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Daily Current Affairs

27-November-2023

1. SC has always acted as ‘people’s court’: CJI on Constitution Day.

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity.

Context:

  • Chief Justice of India D.Y. Chandrachud emphasized the solemn duty of the current generation to uphold the idea of India as outlined in the Constitution.

Views expressed by the CJI:

  • He highlighted the importance of honoring the existence and functionality of the Constitution during the Constitution Day celebrations at the Supreme Court.
  • The Chief Justice’s words gain significance as both the Constitution and the Supreme Court mark their 75th year of adoption and founding, respectively.
  • He asserted that the Constitution is based on principles of individual liberty, equality, and fraternity.
  • The Chief Justice encouraged the common man to approach the courts without fear, emphasizing that the courts are an extension of constitutional governance.
  • Over the past seven decades, the Supreme Court has acted as a “people’s court,” with citizens having faith in obtaining justice through this institution.
  • The Chief Justice highlighted the unique feature of the Supreme Court, where citizens, regardless of their background, can write to the Chief Justice of India to set the constitutional machinery in motion for justice.

2. Ayushman Bharat centres to be now called Ayushman Arogya Mandir.

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity.

Context:

  • The Union government has decided to rename Ayushman Bharat Health and Wellness Centres (AB-HWCs) as ‘Ayushman Arogya Mandir’ with the tagline ‘Arogyam Parmam Dhanam.’ 

Additional information on the news:

  • States and Union Territories are urged to complete the rebranding process by the end of 2023, as communicated by the Union Health Ministry.
  • The rebranded centres will retain the National Health Mission (NHM) logo, emphasizing the success of wellness centres in shifting healthcare delivery from illness to wellness.
  • The renaming aligns with the goal of Ayushman India, aiming to further promote holistic health and well-being.
  • The use of scripts other than Devanagri (Hindi) or English is allowed, with translations into State languages, while the tagline must be transliterated in the respective State languages.
  • The funds required for renaming each facility are proposed at ₹3,000.
  • India has over 1.6 lakh AB-HWCs, providing comprehensive primary healthcare, maternal and child health services, and free essential drugs and diagnostic services.
  • AB-HWCs offer screenings for various health issues, including hypertension, diabetes, and oral, breast, and cervical cancer.

3. Femicides at a twenty-year peak across globe

Topic: GS3 – gender equality

Context:

  • A recent study by the UNODC and UN Women reveals that about 88,900 women and girls were intentionally killed worldwide in 2022 due to gender-related factors, marking the highest number in the past 20 years.
  • Despite a decrease in the overall number of homicides worldwide in 2022, femicide increased, indicating a troubling trend.

What additional information does the article give?

  • Globally, men constitute 80% of total homicide victims in 2022, while women make up 20%. However, women are more likely to be murdered by their partners or someone known to them.
  • Of the 88,900 female homicide victims in 2022, 55% were killed by family members or intimate partners, contrasting with only 12% of male homicide victims killed by persons known to them.
  • The trend of women being more vulnerable to gender-related violence from family members is consistent globally, as demonstrated in continent-wise data.
  • In 2022, Africa had the highest number of female victims of intimate partner/family-related homicide (20,000), surpassing Asia for the first time in 13 years.
  • The Americas reported 7,900 cases, with a rate of 1.5 femicides per 100,000 female population, the second-highest after Africa (2.8). Asia’s rate was 0.8.
  • The data indicates a general reduction in gender-related killings of women before 2021, but a drastic increase in 2021 and 2022, particularly in Africa.
  • South Africa, according to national studies, witnessed a halving of female intimate partner homicide rates between 1999 and 2017, but recent years have shown an increase from 9 to 12.7 victims per 1 lakh women by the end of 2022.
  • India has experienced a slight decline in gender-based killings over the past decade, with dowry-related reasons consistently being the leading cause. Honour killings and murders related to witchcraft accusations formed a smaller share during this period.

4. Why is Bihar demanding the Special Category Status?

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity.

