Nariman’s illustrious career as a legal luminary and Senior Advocate at the Supreme Court of India has left an indelible mark on the Indian legal system, emphasizing the importance of judicial independence, fundamental rights, and constitutional principles.
  • His legacy will continue to inspire generations of legal professionals in upholding the rule of law and ensuring justice for all.

2. Central Government Raises Sugarcane Fair Price to Rs 340 per Quintal for 2024-25 Season

Topic: GS3 – Agriculture – MSP, Economies of Animal – Rearing
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of knowing facts about Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane and modifications to the National Livestock Mission which highlight key government interventions in the agricultural sector.
Context:
  • The Central Government has decided to increase the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane for the Sugar Season 2024-25 to Rs 340 per quintal from the existing Rs 315 per quintal.
  • This decision, made by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, holds significance for major sugarcane-growing states like Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.
More about the news: Historical Price Increase:
  • The new FRP of Rs 340 per quintal, payable at a sugar recovery rate of 10.25%, marks a historic increase, being approximately 8% higher than the FRP for the current season.
  • Additionally, it ensures prosperity for sugarcane farmers by being 107% higher than the A2+FL cost of sugarcane.
Impact on Sugarcane Farmers:
  • The decision is expected to benefit over 5 crore sugarcane farmers and reaffirms the government’s commitment to doubling farmers’ income.
  • Even in cases where the recovery rate is lower, farmers are assured a minimum price of Rs 315.10 per quintal.
Government Support and Policy Interventions:
  • The Central Government’s timely policy interventions have led to the lowest cane arrears pending in the history of the sugar sector.
  • Policy measures have ensured timely payment of cane dues to farmers, leading to the self-sustainability of sugar mills without requiring financial assistance from the government.
Modification of National Livestock Mission:
  • The Cabinet also approved modifications to the National Livestock Mission, including additional activities such as establishment of entrepreneurship for horse, donkey, mule, and camel.
  • The Livestock Insurance programme has been simplified, with reduced beneficiary shares for farmers and increased coverage for animals.
Continuation of Flood Management Programme:
  • Furthermore, the Cabinet approved the continuation of the “Flood Management and Border Areas Programme” with a total outlay of Rs. 4,100 crore for five years.
  • This programme aims to address flood management and development in border areas.
Conclusion:
  • The government’s decision to increase the FRP of sugarcane, along with modifications to the National Livestock Mission and continuation of flood management programmes, reflects its commitment to agricultural growth and rural development.
  • These initiatives are expected to benefit farmers and contribute to the overall welfare of the agricultural sector in the country.
About Fair and remunerative price (FRP):
What is it?
  • Fair and remunerative price (FRP) is the minimum price at which rate sugarcane is to be purchased by sugar mills from farmers.
Who determines it?
  • The FRP is fixed by Union government (Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA)) on the basis of recommendations of Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).
Rules:
  • The ‘FRP’ of sugarcane is determined under Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966.
Methodology:
  • The recommended FRP is determined by considering a number of variables, including intercrop price parity, domestic and international pricing, the cost of production, and the demand-supply scenario.
Benefits:
  • Farmers are guaranteed margins by FRP, regardless of whether sugar mills turn a profit or not.
  • This will apply consistently across the nation.
  • In addition to the FRP, certain states—Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh announce a State Advised Price, which is typically greater than the FRP.
PYQ: The Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane is approved by the (2015) (a) Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (b) Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (c) Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, Ministry of Agriculture (d) Agricultural Produce Market Committee Ans: (a)
Practice Question:  Critically analyze the recent decision of the Central Government to hike the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane for the Sugar Season 2024-25, along with the modifications to the National Livestock Mission. Evaluate the potential socio-economic impact of these decisions on farmers, rural communities, and the overall agricultural sector. (250 words/15 m)

