Everything You Need To Know About Kurukshetra July 2023: Summary

Kurukshetra July 2023: Summary

Chapter 1: Technologies for Sustainable Agriculture Development.


  • Conventional Indian agricultural methods are ecologically harmful and threaten the environment and human well-being.
  • It is essential to embrace sustainable agricultural practices to secure the future sustainability of Indian farming.
  • Integrating cutting-edge technologies can empower farmers to develop enduring and eco-friendly farming systems.

Some important data:

  • Agriculture’s share in Gross Value Added was 18.29% (16.5% at current prices) in 2019-20, and it provides livelihoods for 45.6% of the workforce.
  • The engagement of people in agriculture has lessened as the economy diversified into sectors like services and manufacturing.
  • The World Bank data reveals a decline in agricultural employment, from 60.5% in 2000 to 42.1% in 2020.
  • Although its GDP contribution is lower, agriculture remains vital for sustaining employment and livelihoods.

Sustainable Agriculture Defined:

  • Long-term farming underpins sustainable agriculture, focusing on soil, environment, and local communities.
  • The goal is to address increasing food demand without jeopardizing resources for future generations.
  • Sustainable practices guarantee the production of food, fiber, and other goods while protecting the environment, health, and animal welfare.
  • Emphasis is placed on conserving and renewing vital resources such as soil, water, and air.

Why choose sustainable agricultural practises?

  • India’s agricultural production has grown, but challenges remain due to the negative impact of excessive chemical usage on soil fertility.
  • Declining soil fertility stems from the overuse of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and intensive farming techniques.
  • The extensive use of chemical inputs disrupts the natural balance of the soil ecosystem, leading to reduced soil fertility, loss of beneficial microorganisms, and degradation of soil structure.
  • Soil degradation affects crop productivity, quality, and resilience to environmental stressors, threatening food security and livelihoods.
  • Sustainable practices in agriculture are crucial to mitigate the adverse effects of chemical-intensive farming and ensure the sector’s long-term viability.
  • Sustainable practices encompass organic farming, crop rotation, agroforestry, and integrated pest management.

Government Initiatives for Agriculture Sector:

  • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, Krishi Sinchayee Yojana, Soil Health Card Scheme, and National Agriculture Market platform are initiatives by the Indian government.
  • These initiatives are designed to boost agricultural productivity, manage risks, and enhance agricultural practices.
  • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana provides a comprehensive risk management solution with a consistent and affordable premium rate.
  • This initiative aims to safeguard farmers against crop loss due to various factors, ensuring financial protection.
  • The scheme’s attractive features have led to a significant number of farmer applications, reaching millions.
  • Krishi Sinchayee Yojana focuses on efficient water management through irrigation and aims to improve water-use efficiency in agriculture.
  • Soil Health Card Scheme aims to provide farmers with vital information about their soil’s health, nutrient levels, and appropriate recommendations for better yield.
  • The National Agriculture Market platform facilitates a unified marketplace for agricultural products, connecting farmers with buyers and ensuring fair prices.

Technologies for Sustainable Farming:

  • Precision Farming: Utilizes sensors, GPS, and data analytics to optimize crop performance, reduce chemical use, and enhance water management.
  • Agroforestry: Integrates trees and shrubs with crops and livestock for sustainable farming, offering soil conservation and biodiversity benefits.
  • Vertical Farming: Stacked crop cultivation under controlled conditions can increase local food production, conserve water, and reduce pesticide needs.
  • Hydroponics: Growing plants in nutrient-rich water without soil improves water and nutrient efficiency, suitable for urban areas with limited space.
  • Renewable Energy-based: Solar and wind power can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependency in farming.
  • Robotics and Automation-based: These technologies reduce labour costs, improve yields, and minimize chemical use.