Context:

  • On November 22, Bihar’s Chief Minister Nitish Kumar-led Cabinet passed a resolution seeking the grant of Special Category Status (SCS) for Bihar.
  • The demand is based on findings from the “Bihar Caste-based Survey, 2022,” revealing that nearly one-third of Bihar’s population continues to live in poverty.

Special Category Status (SCS): Overview:

  • SCS is a classification granted by the Centre to assist the development of states facing geographical or socio-economic disadvantages.
  • Introduced in 1969, it considers factors like hilly terrain, low population density, tribal population share, strategic location along borders, economic and infrastructural backwardness, and non-viable state finances.

Benefits Attached to SCS:

  • SCS states used to receive grants based on the Gadgil-Mukherjee formula, earmarking nearly 30% of total central assistance.
  • After the abolition of the Planning Commission, assistance to SCS states has been subsumed in increased devolution of divisible pool funds (41% in the 15th FC).
  • In SCS states, Centre-State funding for centrally sponsored schemes is in a more favorable ratio of 90:10.
  • Other incentives include concessions in customs and excise duties, income tax rates, and corporate tax rates to attract investments.

Reasons Behind Bihar’s Demand:

  • Bihar’s poverty and backwardness attributed to factors like lack of natural resources, water for irrigation, floods in the north, and severe droughts in the south.
  • The bifurcation of the state led to the shift of industries to Jharkhand, creating unemployment and reducing investment opportunities.
  • Bihar’s per-capita GDP is around ₹54,000, making it one of the poorest states.

Other States Seeking SCS:

  • Andhra Pradesh, post-bifurcation in 2014, seeks SCS due to revenue loss with Hyderabad going to Telangana.
  • Odisha requests SCS, citing vulnerability to natural calamities and a large tribal population.
  • Central government, citing the 14th Finance Commission report, has consistently denied these demands.

Evaluation of Bihar’s Demand:

  • Bihar meets most criteria for SCS but lacks hilly terrain and geographically difficult areas.
  • The Raghuram Rajan Committee in 2013 categorized Bihar as “least developed” and suggested a multi-dimensional index for fund devolution, which could be revisited.

5. DAOs: how these decentralised entities are shaping the future of the digital world

Topic: GS2 – Science and technology.

Introduction:

  • Decentralised Autonomous Organisations (DAOs) represent a groundbreaking intersection of blockchain technology and governance.
  • Operate without centralised control, governed by smart contracts and consensus of members.
  • Leverage blockchain and cryptocurrencies for transparent, democratic, and self-executing systems.

Genesis of DAOs:

  • DAOs are organisations governed by rules encoded as computer programs.
  • Represent self-sustaining, community-driven entities with transparent, code-based governance.
  • Emphasize decentralised decision-making through smart contracts.

Various Use Cases:

  • Found in diverse industries: finance (Compound, MakerDAO), art (tokenising creations), supply chain management, and online community governance (DAOstack).
  • Showcase versatility and potential to reshape industries across sectors.

Implications for the Digital World:

Decentralisation of Power:

  • Shifts power from centralised authorities to collective decision-making.
  • Token holders participate in shaping direction, reducing dominance of central entities.

Transparency and Trust:

  • Smart contracts ensure transparency and immutability, fostering trust.
  • Eliminates opacity associated with centralised organisations.

Inclusivity and Diversity:

  • Democratizes access to resources and opportunities.
  • Transcends geographical and socio-economic barriers, promoting global participation and diversity.

New Forms of Collaboration:

  • Facilitates global cooperation without intermediaries.
  • Fosters innovation and cooperation in a dynamic, collaborative environment.

Challenges and Controversies:

Security Concerns:

  • DAO hack in 2016 exposed vulnerabilities, leading to a contentious Ethereum hard fork.
  • Emphasizes the need for rigorous security audits.

Legal and Regulatory Uncertainty:

  • Traditional legal systems grappling with decentralised nature of DAOs.
  • Regulatory uncertainty regarding classification, compliance, legal liability, taxation, and dispute resolution.

