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Daily Current Affairs

26-February-2024- Top News of the Day

1. Assam Government Moves to Repeal Outdated Muslim Marriage Registration Act of 1935 Amidst Crackdown on Child Marriages

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Government policies – Interventions for development in various sectors This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of knowing facts about the decision of the Assam government to repeal the Assam Muslim Marriage and Divorce Registration Act of 1935.
Context:
  • The Assam government has decided to repeal the Assam Muslim Marriage and Divorce Registration Act of 1935, a significant move announced following a Cabinet meeting.
  • The decision entails the approval of the ‘Assam Repealing Ordinance 2024’, which aims to abolish the 89-year-old Act.
More about the news: Background and Purpose of the Act:
  • Enacted in 1935, the Act governs the registration process for Muslim marriages and divorces in Assam.
  • A 2010 amendment made registration compulsory, replacing the original voluntary provision.
  • The Act authorizes the state to grant licenses to Muslims for marriage and divorce registration, aligning with Muslim personal law.
Reasons for Repeal:
  • The decision to repeal the Act stems from concerns regarding child marriages facilitated by its provisions.
  • Chief Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma cited the Act’s allowance for marriage registration below the legal age as a significant factor driving the decision.
  • The Cabinet deemed the Act obsolete and criticized its informal registration machinery, which allegedly leads to non-compliance with existing norms.
Link to Uniform Civil Code (UCC):
  • The repeal of the Act aligns with the Assam government’s broader objective of introducing a Uniform Civil Code (UCC), similar to recent developments in BJP-ruled Uttarakhand.
  • Minister Jayanta Malla Baruah emphasized this connection and stated that Muslims would be required to register marriages under the Special Marriage Act post-repeal.
Connection to Crackdown on Child Marriages:
  • The decision to repeal the Act is linked to the state’s crackdown on child marriages, which saw over 4,000 arrests last year.
  • The provision allowing marriage application by minors’ guardians is seen as facilitating child marriages.
  • Advocates suggest that instead of outright repeal, targeted amendments could have addressed child marriage concerns while preserving the Act’s simplicity and decentralization.
Concerns and Implications:
  • Critics, including advocates and opposition members, express concerns over the impact of repealing the Act.
  • They argue that replacing it with the Special Marriage Act could lead to reduced registration due to increased complexity and centralized processes.
  • The absence of authorized kazis may also create opportunities for unregistered marriages, exacerbating existing challenges.
Conclusion:
  • The decision to repeal the Assam Muslim Marriage and Divorce Registration Act of 1935 reflects the government’s commitment to combating child marriages and introducing a Uniform Civil Code.
  • However, concerns persist regarding the potential consequences of repealing the Act, highlighting the need for nuanced approaches to address societal challenges while preserving simplicity and accessibility in marriage registration processes.
What is the Uniform Civil Code?
About:
  • The UCC is mentioned in Article 44 of the Constitution as part of the Directive Principles of State Policy, that the state should work to establish a uniform civil code for all citizens across India.
  • However, the Constitution’s framers left it to the government’s discretion to implement the UCC.
  • Goa is the only state in India with a UCC, following the Portuguese Civil Code of 1867. Lately Uttarakhand has also been added to the list.
Supreme Court of India Stance on UCC: Mohd. Ahmed Khan vs Shah Bano Begum Case,1985:
  • The Court observed that “it is a matter of regret that Article 44 has remained a dead letter” and called for its implementation.
  • Such a demand was reiterated in subsequent cases such as Sarla Mudgal v. Union of India, 1995, and John Vallamattom v. Union of India, 2003.
Jose Paulo Coutinho v. Maria Luiza Valentina Pereira Case, 2019:
  • The Court hailed Goa as a “shining example” where “the uniform civil code is applicable to all, regardless of religion except while protecting certain limited rights” and accordingly urged for its pan-India implementation.
Law Commission’s Stance:
  • In 2018, the 21st Law Commission headed by former Supreme Court judge Justice Balbir Singh Chauhan submitted a consultation paper on “Reforms of family law” wherein it observed that the “formulation of a Uniform Civil Code is neither necessary nor desirable at this stage”.
  • It underscored that secularism should coexist with the prevailing plurality in the country. It however recommended that discriminatory practices and stereotypes within existing personal laws should be amended.
  • Acknowledging the lapse of more than three years since the issuance of the initial consultation paper.
  • In 2022, the 22nd Law Commission headed by Justice (Retd) Rituraj Awasthi, issued a notification seeking opinions from various stakeholders, including the public and religious organisations, on the UCC.
PYQ: Examine the main provisions of the National Child Policy and throw light on the status of its implementation. (200 words/12.5m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2016)
Practice Question:  Discuss the decision of the Assam government to repeal the Assam Muslim Marriage and Divorce Registration Act of 1935, highlighting the reasons behind the repeal and its implications. (250 words/15 m)