Gaps in Adopting Sustainable Agriculture:

  • Lack of Awareness and Knowledge: Farmers need to understand benefits and effective implementation of sustainable practices.
  • Limited Access to Finance: Small farmers need better access to finance for infrastructure and technology investments.
  • Inadequate Policy and Regulatory Framework: Policies may lack incentives for sustainable practices, hindering adoption.
  • Limited Research and Development: More research and investment are needed for context-appropriate sustainable practices.
  • Lack of Infrastructure and Technical Support: Rural areas require infrastructure and support for adopting sustainable practices.
  • Low Productivity: Crop yields in India are lower than the global average, impeding agricultural growth.
  • Fragmented Landholdings: Small landholdings make modern techniques adoption and credit access difficult.
  • Lack of Market Access: Farmers often sell at low prices to intermediaries due to limited direct market access.
  • Inadequate Infrastructure: Insufficient rural infrastructure like roads and storage hampers the sector.

Agri Tech Startup Case Studies:

  • AgriApp Technologies: Fills the gap between farmers and strategic information for technology-enabled high-efficiency agriculture.
  • Khetee: Promotes agroecological farming, offering training and building agroecological model farms.
  • Aumsat: Provides satellite-based hydrological analysis for groundwater resource prediction and conservation.
  • Pudhuvai Green Gas Chemicals: Produces organic waste agri-raw materials, harnessing methane and hydrogen as green fuels.
  • Sense it Out: Offers sensor-based irrigation management solutions for climate change challenges.


  • A multifaceted approach involving R&D, policy reforms, infrastructure development, and technology adoption is crucial to addressing gaps in India’s agricultural sector.
  • Sustainable practices should be implemented alongside technology for long-term farming systems.
  • Despite challenges, farmers have adopted various sustainable practices, like crop rotation and organic farming.
  • Sustainability-focused practices can enhance productivity, lower costs, and improve crop quality, promoting public health.

 Chapter 2: Climate Sustainable Agriculture.


  • Agriculture faces formidable hurdles owing to climate change and population expansion.
  • Sustainable agriculture plays a crucial role in tackling food security and environmental concerns.

Challenges in Agriculture:

  • By 2050, there is a pressing need for a 70% increase in global food production to ensure sufficient food security.
  • Human-induced greenhouse gas emissions see a 25% contribution from agriculture, forestry, and land-use changes.
  • Rising temperatures result in diminished crop yields: maize (-7.4%), wheat (-6.0%), rice (-6.2%), soybeans (-3.1%).
  • Climate change leads to yearly agricultural losses of $9-10 billion and the potential for cereal grain reductions of 20-40%.

Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA):

  • Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) seeks sustainable farming through climate change and environmental considerations.
  • CSA Focuses on three main goals: higher productivity, improved resilience, and lower emissions.
  • Building robust crop varieties is essential to counter the effects of climate change.
  • Effective production and distribution are vital for ensuring farmers’ access to climate-smart crop varieties.
  • Climate-resilient crops must tackle challenges like pests, frost, and extreme weather.

FAO-Recommended Components for CSA:

  • Develop climate-resistant crop varieties and involve farmers in decision-making.
  • Diversify crops and organisms to bolster farm resilience and profitability.
  • Protect soil through integrated landscape planning and sustainable management practices.
  • Enhance productivity and reduce emissions using suitable machinery and precision farming.
  • Combat climate change effects on pests, diseases, and weeds through integrated approaches.
  • Prioritize water resource management to counter increasing water scarcity.

Government of India’s Initiatives:

  • National Innovation on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) focuses on climate-resilient technologies and practices.
  • The “Parampara Gat Krishi Vikas Yojana” is a government initiative aimed at promoting traditional and organic farming practices among farmers.
  • National Water Mission (NWM) optimizes water use efficiency and conserves water sources.
  • Biotech-KISAN Hubs provide farmers access to modern agricultural technologies.
  • Sub-Mission on Agro-forestry promotes sustainability in agriculture and addresses climate change impacts.
  • National Livestock Mission aims for sustainable livestock development and farmer livelihoods.
  • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) offers insurance coverage and financial support to farmers.


  • Sustainable agriculture is crucial for ensuring food security and environmental well-being, demanding a complete overhaul of production methods.
  • The Indian government has evaluated the effects of climate change on agriculture and taken steps to introduce interventions and backup strategies.
  • Policies that encourage sustainable practices such as fertilization and agro-forestry contribute to lowering emissions and enhancing adaptability.