3. Greek Prime Minister Lauds India's Global Role, Calls for Collaboration Amid Geopolitical Tensions

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Bilateral Relations This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of Indo-Greek relations.
Context:
  • Visiting Prime Minister of Greece, Kyriakos Mitsotakis, emphasized India’s significance as a consensus builder and a leading democracy in the Global South during his address at the inaugural session of the Raisina Dialogue.
  • He underscored India’s growing importance in shaping global debates and addressing major challenges, acknowledging Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s pivotal role in this regard.
More about the news: Call for International Cooperation and Partnership:
  • Kyriakos Mitsotakis highlighted the fundamental purpose of the international system, emphasizing the need for partnership and cooperation among nations to address global issues effectively.
  • He cautioned against the consequences of conflict and stressed the importance of consensus-building and dialogue in resolving disputes.
Concerns Over Geopolitical Tensions:
  • The Greek Prime Minister expressed concerns over heightened geopolitical tensions, citing the ongoing war in Ukraine and conflicts in the Middle East.
  • He emphasized the need for sustainable de-escalation efforts and international engagement to address the humanitarian crises and regional destabilization resulting from these conflicts.
India’s Role in Addressing Global Challenges:
  • Kyriakos Mitsotakis urged India to play a significant role in addressing international crises, particularly emphasizing its role in addressing the conflict in Ukraine.
  • He emphasized India’s stake in maintaining international stability and the rules-based order, highlighting the interconnectedness of nations and the shared responsibility to uphold global peace and security.
Strengthening India-Greece Relations:
  • The visit also saw discussions aimed at deepening cooperation between India and Greece in defense manufacturing, space, and connectivity.
  • Both countries expressed commitment to enhancing bilateral ties and promoting regional connectivity, including through initiatives like the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC).
Conclusion:
  • External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar emphasized the resonance of the Greek Prime Minister’s message on democracies that deliver, underscoring the importance of India’s growing engagement with the world.
  • He highlighted the shared responsibility of India and Greece, as civilizational states, to contribute to the evolution of the contemporary global order and seize opportunities for mutual benefit and cooperation.
What factors are responsible for strengthening the relationship between Greece and India?
  • Strategic Geographic Positions: Both India and Greece are situated in key geopolitical locations, making each country an important strategic partner for the other in their respective regions.
  • Military Cooperation: Joint military exercises between the Indian Navy and Air Force and the Greek armed forces demonstrate growing strategic and defense collaboration.
  • Economic and Infrastructure Development: Economic reforms in Greece, combined with the potential India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC), open new avenues for business collaborations.
  • Advocacy for Broader Relations: Greece’s support for the EU-India Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement and its role as a reliable partner in the EU and NATO, strengthen its relationship with India.
  • Interconnected Regional Stability: The security of the East Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean regions are interlinked, emphasizing the importance of the Greece-India partnership in global stability.
  • Cultural and Educational Exchanges: Efforts to enhance people-to-people ties through student exchange programs, cultural events, and media cooperation play a vital role in deepening mutual understanding and respect.
Practice Question:  Evaluate India’s bilateral relations with Greece and other countries, focusing on efforts to deepen cooperation in defense manufacturing, space exploration, and connectivity projects. Propose strategies for India to enhance its diplomatic outreach, strengthen global partnerships, and effectively contribute to maintaining international peace, security, and development. (250 words/15 m)