2. Ministry of Power Introduces Amendments to Boost Rooftop Solar Projects and Consumer Rights in Electricity Sector

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Government policies – Interventions for development in various sectors
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of understanding energy policies, renewable energy initiatives, and infrastructure development.
Context:
  • The Ministry of Power has introduced amendments to the Electricity (Rights of Consumers) Rules, 2020, aimed at expediting the installation of rooftop solar projects and incorporating provisions related to connections in residential societies.
  • Notified on February 22, these amendments aim to streamline processes and enhance consumer convenience.
More about the news: Streamlining Feasibility Studies for Rooftop Solar Projects:
  • Previously, distribution companies (DISCOMs) were required to conduct feasibility studies for rooftop solar projects within 20 days of receiving an application.
  • The recent amendments have reduced this timeline to 15 days.
  • Additionally, DISCOMs are no longer mandated to complete a technical feasibility study before accepting applications for solar panel installation.
  • Solar PV systems with a capacity of up to 10 kilowatts will be deemed accepted without a feasibility study, simplifying the approval process.
Support for Distribution Infrastructure:
  • DISCOMs will bear the costs of strengthening distribution infrastructure for rooftop solar projects with a capacity of up to 5 kilowatts, encouraging the adoption of solar energy at the consumer level.
Introduction of PM Surya Ghar: Muft Bijli Yojana:
  • The amendments coincide with the launch of PM Surya Ghar: Muft Bijli Yojana by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on February 15.
  • This scheme offers households a subsidy of up to 40% for installing solar panels on their roofs, with the government anticipating benefits for 1 crore households and significant savings in electricity costs.
Empowering Consumers in Residential Societies:
  • New rules enable consumers in residential societies to opt for individual connections or a single point connection through a transparent ballot process.
  • If more than 50% of owners opt for individual connections, each household will be provided with a separate connection.
  • Alternatively, if a single point connection is chosen, the residential association will manage metering, billing, and collection tasks on a non-profit-no-loss basis.
Swift Processing of New Connections:
  • The amended rules have reduced the time period for obtaining new electricity connections or modifying existing ones across different areas.
  • In metropolitan areas, the processing time has been shortened from seven to three days, in other municipal areas from 15 to seven days, and in rural areas from 30 to 15 days, except for rural areas with hilly terrain, where the time frame remains at 30 days.
About PM Surya Ghar: Muft Bijli Yojana
  • In this scheme, the central government will provide 300 units of free electricity per month to its beneficiaries by investing worth ₹75,000 crores.
  • The free electricity scheme was earlier announced by the Finance Minister in an interim budget speech.
  • Target: It aims to light up 1 crore households.
  • Under the scheme Urban Local Bodies and Panchayats shall be incentivised to promote rooftop solar systems in their jurisdictions.
  • The Central Government will guarantee no financial burden on the people by providing significant subsidies directly to their bank accounts and offering highly concessional bank loans.
Expected benefits:
  • Savings up to fifteen to eighteen thousand rupees annually for households from free solar electricity and selling the surplus to the distribution companies;
  • Charging of electric vehicles;
  • Entrepreneurship opportunities for a large number of vendors for supply and installation;
  • Employment opportunities for the youth with technical skills in manufacturing, installation and maintenance.
PYQ: Consider the following statements: (2016) 1) The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015. 2) The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans: (a)
Practice Question:  Discuss the recent amendments to the Electricity (Rights of Consumers) Rules, 2020, aimed at promoting rooftop solar projects and enhancing consumer convenience. Analyze the potential impact of these amendments on India’s renewable energy goals. (250 words/15 m)