Addressing Challenges:

  • Stakeholders collaborating to establish legal frameworks balancing innovation with compliance.
  • Focus on governance, intellectual property, cross-border operations, transparency, and fairness in token-based decision-making.

Conclusion:

  • DAOs represent a pivotal shift in digital collaboration.
  • Potential for positive change in various sectors is vast.
  • Collaborative efforts crucial for harnessing DAOs’ transformative potential while addressing legal complexities.

Question:  Discuss the transformative potential and challenges associated with Decentralised Autonomous Organisations (DAOs) in reshaping governance and collaboration in the digital era.

6. President Murmu calls for all-India judicial service

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity.

Context:

  • President Droupadi Murmu emphasized the need for equal representation of India’s diversity in the judiciary during an event at the Supreme Court marking Constitution Day.

More on this news

  • She proposed the establishment of an all-India judicial service to diversify the judiciary, recruiting judges from various backgrounds through a merit-based, competitive, and transparent process.
  • The suggested system aims to nurture and promote talent from lower to higher levels, providing opportunities to less-represented social groups.
  • President Murmu highlighted barriers to justice, including cost and language, and called for a citizen-centric approach to enhance access to justice.
  • She acknowledged the progress made in clearing colonial vestiges from legal systems and urged conscious efforts to speed up further decolonization.
  • The President praised the Constitution’s values of justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity, emphasizing their role in guiding the nation-building efforts.
  • She commended the Supreme Court for its role as the final interpreter of the Constitution, recognizing its contribution to elevating standards of jurisprudence.
  • President Murmu expressed confidence that with a vibrant judiciary, the health of India’s democracy would not be a cause for concern.

Need for all-India judicial service: 

Here are some arguments in favor of an All-India Judicial Service (AIJS):

  • Efficiency and efficacy of judiciary would be increased. An AIJS would create a pool of highly qualified judges who could be deployed to any court in the country. This would help to reduce the backlog of cases and improve the overall efficiency of the judiciary.
  • Transparent and efficient method of recruitment would be followed.An AIJS would ensure that judges are recruited through a transparent and merit-based process. This would help to eliminate nepotism and corruption in the judiciary.
  • The pendency and issue of delay of cases would be done away with.An AIJS would help to reduce the backlog of cases by ensuring that there are enough judges to handle the workload. This would help to speed up the justice process and ensure that people get justice in a timely manner.
  • Corruption, nepotism etc would be strongly dealt with.An AIJS would make it more difficult for judges to be corrupt or nepotistic, as they would not be beholden to local interests. This would help to improve the public’s trust in the judiciary.

Here are some arguments against an All-India Judicial Service (AIJS):

  • It would be difficult to implement.An AIJS would require a significant change to the current system of judicial appointments. This would be a complex and time-consuming process.
  • It would be expensive. An AIJS would require a significant investment in training and infrastructure. This would be a major financial burden for the government.
  • It would not address the root causes of judicial inefficiency. The root causes of judicial inefficiency are complex and multifaceted. An AIJS would not be a silver bullet for solving these problems.

Conclusion:

         Overall, the arguments in favor of an All-India Judicial Service (AIJS) outweigh the arguments against it. An AIJS would be a major step towards improving the efficiency, transparency, and accountability of the Indian judiciary.

7. Piezoelectricity: Why quartz ticks

Topic: GS3 – Science and technology

Piezoelectricity Overview:

  • Piezoelectricity is a phenomenon exhibited by certain materials, including quartz, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, and even biological substances like bone and tendons.
  • It involves the generation of an electric charge in response to mechanical stress applied to the material.
  • The unique crystal structures of these materials contribute to their piezoelectric properties.

Mechanism:

  • In materials with piezoelectric properties, the charges on atoms in the molecules are symmetric on two sides of an axis under normal conditions.
  • When mechanical stress is applied, the molecule becomes distorted, creating an asymmetry of charges and generating a small electric current.

Origins of the Term:

  • The term “piezoelectric” is derived from the Greek words “piezein,” meaning ‘to squeeze,’ and “elektron,” referring to amber—a material associated with static electricity.