4. ISRO Certifies Cryogenic Engine for Gaganyaan Human Spaceflight Mission

Topic: GS3 – Science & Technology – Achievements of Indian S&T; Indigenization of technology This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of knowing facts about India’s progress in developing crucial technologies for its proposed Gaganyaan missions, including the successful qualification and certification of the cryogenic engine for crewed spaceflight.
Context:
  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has successfully qualified and certified the performance of the cryogenic engine intended for India’s Gaganyaan missions, marking a significant milestone in the country’s efforts towards human spaceflight.
More about the news: Certification of Cryogenic Engine for Gaganyaan Missions:
  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) announced that the performance of the crucial cryogenic engine, intended for use in the LVM3 vehicles for India’s Gaganyaan missions, has been qualified and certified for transporting humans into space.
  • Gaganyaan marks India’s proposed maiden human flight mission aimed at sending a three-member crew into a 400km orbit for a duration of three days before safely returning them to Earth.
  • The first unmanned Gaganyaan-1 mission is slated for around mid-2024, with ISRO’s heavy-lift launcher, the LVM, designated as the launch vehicle for these missions, utilizing a combination of solid, liquid, and cryogenic stages adaptable for crewed spaceflight.
Successful Vacuum Test of CE20 Cryogenic Engine:
  • ISRO conducted the seventh vacuum test on the CE20 cryogenic engine, crucial for the cryogenic stage of lift-off, on February 14 at its High Altitude Test Facility in Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu.
  • This milestone marks a significant achievement in the human-rating process of the CE20 engine for Gaganyaan missions, with ISRO emphasizing the engine’s readiness for crewed spaceflight.
Completion of Acceptance Tests:
  • Prior to the vacuum tests, the CE20 underwent 39 hot firing tests under varying operational conditions, totaling 8810 seconds (2 hours 26 minutes), surpassing the minimum standard time for human rating, which is 6350 seconds (1 hour 45 minutes).
  • Additionally, the flight engine designated for the first Gaganyaan mission has successfully completed acceptance tests.
  • This flight engine, powering the upper stages of the LVM3, exhibits a thrust capacity of 19-22 tonnes with an impulse of 442.5 seconds.
Technological Developments for Human-Space Flight:
  • The development of a human-rated launch vehicle is part of ISRO’s broader efforts encompassing various tests and technological advancements necessary for the proposed human-space flight mission.
  • These include the development of life support systems to ensure a safe environment for crew members in space, provisions for crew emergency escape, and the evolution of crew management aspects concerning training, recovery, and rehabilitation.
  • Moreover, precursor missions are in the planning stage to demonstrate the preparedness levels of technology before the actual manned Gaganyaan mission.
  • These endeavors highlight ISRO’s comprehensive approach towards achieving India’s ambitious goals in human space exploration.
Conclusion:
  • The call for pre-proposals marks a pivotal step in realizing the goals of the National Quantum Mission, reflecting India’s commitment to advancing in the field of quantum technologies.
  • The mission encompasses collaboration, innovation, and strategic planning to propel India to the forefront of the global quantum landscape.
Significance of the Gaganyan Mission
The human spaceflight programme has many tangible and intangible benefits as it holds potential for scientific research and advancements. These scientific research and advancements can have far-reaching implications, benefitting not only India but the entire global scientific community.
  • To achieve future technological capability: The success of the Gaganyaan project is expected to inspire further affordable human space programs to explore the solar system and beyond, sample return missions, and other scientific exploration.
  • A unique opportunity to inspire Youth: Expected milestones of Gaganyaan will inspire students toward careers in science and technology towards challenging jobs that would encourage innovation and creativity particularly in the field of space science.
  • Potent foreign policy tool: It will open doors for diplomatic collaborations with other spacefaring nations, paving the way for joint missions, knowledge exchange, and international cooperation in space exploration thereby strengthening international partnerships.
  • Scientific breakthrough: Scientific experiments in a microgravity environment facilitated by Gaganyaan can lead to groundbreaking discoveries in fields like medicine, material science, and biology.
  • Economic growth and employment generation: Gaganyaan mission can stimulate economic growth through the development of space-related industries, technology spin-offs, and job creation, contributing to India’s overall development.
PYQ: Consider the following statements: (2016) The Mangalyaan launched by ISRO 1) is also called the Mars Orbiter Mission 2) made India the second country to have a spacecraft orbit the Mars after USA 3) made India the only country to be successful in making its spacecraft orbit the Mars in its very first attempt Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans: (c)
Practice Question:  Analyze the challenges and opportunities for ISRO in ensuring the success of the Gaganyaan missions and its broader objectives in the field of space exploration. (150 words/10 m)

5. Let’s proceed with IMEC despite Gaza war, Greek PM tells India

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Bilateral Relations
The India-Middle East Economic Corridor (IMEC) is crucial for regional connectivity, geopolitics, and economic partnerships, relevant for UPSC exam.
Context
  • Greek Prime Minister Mitsotakis urges India and Greece to persist with the India-Middle East Economic Corridor despite Gaza conflict, emphasizing its potential for regional connectivity and economic growth.
 Additional information on this news:
  • Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis expressed the importance of persevering with the India-Middle East Economic Corridor (IMEC) despite the destabilizing impact of the Israeli war in Gaza.
  • He emphasized that the war in Gaza and the turmoil in the Middle East should not undermine the significant potential of IMEC and urged India and Greece to continue working towards its realization.
  • Mitsotakis discussed plans to strengthen bilateral ties with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, including doubling trade, finalizing a mobility and migration pact, and cooperating on military hardware co-production and co-development.
  • Greece, with its control over the world’s largest merchant shipping fleet, sees itself as a natural partner for IMEC, serving as a gateway to Europe and beyond.
  • The IMEC, launched in September 2023, involves founding members like India, the European Union, France, Germany, Italy, Mauritius, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia, but conflict in Gaza has hindered meetings for the past six months.
  • Israel’s Haifa port, owned by India’s Adani Group, is a crucial trading point for the proposed IMEC route from India to Europe through the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Israel, reaching Greece’s Piraeus Port.
India-Middle East Economic Corridor (IMEC)
  • Launched in September 2023: Aims to boost economic ties between India, Europe, and the Middle East.
  • Two Corridors:

○     East: Connects India to the Gulf region.