3. India's Changing Spending Patterns: Decline in Food Expenditure Signals Economic Aspirations

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy – Growth and Development
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of understanding the shifts in spending patterns over time which provides insights into the broader economic trends in the country.
Context:
  • Over the past two decades, there has been a significant shift in spending patterns in India, particularly in terms of the share of expenditure on food.
  • As household incomes have increased, the proportion of spending on food has gradually declined, allowing for more expenditure on other commodities and services.
  • This trend is observed both in urban and rural areas, with rural households seeing a decline in the share of food expenditure from 59.4% in 1999-2000 to 46.38% in 2022-23, and urban households witnessing a decrease from 48.06% to 39.17% over the same period.
More about the news: Composition of Food Expenditure:
  • The composition of food expenditure has also evolved, with a significant decrease in spending on cereals and an increase in expenditure on high-value nutritional items such as eggs, fish, meat, fruits, and vegetables.
  • Rural households, in particular, have shown a higher increase in spending on these items compared to urban households, indicating a gradual shift towards more nutritious diets with rising incomes.
Need for Reviewing the Inflation Basket:
  • There is a growing need to review the inflation basket to accurately reflect changing consumption patterns.
  • The current Consumer Price Index (CPI) basket, based on 2012 data, may not accurately represent the consumption expenditure patterns of households, leading to potential inaccuracies in inflation calculations.
  • For instance, the weightage assigned to food items in the CPI basket does not align with actual expenditure patterns observed in the latest Household Consumption Expenditure (HCE) Survey.
Discrepancies in Imputed and Non-Imputed Average MPCE Data:
  • The latest HCE Survey also highlights discrepancies between imputed and non-imputed average Monthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure (MPCE) data.
  • While the imputed value of free items received by households under social welfare programs shows a slight increase in consumption spending, the bottom 5% of the population receives the least benefit in absolute terms, indicating potential gaps in the distribution of welfare benefits.
Regional Disparities in Standard of Living:
  • The data also reveals regional disparities in the standard of living, with nine states, including West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, and Bihar, exhibiting lower average per capita consumption spending compared to the national average.
  • These states, which account for a significant portion of the country’s population, indicate relatively lower economic well-being compared to other regions.
Conclusion:
  • Overall, the evolving spending patterns and disparities in consumption expenditure highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of household finances and consumption behaviors.
  • Addressing discrepancies in inflation calculations and ensuring equitable distribution of welfare benefits are essential steps towards accurately assessing living standards and addressing regional disparities in economic well-being across India.
Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES)
The Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES) is a critical statistical tool used by governments, policy analysts, and researchers to collect data on the spending habits of households within a country.
  • This survey provides detailed information on how households allocate their financial resources across various categories such as food, housing, education, healthcare, and transportation.
  • The insights gained from HCES are invaluable for understanding economic behavior, assessing living standards, and formulating policies aimed at economic development and poverty alleviation.
Objectives of HCES
  • Measuring Living Standards: By examining how households spend their income, the survey helps in assessing the living standards and quality of life of the population.
  • Policy Development: Data from HCES are crucial for government agencies to design and implement effective social, economic, and fiscal policies, including targeted subsidies, social welfare programs, and tax adjustments.
  • Economic Analysis: Economists use HCES data to analyze consumption patterns, which are key indicators of economic stability, growth, and the distribution of wealth within a society.
  • Poverty and Inequality Assessment: The survey provides essential data for measuring poverty levels, identifying vulnerable groups, and understanding income inequality, which is vital for social policy.
  • Inflation and Cost of Living: HCES data contribute to calculating inflation rates and cost of living indexes, helping central banks and governments in monetary policy formulation.
PYQ: India has experienced persistent and high food inflation in the recent past. What could be the reasons? (2011) 1. Due to a gradual switch over to the cultivation of commercial crops, the area under the cultivation of food grains has steadily decreased in the last 5 years by about 30%. 2. As a consequence of increasing incomes, the consumption patterns of the people have undergone a significant change. 3. The food supply chain has structural constraints. Which of the statements given above are correct? (a)1 and 2 (b)2 and 3 (c)1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans: (b)
Practice Question:  Discuss the changing consumption patterns in India over the past two decades, focusing on the declining share of expenditure on food and its implications for economic growth and social welfare. (250 words/15 m)