Applications:

  • Both direct and inverse piezoelectric effects are utilized in various applications.
  • Direct piezoelectric materials convert mechanical signals into electrical signals, and they are used in pressure sensors, accelerometers, and acoustic devices.
  • Inverse piezoelectric materials undergo mechanical deformation when subjected to an electric current.

Technological Impact:

  • Piezoelectric materials have played a crucial role in technologies such as quartz watches, where they contribute to the conversion of electrical signals into precise timekeeping mechanisms.
  • These materials have enabled the development of affordable and widely used devices over time.

Common Usage:

  • Piezoelectricity is commonly observed in everyday items such as stove lighters, where the spark is generated by the piezoelectric effect.

Versatility:

  • The phenomenon’s versatility extends to various material types, including synthetic ceramics and natural biological substances.

8. Meet the Langlands Program, the world’s biggest maths project | Explained

Topic: GS3 – Science and technology

Introduction:

  • Mathematician Robert Langlands, recipient of the Abel Prize, is known for his Langlands Program connecting representation theory to number theory.
  • The Langlands Program, initiated in 1967, aims to establish connections between disparate mathematical domains: number theory and harmonic analysis.

Complexity of Langlands Program:

  • Acknowledged as highly intricate, the Langlands Program involves theoretical abstractions challenging even specialist mathematicians.
  • It seeks to bridge the worlds of number theory, focusing on arithmetic relationships, and harmonic analysis, concerned with periodic phenomena.

Purpose of the Program:

  • The Langlands Program originates from efforts to explore symmetries between roots of polynomial equations, following the work of mathematicians Abel and Galois.
  • It connects Galois groups, representing symmetries of polynomial roots, with automorphic functions, allowing the use of calculus tools in investigating polynomial equations.

Automorphic Functions:

  • Automorphic functions exhibit self-similarity when variables undergo specific transformations.
  • Illustrated by examples involving infinite series and the sine function, these functions play a pivotal role in the Langlands Program.

Contributions and Impact:

  • The Langlands Program, utilized by Andrew Wiles and Richard Taylor, played a key role in proving Fermat’s last theorem in 1994.
  • It facilitates the creation of new automorphic functions, with potential applications in addressing unsolved problems like the Ramanujan conjectures.

Evolution of the Program:

  • Since its inception, the Langlands Program has evolved into a distinct field of mathematics, exploring areas such as Geometric Langlands.
  • Geometric Langlands investigates connections between algebraic geometry, representation theory, and even extends to potential links with physics.

Recent Developments:

  • Mathematicians have explored connections between Geometric Langlands and physics, with findings suggesting signs of electromagnetism in number theory.
  • Ongoing research by scholars like David Ben-Zvi, Yiannis Sakellaridis, and Akshay Venkatesh showcases the program’s adaptability and relevance.

Conclusion:

  • The Langlands Program serves as a mathematical endeavor to build bridges across different mathematical cultures, translating concepts between diverse objects and languages.

9. Why Finland Is Blaming Russia for A Sudden Influx of Migrants

Topic: GS2- IR

Context:

  • Russia’s retaliation for Finland’s recent NATO membership has taken the form of an abrupt surge in migrants reaching Finland’s border from the Middle East and Africa.
  • According to Finnish officials, Russia is orchestrating this surprise spike as a planned retaliation for Finland’s NATO membership rather than being a coincidence.

The Surge:

  • More than 900 migrants have reached Finland since August, including more than 800 in November alone.
  • Most of the asylum seekers are from war-torn nations including Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, Yemen, and Syria.
  • Notably, many of these people are utilizing unusual forms of transportation, like bicycles, to get around Finland’s tough winter weather.
  • According to Finnish officials, Russian border guards actively assist unauthorized people in reaching the border zone, not simply by permitting them to approach the Finnish border.