○     North: Connects the Gulf region to Europe.

  • Focus: Develops reliable and cost-effective ship-to-rail networks, complementing existing maritime routes.
  • Objectives:

○     Increase trade efficiency and accessibility.

○     Enhance regional economic cooperation.

○     Generate jobs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Challenges:

○     Early stage of development.

○     Requires cooperation from multiple countries.

○     Geopolitical tensions in the region pose potential hurdles.

●     Seen as a potential counter to China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
India – Greece Relations
Historical Ties:
  • India and Greece share ancient historical and cultural ties dating back to the time of Alexander the Great.
  • Both nations have a rich heritage in philosophy, art, and architecture, fostering mutual understanding.
Diplomatic Relations:
  • Formal diplomatic ties were established in 1950, with embassies in Athens and New Delhi.
  • Regular high-level visits and diplomatic dialogues have strengthened the bilateral relationship.
Economic Collaboration:
  • Trade ties have expanded significantly, with a focus on sectors like pharmaceuticals, textiles, and information technology.
  • Joint efforts to enhance economic cooperation and explore new avenues for trade and investment.
Defence Cooperation:
  • Growing collaboration in defense, with joint military exercises to boost strategic ties.
  • Discussions on defense technology transfers and shared security concerns in the region.
Cultural Exchanges:
  • Cultural exchange programs have deepened people-to-people connections.
  • Initiatives to promote tourism and showcase the rich cultural heritage of both nations.
Multilateral Engagement:
  • Collaboration in international forums like the United Nations, where both countries work together on various global issues.
  • Mutual support in addressing challenges such as climate change and sustainable development.
Technology and Innovation:
  • A focus on fostering innovation and technology exchange, with an emphasis on research and development partnerships.
  • Cooperation in space exploration and satellite technology.
Challenges and Opportunities:
  • Addressing common challenges such as terrorism and extremism through shared intelligence and coordinated efforts.
  • Opportunities for enhanced cooperation in renewable energy and environmental conservation.
Conclusion: India and Greece enjoy a robust relationship, encompassing diverse sectors. As both nations continue to strengthen their ties, the foundation for a long-lasting and mutually beneficial partnership is firmly in place.
PYQ: The ancient civilization in Indian sub-continent differed from those of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece in that its culture and traditions have been preserved without a breakdown to the present day. Comment. (200 words/12.5m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-1 – 2015)
Practice Question:  Examine the historical roots and evolution of India-Greece relations, emphasizing the cultural and philosophical connections between the two nations. Assess the contemporary significance of these ties, particularly in the context of economic collaboration, defense cooperation, and shared multilateral engagements. (150 words/10 m)

6. ISRO key test over, CE20 cryogenic engine is now human-rated for Gaganyaan missions

Topic: GS3 – Science and Technology –  Space Technology
Critical for UPSC: ISRO’s human-rated CE20 cryogenic engine advances Gaganyaan, showcasing technological prowess and ensuring safe human space travel.
Context
  • ISRO achieves a milestone, human-rating its CE20 cryogenic engine for Gaganyaan missions, completing rigorous ground tests, meeting safety standards for transporting humans.
 Additional information on this news:
  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) achieved a significant milestone in human-rating its CE20 cryogenic engine for Gaganyaan missions.
  • Human-rating ensures the system’s capability to safely transport humans.
  • The final ground qualification test, conducted on February 13, marked the completion of a series of seven vacuum ignition tests at the High Altitude Test Facility.
  • All ground qualification tests for the CE20 engine have been successfully concluded for the Gaganyaan program.
  • Four engines underwent 39 hot firing tests, accumulating a total duration of 8,810 seconds, surpassing the minimum human rating qualification standard of 6,350 seconds.
  • Acceptance tests for the flight engine designated for the first unmanned Gaganyaan mission (G1) in Q2 2024 were also successfully completed.