4. Poverty levels below 5%, claims chief of Centre’s think tank

Topic: GS3 – Indian economy – Inclusive growth <br. This news is crucial for UPSC as it addresses poverty decline, broad-based growth, and changing consumption patterns in India.
Context
  • NITI Aayog CEO cites Household Consumption Expenditure Survey, claiming less than 5% below poverty line in India, asserting broad-based growth, narrowing urban-rural inequality, and changing consumption patterns.
 Additional information on this news:
  • According to B.V.R. Subrahmanyam, CEO of NITI Aayog, less than 5% of Indians are expected to be below the poverty line, with extreme destitution almost eradicated, based on the Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES) for 2022-23.
  • Subrahmanyam argues that the growth in India is broad-based, challenging the notion that the country’s economic progress is confined to a few individuals.
  • He asserts that rural Indians’ incomes and expenditures are increasing at a faster rate than their urban counterparts.
  • The urban-rural consumption divide has narrowed from 91% in 2004-05 to 71% in 2022-23, indicating a decline in inequality.
  • Rural households’ spending on food has dropped below 50% of total expenditure for the first time.
  • Changes in food spending patterns, with lower expenditures on pulses and cereals, suggest an improvement in incomes, as people allocate a lesser share of their income to food.
  • The increased spending on items like conveyances, consumer durables, and consumer services indicates a shift in lifestyle.
  • Subrahmanyam emphasizes that this data is the first official release since 2011-12 and addresses inconsistencies in the 2017-18 Survey data.
  • The Monthly Per Capita Expenditure (MPCE) averages for 2022-23 show varying consumption levels across fractile classes, with the bottom 5% of rural households averaging ₹1,373, supporting the argument that poverty in India is likely below 5%.
  • Subrahmanyam highlights that the benefits of schemes like Ayushman Bharat and free education are not factored into the consumption expenditure survey, suggesting that destitution and deprivation have significantly decreased.
  • The NITI Aayog CEO also underlines that India’s growth is not limited to a few individuals but is broad-based, with a significant rise in urban and rural consumption from 2011-12 levels.
Inclusive growth in India
Data:
  • GDP growth: Estimated growth rate of 7.3% in 2024-24 (World Bank), but unevenly distributed.
  • Inequality: Gini coefficient of 31.5 (World Bank 2023), indicating high inequality.
  • Poverty: 250 million people Escaped multi-dimensional poverty in India in last decade (NITI Aayog).
  • Gender Gap: 127th out of 146 on Global Gender Gap Index (WEF 2023).
Issues:
  • Unequal distribution of benefits: Economic growth concentrated in certain sectors and regions, bypassing marginalized groups.
  • Limited access to education and healthcare: Hinders upward mobility and perpetuates poverty cycles.
  • Informal sector dominance: Large proportion of workforce lacks social security and benefits.
  • Skill mismatch: Education system often fails to equip individuals with skills demanded by the market.
  • Gender and social discrimination: Restricts opportunities for women and marginalized communities.
Challenges:
  • Implementing effective policies: Addressing complex issues like poverty and inequality requires targeted interventions.
  • Corruption and bureaucratic hurdles: Can hinder efficient allocation of resources and implementation of schemes.
  • Land acquisition and displacement: Development projects often lead to social and environmental problems.
  • Balancing growth with sustainability: Ensuring environmental protection while pursuing economic development.
  • Political will and public support: Sustaining inclusive policies requires long-term commitment and public buy-in.
Way forward:
  • Investment in education and healthcare: Improve access and quality to equip individuals for better opportunities.
  • Promote formalization of the economy: Provide social security and benefits to informal sector workers.
  • Skill development: Focus on vocational training and aligning education with industry needs.
  • Empowering women and marginalized communities: Implement affirmative action policies and invest in targeted programs.
  • Decentralized development: Empower local communities and address regional disparities.
  • Promote sustainable development: Prioritize environment protection alongside economic growth.
  • Transparency and accountability: Ensure efficient implementation of policies and combat corruption.
PYQ: In a given year in India, official poverty lines are higher in some states than in other because  (2019) (a) Poverty rates vary from state to state (b) Price levels vary from state to state (c) Gross state product varies from state to state (d) Quality of public distribution varies from state to state Ans: (b)
PYQ: ‘Despite implementation of various programmes for eradication of poverty by the government in India, poverty is still existing.’ Explain by giving reasons. (150 words/10m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-1 2018)