 Chapter 3: Dryland Farming.


  • Dryland farming is complex and necessitates understanding local climate, soil conditions, crop selection, and technology utilization.
  • It is important to understand the significance of dryland farming in India, its constraints, and potential for sustainable agriculture

Differentiating Dry Farming, Dryland Farming, and Rainfed Farming:

  • Dry farming: Employed in arid regions, where annual rainfall is below 750 mm and crop season is less than 200 days.
  • Dryland farming: Found in semi-arid regions, with rainfall ranging from 750 to 1150 mm.
  • Rainfed farming: Practiced in humid and sub-humid regions, where rainfall exceeds 1150 mm, and feasible irrigation is lacking.

Characteristics and Challenges:

  • Dryland farming relies primarily on natural rainfall and limited irrigation.
  • Regions experience low, erratic, and unevenly distributed rainfall (375 mm to 1125 mm), impacting productivity and economic stability.
  • Uneven rainfall distribution affects crop growth, leading to poor yields or drought-like conditions.
  • Poor, degraded soils with low water retention and nutrient deficiencies challenge crop growth.
  • Temperature variations further affect crop yields and quality.
  • Small, fragmented landholdings hinder profitability.

Dryland Farming:

  • Major crops: millets, oilseeds, pulses, maize, cereals, cotton.
  • Dryland agriculture provides a substantial share of key crops like Sorghum, Maize, Pearl millet, oilseeds, and pulses.
  • Significant contribution to wheat and rice production, despite being rainfed.
  • Drylands also contribute over 70% of cotton for the textile industry.
  • Produces nearly 44% of India’s total food grains despite challenges.

Way forward:

  • Integrated Farming: Adoption of integrated farming models with diverse crops.
  • Crop Selection: Choosing appropriate crops adapted to the dryland environment.
  • Capacity Building: Empowering farmers through training on dryland farming techniques.
  • Market Support: Strengthening market infrastructure and value chains.
  • Technology Adoption: Implementing drip irrigation, water harvesting, and precision farming.
  • Soil Conservation: Erosion mitigation and moisture retention through practices like contour ploughing, terracing, and mulching.
  • Research and Development: Continuous efforts for crop varieties and technologies for dryland farming.
  • CRIDA’s Vision 2050: CRIDA’s forward-looking plan emphasizing location-specific research and resource management.
  • Cutting-Edge Technologies: Leveraging remote sensing, GIS, nanotechnology, and renewable energy.


  • Promising Sustainability: Dryland farming offers significant potential for achieving sustainable agriculture in India.
  • Success Through Holistic Approaches: Attaining successful dryland agriculture involves comprehending local conditions, embracing suitable methodologies, and offering necessary assistance.
  • Contribution to Food Security and Rural Progress: By following these approaches, dryland farming can make a valuable contribution to ensuring food security and fostering rural development.

Chapter 4: Sustainable Agriculture – Challenges And Way Forward.


  • Sustainable agriculture is an essential shift from input-intensive farming that harms the environment, degrades topsoil, and depletes resources.
  • It emphasizes three pillars: Economy, Society, and Environment, which ensure profitability, food security, and ecological stewardship.

Sustainable Agriculture in India:

  • Most Indian farmers have not widely adopted Sustainable Agriculture Practices (SAPs).
  • A significant portion of farmers have embraced practices such as crop rotation, agroforestry, and rainwater harvesting.
  • Organic farming is practiced on just 2% of India’s cultivated land, whereas natural farming is rapidly gaining popularity.
  • Over time, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has seen increased acceptance and implementation among farmers.
  • Organic farming only covers approximately 2% of the net sown area.

Major Practices of Sustainable Agriculture:

  • Crop Rotation and Diversity: Planting various crops enhances soil health, reduces pests, and boosts overall productivity.
  • Water and Energy-efficient Irrigation: Efficient irrigation methods save water and energy, reducing environmental impact.
  • Agroforestry: Planting trees alongside crops conserves soil, water and offers additional income.
  • Cover Crops: Sowing cover crops protects fields, prevents soil degradation, and acts as green manure.
  • Integrated Pest Management: Sustained pest control safeguards crop health and ensures long-term productivity.
  • Reducing Tillage: No-till or reduced-till methods preserve soil, limit erosion, and promote better soil health.
  • Integration of Livestock and Crops: Mutual benefits between livestock and crops lead to natural fertilization and resource efficiency.