7. Fali Nariman, who advocated for an independent judiciary, dies.

Topic: Important Topic for Prelims
Crucial for UPSC: Understand link between independent judiciary, democracy; key for rights protection, governance, and constitutional stability.
Context
  • Fali Sam Nariman, eminent jurist and former Additional Solicitor-General, renowned for defending secular values and judicial independence, passes away at 95. Known for his wit and contributions to law.
 Additional information on this news:
  • Fali Sam Nariman, a prominent legal figure and former Additional Solicitor-General, known for championing secular values, passed away at the age of 95.
  • He emphasized the importance of fair and independent judges as a basic feature of the Constitution, advocating for judicial independence.
  • Criticizing the Supreme Court’s handling of the Sabarimala case, he voiced concerns about judges seeking post-retirement positions from the government, affecting public trust in judicial sanctity.
  • Nariman resigned during the Emergency in protest against censorship, highlighting his commitment to free speech.
  • His book, “God Save the Supreme Court,” criticized the lack of collegiality among judges and stressed the need for a free press serving the governed.
Significance of independent Judiciary and democracy
Significance:
  • Upholds Rule of Law: Ensures everyone is subject to the same laws, regardless of wealth or status.
  • Protects Fundamental Rights: Safeguards individual liberties and checks against government overreach.
  • Provides Impartial Justice: Offers a fair and neutral forum for resolving disputes.
  • Promotes Accountability: Holds government institutions accountable for their actions.
  • Strengthens Democracy: Essential for a functioning democracy based on checks and balances.
Challenges:
  • Political Interference: Attempts to influence judicial decisions through appointments, funding, or pressure.
  • Corruption: Judges or court officials engaging in bribery or misuse of power.
  • Lack of Resources: Inadequate funding can limit access to justice and hinder efficient functioning.
  • Public Misunderstanding: Negative perceptions of the judiciary can undermine public trust.
  • Balancing Security and Rights: Striking a balance between national security concerns and individual freedoms.
Maintaining an independent judiciary is crucial for a healthy democracy, but addressing these challenges is essential to ensure its effectiveness and legitimacy.
Practice Question:  Discuss the symbiotic relationship between an independent judiciary and a vibrant democracy. How does the independence of the judiciary contribute to the effective functioning of democratic institutions?(150 words/10 m)

8. Astronomers find the small, hot helium stars they were looking for.

Topic: GS3 – Science and Technology – Space
Critical for UPSC: Understanding binary-stripped helium stars deepens astrophysical insights, linking to cosmic processes and stellar evolution.
Context
  • The article discusses the discovery of binary-stripped helium stars, validating astrophysical theories. It explores their characteristics, binary system dynamics, and implications for understanding cosmic processes and stellar evolution.
 Background:
  • Astronomers expected numerous binary-stripped helium stars in stars with more than eight solar masses.
  • Despite predictions, only one such star was found in the eight to 25 solar mass range, prompting a decade-long search.
Significance of Helius Stars:
  • Unique class of stars: Hot, small orbs covered in helium.
  • Confirmation of theoretical predictions underscores the legitimacy of astrophysical theories.
Implications for Understanding Stars:
  • Stars as Cosmic Engines: Insights into diverse cosmic influences, from heavy element creation to gravitational wave release.
  • Fusion and Equilibrium: Explanation of how nuclear fusion prevents stars from collapsing, maintaining equilibrium.
Discovery Process:
  • Led by Professor Maria Drout, a team spent seven years cataloguing stars and testing assumptions.
  • Utilized a telescope sensitive to ultraviolet light to identify potential helium stars in binary systems.
Identification Criteria:
  • Binary Systems: Most stars with over eight solar masses expected to be in binaries.
  • Outliers in Brightness: Catalogued stars based on brightness outliers, considering the companion’s impact.
  • Speed Variation: Studied variations in speed as an indicator of a companion star.
Characteristics of Class 1 Stars:
  • Absence of Hydrogen: Class 1 stars rich in helium, lacking hydrogen.
  • Companions: Companions identified as low-mass main sequence stars or compact objects (neutron stars or black holes).
Future Implications:
  • Supernova Outcome: Class 1 stars expected to end as hydrogen-poor supernovae, leaving neutron stars.
  • Kilonova Explosions: Neutron stars may collide in powerful kilonova explosions, releasing gravitational waves.
Conclusion:
  • The discovery sheds light on the previously elusive binary-stripped helium stars, contributing to our understanding of stellar evolution and astrophysical phenomena.

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