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25-November -2023


Topic: GS2 – defence exercises


  • The joint military exercise SURYA KIRAN-XVII between India and Nepal has commenced in Pithoragarh.

Additional information on this news: 


  • Conducted in Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand.
  • Annual event alternately held in India and Nepal.
  • Scheduled from 24th November to 07th December 2023.


  • Enhance interoperability in jungle warfare.
  • Conduct counter-terrorism operations in mountainous terrain.
  • Practice Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief under the UN Charter.

Focus Areas:

  • Employment of drones and counter-drone measures.
  • Medical training.
  • Aviation aspects.
  • Environmental conservation.

Operational Goals:

  • Troops to enhance operational capabilities.
  • Refine combat skills.
  • Strengthen coordination in challenging situations.

Exchange of Ideas:

  • Platform for soldiers from India and Nepal to exchange ideas and experiences.
  • Share best practices.
  • Foster a deeper understanding of operational procedures.


  • Symbolizes strong bonds, trust, and cultural linkages between India and Nepal.
  • Showcases commitment to broader defense cooperation.
  • Aims to achieve shared security objectives and foster bilateral relations between the two friendly neighbors.



2. From local roots to global heights: MSMEs lead the way

Topic: GS3 – MSME sector


  • Union MSME Minister Shri Narayan Rane emphasized the need to strengthen the participation of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in global value chains.
  • The message was delivered at an international conclave jointly organized by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in partnership with Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA).

Views expressed by the Union MSME Minister:

  • During India’s G20 presidency, there was a focus on increasing the participation of MSMEs in global trade and global value chains.
  • The Minister highlighted the importance of creating an enabling environment for the promotion of sustainable enterprises and integrating sustainability into all business operations of MSMEs.
  • The conclave had more than 80 officials and MSME representatives discussing strategies to promote sustainable, resilient, and responsible MSMEs, given their significant role in the global economy.
  • MSMEs account for 60 to 70 percent of global employment and contribute 50 percent to the global GDP.
  • Government representatives from various countries underscored the need for continued support to the MSME sector, emphasizing that only sustainable and responsible MSMEs can drive inclusive and equitable job-rich growth.
  • The event addressed the importance of human rights and environmental due diligence in the supply chain, with countries like Germany, Japan, and the Netherlands highlighting various supplier development initiatives to bring MSMEs closer to international standards.
  • The conclave took place against the backdrop of the COVID-19 crisis, current geo-political challenges, the increasing impact of climate change, and decent work deficits in the global supply chain, all of which affect the vulnerability of the MSME sector.


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