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA):

  • Aims to enhance agricultural productivity and sustainability in rainfed areas, focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management, and resource conservation.
  • Components: Rainfed Area Development, On-Farm Water Management, Soil Health Management.
  • Objectives include improving climate resilience, comprehensive soil health management, efficient water utilization, and farmer capacity building.

Challenges in Sustainable Agriculture:

  • Budgetary allocation to NMSA is limited, comprising only a tiny fraction of the Ministry of Agriculture’s total budget.
  • SAPs require knowledge sharing among farmers and capacity building across diverse farmer types.
  • Adopting SAPs can be challenging due to labor-intensive nature, particularly for medium and large farmers.

Critical recommendations for adoption of sustainable agriculture in India:

  • Financial Support: Provide subsidies and incentives for adopting sustainable techniques and technologies.
  • Research and Innovation: Invest in research to develop region-specific sustainable farming methods.
  • Market Linkages: Establish robust market connections to ensure fair prices for sustainable produce.
  • Policy Integration: Integrate sustainable agriculture into national agricultural policies and programs.
  • Role of authorities: authorities should prepare a complete taxonomy of rain-fed agriculture in India, including –policies, guidelines and legal frameworks, giving short-term support to adversely affected farmers etc.
  • Technology adoption: a proper system should be made for leveraging adoption of technology and data.


  • Sustainable agriculture provides a route to both productive and environmentally conscious farming methods.
  • Addressing implementation hurdles involves focusing on funding, sharing knowledge, and customizing practices to suit diverse farmer situations.

 Chapter 5: Organic Farming – Status And Potential.

Organic Farming Definition:

  • The National Standards of Organic Production (NSOP) defines organic agriculture as a method of farm management that establishes an ecosystem achieving sustainable productivity without artificial inputs like chemicals.

Some essential facts about Organic Farming:

  • Organic farming practiced in 187 countries globally.
  • Australia, Argentina, and Spain lead in organic agricultural land.
  • India has 30% of world’s organic producers, but only 2% of net sown area is organic.
  • Madhya Pradesh leads in organic land with 0.76 million hectares.
  • Sikkim stands as India’s first fully organic state.

Need for Organic Farming:

  • Reduces synthetic input dependency.
  • Enhances environmental sustainability.
  • Minimizes ecological impact.
  • Promotes recycling and reuse.
  • Supports climate-friendly practices.
  • Preserves soil and water quality.

Export of Organic Food from India:

  • APEDA’s Export Promotion: The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) plays a vital role in facilitating the export of agricultural and processed food products from India.
  • Export Destinations: Notable destinations for Indian organic products include the United States (USA), the European Union (EU), Canada, the United Kingdom (UK), and Australia. These regions have substantial demand for organic goods due to their health and environmental awareness.
  • Primary Organic Exports: India’s major organic exports encompass various categories. Notably, soya meal, oilseeds, cereals, millets, sugar, and plantation crops make up the core of the organic export portfolio.
  • Cereals and Millets: Organic cereals and millets, which include staples like rice and millets (e.g., pearl millet), are favored by health-conscious consumers globally.

Government Initiatives to Promote Organic Farming:

  • Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY): This scheme focuses on promoting traditional agricultural practices. It provides support to farmers through various means:
    • FPO Establishment: It assists in the establishment of Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs), which enable collective farming and better market access.
    • Organic Inputs: Farmers receive financial aid for obtaining organic inputs like seeds, manure, and biopesticides, essential for organic farming.
    • Training: Training and guidance are offered to farmers to enhance their understanding of organic farming practices and techniques.
  • Mission Organic Value Chain Development for Northeastern Region (MOVCD-NER): This mission is specific to the northeastern region of India and aims to develop the organic value chain. It offers comprehensive support:
    • FPO Support: Similar to PKVY, it assists farmers in forming FPOs, fostering collaborative farming and marketing.
    • Organic Inputs and Training: Farmers receive financial assistance for organic inputs and are provided with training and guidance on organic farming practices.
    • Infrastructure: Need-based support is extended for establishing infrastructure like processing units, collection centers, pack houses, and refrigerated vehicles.