5. Discovery of temples in Telangana shows spread of Chalukya reign

Topic: GS1 – Indian History – Ancient History
This discovery enriches UPSC studies by expanding historical knowledge of Badami Chalukya kingdom, showcasing Deccan cosmopolitanism and religious diversity.
Context
  • Recent discovery expands historical understanding as Mudimanikyam in Telangana, initially thought distant from Badami, was found part of Badami Chalukya kingdom, revealing temples and inscriptions dating back to 543-750 AD.
Additional information on this news:
  • Recent discovery reveals Mudimanikyam in Telangana, initially thought 500 km away from Badami in Karnataka, was part of Badami Chalukya kingdom.
  • Unearthed temples and inscriptions, dating between 543 AD and 750 AD, expand historical understanding of Chalukya Badami kingdom.
  • Findings include two temples on the river bank and five within Mudimanikyam village, showcasing Deccan cosmopolitanism.
  • The temples reflect religious diversity, accommodating Hindu gods Vishnu and Shiva, along with Buddhism and Jainism.
  • Archaeologists M. A. Srinivasan and S. Ashok Kumar made the discoveries while working on the Krishna River basin.
Badami Chalukya kingdom:
Foundation and Capital:
  • The Badami Chalukya kingdom, also known as the Early Chalukyas, was established around the 6th century in the Deccan region of India.
  • Pulakeshin I is credited with founding the dynasty and setting up its capital in Badami, located in present-day Karnataka.
Architecture:
  • The Badami Chalukyas were renowned for their architectural achievements, especially rock-cut cave temples.
  • The Badami Cave Temples, carved into the sandstone cliffs, are a remarkable example of early Chalukyan art and showcase Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist influences.
Dynastic Rulers:
  • Pulakeshin II, one of the most notable rulers, expanded the kingdom to its zenith during the 7th century. He successfully resisted the invasion of Harsha, the ruler of northern India.
  • Vikramaditya I and Vinayaditya were other significant rulers who contributed to the kingdom’s prosperity.
Administration and Governance:
  • The kingdom followed a monarchical system of governance, and the king was the central authority.
  • Administrative divisions were known as Rashtras, and officials like maharajas and Rajadhirajas assisted in governance.
Military Achievements:
  • The Badami Chalukyas were known for their military prowess, and Pulakeshin II’s victory over Harsha brought considerable prestige to the kingdom.
  • They successfully defended their kingdom against the Pallavas and the Rashtrakutas.
Trade and Economy:
  • The kingdom’s strategic location facilitated trade, connecting northern and southern India.
  • Agriculture and trade were vital components of the economy, contributing to the overall prosperity of the region.
Decline:
  • The Chalukya power declined in the late 8th century due to internal conflicts and external invasions.
  • The Rashtrakutas eventually overran the Badami Chalukya kingdom, marking the end of their dominance in the Deccan.
Legacy:
  • Despite their decline, the Badami Chalukyas left a lasting legacy in terms of art, architecture, and administration in the Deccan region.
  • Their contributions to temple architecture, particularly the rock-cut structures, continue to be admired and studied today.
PYQ: The Nagara, the Dravida, and the Vesara are the (2012) (a) three main racial groups of the Indian subcontinent (b) three main linguistic divisions into which the languages of India can be classified (c) three main styles of Indian temple architecture (d) three main musical Gharanas prevalent in India   Ans: (c)
Practice Question:  In what ways did the Badami Chalukya kingdom contribute to the cultural and architectural heritage of India, and how did their military and political strategies shape the geopolitical landscape of the Deccan region during their reign? (150 words/10 m)