Hybrid Warfare Tactics:

  • It is not a recent phenomenon that migration is being weaponized to undermine Western democracies.
  • Finland and other Western countries charge that Russia and Belarus, which is an ally, are using migrants as weapons in hybrid warfare, a term that refers to a variety of tactics including disinformation campaigns, cyberattacks, and election meddling.
  • This strategy, according to European officials, is a type of “hybrid warfare” meant to stoke internal conflicts within the communities it targets.
  • According to experts Russians have been sowing instability in countries they view as unfriendly by combining aggressive disinformation with migration.

Wider Context:

  • This strategy is not exclusive to Finland; Poland, Lithuania, and Latvia have also seen comparable migration pressures along their borders with Belarus for more than two years.
  • The larger trend points to a concerted attempt by Russia and its allies to use migration as a geopolitical tool, which presents difficulties for European countries juggling the intricate relationship between national security and humanitarian concerns.

10. Respiratory Illness Surge in China: India Takes Precautionary Measures

Topic: GS2- Health

Context:

  • The Indian government has asked states and Union Territories to swiftly examine public health and hospital readiness in light of a discernible spike in respiratory infections in China.
  • Citing concerns over the influenza season and the surge in occurrences of respiratory illnesses, the Union Health Ministry stressed the preventative nature of this evaluation.

China’s Respiratory Illness Spike:

  • Following the release of Covid-19 restrictions in December, China has experienced a spike in the number of recorded respiratory sickness cases during its first full winter season.
  • Hospitals are struggling to keep up with the surge in cases, especially in the northeast, where Beijing and Liaoning are important centers.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) requested more data from China in response to allegations of pediatric pneumonia outbreaks going undetected.

Demographic Impact:

  • Due to the disproportionate impact on children, Beijing schools have significant absence rates.
  • According to experts, this could mean that elderly people have some immunity, which could mean they are protected from current vaccinations.
  • Although children are most impacted, pregnant women and the elderly may also be at risk.

Known Pathogens and Causes:

  • Chinese officials link the increase in infections to the spread of known viruses such SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
  • One common factor among individuals under the age of eighteen is the presence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common bacterial infection.

Factors Contributing to the Outbreak:

  • The outbreak is associated with the relaxation of Covid-19 restrictions; it is comparable to “lockdown exit waves” that have been seen in other nations.
  • A possible “immunity debt” is suggested by Chinese officials after a rigorous and protracted shutdown that decreased the spread of respiratory viruses.
  • In addition, the issue is probably getting worse with the arrival of winter.

Response and Recommendations:

  • Instead of reverting to the limits of the Covid-19 era, Chinese officials have urged for heightened awareness and preventative actions.
  • The WHO advises against doing things like being close to sick people, staying at home while sick, getting tested and getting medical attention when necessary, using masks, making sure there is adequate air, and often washing your hands.

Future Outlook and Concerns in India:

  • Chinese officials predict that influenza will peak in the winter and spring, with mycoplasma pneumoniae levels still being high in certain regions.
  • Stronger reporting procedures have been implemented in response to concerns about a possible rebound in Covid-19 infections.
  • India is encouraged not to worry too much even if the outbreak is now controlled because precautions are being taken and the situation is being closely watched.
  • The availability of medications and vaccines allays worries about the outbreak possibly spreading outside of China.

11. Post-26/11 Security Overhaul: Strengthening India's Defenses Against Terrorism

Topic: GS3- Internal Security

Context:

  • India had a wake-up call after the 26/11 attacks on Mumbai, which made it reevaluate its security posture and exposed gaps in its preparedness to counter large-scale asymmetric warfare.
  • The article examines what happened following the attacks, what action the Indian government took, and how several security aspects changed as a result.

Maritime Security Revamp:

  • The militants from Lashkar-e-Tayyeba (LeT) demonstrated the weaknesses in India’s marine security when they were able to cruise from Karachi to Mumbai with such ease.
  • Following September 26, 2011, the Indian Coast Guard was in charge of territorial waterways, while the Indian Navy took overall command of maritime security.
  • To improve monitoring and identification, mandatory regulations were implemented, such as the Automatic Identification System (AIS) for vessels longer than 20 meters.