Chapter 6: Millets – Future Of Sustainable Agriculture.


  • Millets, a group of small-seeded plants, including pearl millet, sorghum, finger millet, and others, are recognized for their nutritional value and environmentally sustainable characteristics.
  • India holds a prominent position in global millet production, and their promotion is gaining momentum due to their potential to enhance nutrition, ensure food security, and contribute to ecological balance.

Significance of Millets in India:

  • India is the largest global producer of millets, with pearl millet, sorghum, and finger millet comprising the majority of millet production.
  • Bajra and jowar together account for 19% of the world’s millet production.
  • Major millet-producing states include Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and more.
  • In India, millets constitute 19% of the world’s millet production and 20% of the total area under millet cultivation worldwide.
  • India’s average millet productivity is 1,239 kg/ha, higher than the world average of 1,229 kg/ha.

Nutritional Value of Millets:

  • Millets are referred to as nutri-cereals, superfoods, and Shree Anna due to their rich nutritional content.
  • High in proteins, fibers, vitamins, and essential minerals, millets offer a gluten-free alternative to traditional cereals.
  • Their inclusion in the diet can contribute to nutritional balance and promote healthier eating habits.

Environmental Sustainability:

  • Millets play a vital role in sustainable agriculture by reducing dependency on water-intensive crops like rice.
  • They can be cultivated in diverse landforms and climates, enhancing adaptability and environmental resilience.
  • Millets are drought-resistant and have natural pest resistance, contributing to overall agricultural sustainability.
  • They require relatively lower irrigation compared to rice and wheat, conserving water resources.
  • Shorter growth cycles of millets, in comparison to rice and wheat, further enhance their sustainability.

Economic Aspects and Promotion:

  • The pricing of millets, especially bajra, shows favorable returns over costs, making them economically attractive.
  • Government initiatives include subsidies, procurement, distribution, and promotion of millets through various programs.
  • Millet consumption is being promoted through schemes like Targeted Public Distribution System, Poshan Shakti Nirman, and more.
  • Global Millets Conference and other awareness campaigns are organized to highlight the benefits of millets.
  • Budget 2023-24 supports the establishment of the Indian Institute of Millet Research as a Center of Excellence.


  • The renewed focus on millets holds immense potential in terms of improved nutrition, environmental sustainability, soil fertility retention, and increased income for farmers.
  • As India celebrates the International Year of Millets in 2023, the drive to promote these nutri-cereals aligns with the goal of achieving a holistic and balanced agricultural ecosystem.

 Chapter 7: Contribution of women to the sustainable agricultural development


  • Empowering rural women in agriculture is crucial for enhancing agricultural productivity, reducing hunger, and promoting gender equality.
  • The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recognizes the potential of women in agriculture and emphasizes that closing the gender gap in access to resources could lead to a significant increase in yields and agricultural output.

Growing Role of Women in Agriculture:

  • The phenomenon of ‘feminization of agriculture’ has emerged as men migrate to urban areas for employment, leaving women responsible for managing farmlands.
  • The changing landscape underscores the importance of recognizing and supporting women’s contributions to agriculture.

Challenges Faced by Rural Women:

  • Lack of Recognition: Women’s contributions to agriculture are often underappreciated and overlooked.
  • Skill Development: Enhancing women’s skills in modern agricultural practices is essential for improving productivity.
  • Land Ownership: The limited ownership of operational holdings by women reflects gender disparity in land rights.
  • Credit Accessibility: Limited ownership of assets makes it challenging for women to access credit and microfinance.
  • Market Access Inequality: Mobility constraints hinder women’s access to marketplaces, affecting their economic prospects.