6. IGNCA’s ‘language atlas’ to shine a light on India’s linguistic diversity

Topic: GS1 – History – Indian Culture The linguistic survey is vital for preserving cultural diversity, formulating inclusive education policies, and understanding India’s linguistic landscape for UPSC aspirants.
Context
  • The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts plans a linguistic survey in India to determine the number of active languages, crucial for educational policies and cultural preservation.
 Additional information on this news:
  • India is making efforts to provide primary education in mother tongues, emphasizing linguistic diversity.
  • The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA), an autonomous body under the Union Culture Ministry, proposes a nationwide linguistic survey to determine the number of active languages.
  • Currently, India officially recognizes 22 languages listed in Schedule 8 of the Indian Constitution, with 97% of the population speaking them, as per Census data.
  • The Census also identifies 99 non-scheduled languages, and around 37.8 million people consider these non-scheduled languages as their mother tongue.
  • Since 1971, languages with fewer than 10,000 speakers have not been included in the Census, leaving the native languages of 1.2 million people unaccounted for, particularly those spoken by tribal communities.
  • The comprehensive linguistic survey aims to create the Language Atlas of India, providing a database for future policy decisions.
  • The survey involves collaboration with various ministries, including Culture, Education, Tribal Affairs, Home, Social Justice and Empowerment, and Development of North East Region, along with linguistic departments of universities and institutions like the Central Institute of Indian Languages and Centres for Endangered Languages.
Linguistic Diversity of India
Data:
  • Languages: 22 languages listed in the Indian Constitution, 780 identified by People’s Linguistic Survey (PLS).
  • Speakers: Over 19,500 spoken languages worldwide, India contributes to 16% of them.
  • Distribution: 4 major language families (Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman) with diverse regional & tribal languages.
  • Endangered: 50 languages extinct since 2000, 226 classified as endangered by UNESCO.
Challenges in Preservation:
  • Urbanization & Migration: Linguistic assimilation & dominance of major languages.
  • Limited Educational Resources: Lack of support for minority languages in education & media.
  • Economic Factors: Job opportunities concentrate in major languages, neglecting others.
  • Digitization & Technology: Exclusion of minority languages in digital platforms & online spaces.
  • Government Initiatives: Varying levels of support for different languages & inadequate funding.
Way Forward:
  • Language Policy Framework: Create a comprehensive policy for language preservation & promotion.
  • Multilingual Education: Encourage education in mother tongues & promote multilingualism.
  • Digital Inclusion: Develop language technologies & support online presence of minority languages.
  • Community-driven Initiatives: Empower communities to document, revitalize, & celebrate their languages.
  • Awareness & Advocacy: Raise awareness about linguistic diversity & its importance for cultural heritage.
  • Collaboration: Encourage collaboration between government, communities, & academic institutions.
Practice Question:  How does the proposed linguistic survey in India contribute to cultural preservation and inform policymaking, especially in the context of education? Discuss. (150 words/10 m)

7. Blanets: worlds around black holes

Topic: GS3 – Science and Technology Relevant to UPSC for understanding theoretical planet formation near supermassive black holes, integrating science.
Context
  • Scientists explore the possibility of planet formation near supermassive black holes, inspired by celestial conditions depicted in a popular 2014 sci-fi film, revealing potential cosmic diversity.
 Additional information on this news:
  • Scientists in Japan theorized that planets could form in massive dust and gas clouds near supermassive black holes.
  • Black holes are surrounded by colossal discs of gas and dust, influencing their surroundings and potentially forming planets.
  • Planets, including blanets, are believed to form through the collision and clumping of dust and gas.
  • Blanets are expected to be 3,000 times the size of Earth, orbiting supermassive black holes at a safe distance of about 100 trillion km.
  • This unique planetary formation process highlights the potential diversity of celestial bodies in the universe.

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