Intelligence Coordination and Legal Framework:

  • The Multi Agency Centre (MAC) of the Intelligence Bureau was to be strengthened, with a focus on real-time information sharing and analysis.
  • The mandate of the MAC grew to encompass ecosystems of terror and radicalization.
  • The Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA) was amended to expand the definition of terrorism, and the National Investigation Agency (NIA) was established as a federal investigative agency.

Modernization of Police Forces:

  • After the 26/11 attacks, the Indian government realized local police were inadequate and concentrated on updating state police forces.
  • More money was set aside to supply stronger weaponry, train staff to tackle today’s policing issues, and outfit police stations with cutting-edge equipment.
  • The development of special commando squads received particular attention, and the National Security Guard (NSG) set up regional centers around the nation.

Cooperation from the West:

  • The 26/11 attacks spurred Western countries to cooperate more on security-related issues.
  • After the attacks, the United States in particular showed that it was willing to work with India.
  • Real-time intelligence sharing during the attacks and vital FBI evidence, which helped reveal Pakistan’s complicity, were examples of this cooperation.
  • Pakistan was included to the Financial Action Task Force’s (FATF) gray list in 2018 as a result of the cooperative spirit.

Remaining Challenges:

  • There are still issues in spite of major advancements.
  • State police agencies deal with problems like limited training, inadequate equipment, and political meddling.
  • Challenges in maritime security include the inability to track ships without AIS signals and the lack of transponders on smaller vessels.
  • There are gaps that need to be addressed because transponders are absent from over 60% of India’s 2.9 lakh fishing vessels.

Conclusion:

  • India’s security apparatus has been reinforced by the revolutionary steps made after 26/11, however there are still issues that need to be addressed.
  • In order to combat cross-border terrorism, cooperation with Western countries is still essential.

This emphasizes the necessity for ongoing efforts to strengthen India’s defenses against changing threats.

12. President Calls for All-India Judicial Service to Enhance Diversity in Judiciary

Topic: Polity

Context:

  • In order to boost diversity in the judiciary, President Droupadi Murmu suggested an All-India Judicial Service should be established in order to select judges.
  • She highlighted that this method would raise representation for neglected social groups in the court.

Barriers to Justice:

  • President Murmu emphasized the obstacles that still need to be removed in order to ensure that justice is available to all residents.
  • She mentioned cost as a big impediment and mentioned additional barriers, such as language, which most individuals could find difficult to understand.
  • The demand for an inclusive legal system is a reaction to these difficulties.

Merit-Based Recruitment for Diversity:

  • In order to further the cause of justice, the President underlined the necessity of having a more diverse representation on the Bench and Bar.
  • Her proposal was to establish an All-India Judicial Service, promoting a transparent, competitive, merit-based selection procedure for judges with a range of experiences.
  • She thinks that this would hasten the judiciary’s diversification.

Nurturing Talent Across the Country:

  • President Murmu had an idea for a system that would allow bright children from different origins to be chosen and raised from lower to higher levels.
  • The planned All-India Judicial Service seeks to choose prospective judges from all throughout the nation in an effort to increase the pool of talent.
  • Less-represented social groups would therefore have opportunities as a result of this.

Chief Justice of India’s Perspective:

  • DY Chandrachud, the Chief Justice of India (CJI), has emphasized the Supreme Court’s function as a people’s court during its 70 years in office.
  • He noted that thousands of people come before the court believing that the institution will provide them with justice.
  • The court’s dedication to upholding justice and attending to a broad range of citizen expectations was emphasized by CJI Chandrachud.

Deepening Democracy and Upholding Justice:

  • In his reflections on India’s history since achieving independence, President Murmu emphasized the nation’s dedication to preserving justice and equality while enabling each and every person.
  • She cited the varied backgrounds of those holding prominent positions and achieving success in a range of disciplines as evidence of India’s developing democracy.

Conclusion:

  • The demand for an All-India Judicial Service indicates a dedication to promoting diversity in the judiciary and making sure that the legal system accurately reflects the distinct variety of India’s population.

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