Initiatives for Women’s Empowerment:

  • NABARD’s SHG-Bank Linkage: The program relaxes collateral requirements for loans, benefitting women farmers and self-help groups (SHGs).
  • Joint Liability Group (JLG) Ram Rahim Model: Kerala’s Kudumbashree implemented this model to empower women farmers through collective farming.
  • National Rural Livelihood Mission: Aims to enhance women farmers’ participation, productivity, and sustainable livelihoods through skill-building and capacity development.
  • Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana: Empowers SHG women by providing resources and services for improved agricultural productivity.
  • Rashtriya Mahila Kisan Divas: Celebrated on October 15th since 2016 to acknowledge and support women farmers.

Skill Development Initiatives for Women:

  • ATMA Scheme: Under the Sub-mission on Agriculture Extension, the program supports skill development through extension programs.
  • Skill Training Courses: SAMETIs, KVKs, and SAUs offer skill training courses to enhance women’s agricultural expertise.
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY): Offers short duration skill training programs to develop women’s skills.
  • Prime Minister Mahila Shakti Kendra Yojana: Facilitates health, nutrition, skill development, employment, and digital literacy for rural women.
  • Biotech-Krishi Innovation Science Application Network (Biotech-KISAN) Programme: Links innovative agricultural technologies to women farmers in the north-east region.
  • Beti Bachao-Beti Padhao Scheme: Promotes gender equality and improved sex ratio at birth.
  • Central Government Schemes: Initiatives like Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana, Women Helpline, and more empower women in various aspects.

Global Recognition and Progress:

  • The World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index 2022 reflects India’s improvement by five places since 2021, especially in economic participation and opportunity for women.


  • Empowering rural women in agriculture is not only essential for addressing gender disparities but also for boosting agricultural productivity and achieving sustainable development.
  • The recognition and support provided through various initiatives are instrumental in enhancing women’s roles in agriculture and ensuring their overall well-being.

Chapter 8: Agriculture Paving The Way For Sustainable Growth. 


  • Indian agriculture and its allied sectors have historically been vital components of the economy, contributing significantly to national income, employment, and foreign exchange earnings.
  • Over the decades, these sectors have undergone transformative changes, displaying remarkable growth and diversification.

Progress in Primary Sector:

  • Real Gross Value Added (RGVA) by the primary sector has grown from 1950-51 to 2021-22 at a compound growth rate of 2.91%.
  • Employment generation by the farm sector decreased from 69.40% (1950-51) to 45.5% (2021-22), indicating changing employment patterns.
  • Contribution of agriculture and allied sectors to foreign exchange earnings reduced from 44.24% (1960-61) to 11.94% (2021-22).

Trends in Agricultural Production:

  • Foodgrain production surged from 50.8 million tonnes (1950-51) to 315.62 million tonnes (2021-22) at a growth rate of 2.61%.
  • India became a major pulses producer globally despite modest growth.
  • Foodgrain production outpaced population growth (2.61% vs. 1.95%) from 1951 to 2022.
  • Commercial crops like potato, rubber, and cotton displayed impressive growth rates.
  • Oilseed production and sugarcane production exhibited notable annual growth.

Horticultural and Livestock Sectors:

  • Horticultural production surged from 145.79 million tonnes (2001-02) to 342.33 million tonnes (2021-22) at a rate of 4.36%.
  • Vegetables and fresh fruits contributed significantly to horticultural growth.
  • India became a leading global producer of fruits, vegetables, and spices.
  • Livestock played a crucial role in the rural economy, contributing nearly 30% to the agricultural and allied sector output.
  • India emerged as the largest milk producer globally.
  • Egg production and fish production also witnessed substantial growth.

Diversification and Trade:

  • The crop sector’s contribution to GVA decreased, while the livestock and fishing sectors gained prominence.
  • India achieved self-sufficiency in food grains and emerged as a net exporter of agricultural products.
  • Diverse products such as rice, pulses, fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, spices, and processed food were exported.
  • Agricultural trade balance was positive and increased significantly, contributing to foreign exchange earnings.


  • The growth and diversification of Indian agriculture and its allied sectors are evident in increased production, employment patterns, and foreign exchange earnings.
  • The nation’s self-sufficiency and expanding exports highlight the significance of these sectors in economic development. To ensure sustained growth, the adoption of modern practices and efficient utilization of resources are crucial.

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