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PIB Current Affairs Summary for UPSC

30-January -2024

1. “Maratha Military Landscapes of India” will be India’s nomination for recognition as UNESCO World Heritage List for the year 2024-25.

Topic: GS1 – Indian History – Indian Culture – Architecture
UPSC candidates need to understand the historical and cultural significance of Maratha Military Landscapes for India’s UNESCO World Heritage nomination.
  • India nominates “Maratha Military Landscapes of India” for UNESCO World Heritage recognition in 2024-25.
  • Twelve forts, representing Maratha military prowess, showcase diverse terrains and architectural significance from the 17th to 19th centuries
More about the news:
  • The “Maratha Military Landscapes of India” is India’s nomination for recognition as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for the year 2024-25.
  • The nomination includes twelve component parts distributed across diverse geographical and physiographic regions, showcasing the strategic military powers of the Maratha rule.
  • The nominated components are Salher fort, Shivneri fort, Lohgad, Khanderi fort, Raigad, Rajgad, Pratapgad, Suvarnadurg, Panhala Fort, Vijaydurg, Sindhudurg in Maharashtra, and Gingee Fort in Tamil Nadu.
  • These military landscapes developed between the 17th and 19th centuries and represent an extraordinary fortification and military system envisioned by the Maratha rulers.
  • The forts are situated in various terrains such as the Sahyadri mountain ranges, the Konkan Coast, Deccan Plateau, and the Eastern Ghats in the Indian Peninsula.
  • There are more than 390 forts in Maharashtra, and only 12 have been selected under the Maratha Military Landscapes of India.
  • The forts vary in types, such as hill forts, hill-forest fort, hill-plateau fort, and coastal and island forts.
  • The Maratha Military ideology dates back to the 17th century during the reign of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and continued through subsequent rules until the Peshwa rule in 1818 CE.
  • At present, India has 42 World Heritage sites, with 34 cultural sites, seven natural sites, and one mixed site.
  • Maharashtra has six World Heritage Sites, including Ajanta Caves, Ellora Caves, Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai, and the Western Ghats.
  • The Maratha Military Landscapes of India is the sixth cultural property nominated for inclusion in the World Heritage List from Maharashtra.
                             UNESCO World Heritage List
  • The UNESCO World Heritage List is a prestigious catalog that recognizes and preserves cultural and natural sites of outstanding universal value.
  • Established in 1972 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the list aims to safeguard and promote diverse cultural and natural heritage worldwide.
  • The list includes over 1,100 sites across the globe.
  • Cultural sites on the list range from ancient monuments and historic cities to traditional landscapes and intangible cultural practices.
  • Natural sites encompass exceptional ecosystems, landscapes, and geological formations, highlighting Earth’s biodiversity and geological significance.
  • Some notable examples of World Heritage Sites include the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, Machu Picchu in Peru, the Pyramids of Egypt, and the Acropolis in Greece.
  • Inclusion on the list often enhances global recognition, tourism, and preservation efforts for these significant sites.
  • Countries play a crucial role in nominating and managing their designated World Heritage Sites, working in collaboration with UNESCO to ensure their protection for future generations.

2. Dignitaries trace the evolution of quantum mechanics on 100 years of S N Bose’s colossal work.

Topic: GS3 – Science and technology – Achievements of Indian S&T.
The S N Bose conference highlights India’s role in the evolving Quantum Mechanics landscape, crucial for UPSC aspirants studying science and technology policy.
  • The S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences organized a conference in Kolkata to mark the 100th anniversary of Satyendra Nath Bose’s quantum mechanics publications.
  • The event focused on the ongoing Quantum Mechanics revolution, technological applications, and India’s role in the National Quantum Mission.
 More about the news:
  • The S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences organized a 5-day International Conference on Photonics, Quantum Information, and Quantum Communication in Kolkata to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Satyendra Nath Bose’s groundbreaking quantum mechanics publications.
  • Professor Ajay Sood, Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India, highlighted the ongoing second revolution in Quantum Mechanics, with a narrowing gap between fundamental science and technological applications.
  • A total of 750 million USD are being invested in four verticals, focusing on quantum sensing, satellite-based quantum communications, and post-quantum cryptography.
  • 23 countries, including India, have established National Quantum Missions, emphasizing India’s potential contribution, particularly in quantum algorithms.
  • The National Quantum Mission (NQM) aims to bridge science and technology, opening opportunities for global collaboration, with four mission hubs set to be established across India.
  • Bose’s work laid the foundation for modern quantum technologies, including Bose-Einstein condensation and quantum information theory, with his collaboration with Einstein resulting in groundbreaking theories and the naming of bosons in his honor.
Satyendra Nath Bose’s Contribution To Quantum Mechanics
  • Satyendra Nath Bose, an Indian physicist, made groundbreaking contributions to quantum mechanics in the early 20th century.
  • In 1924, Bose authored a revolutionary paper introducing Bose-Einstein statistics, a fundamental concept in quantum physics.
  •  His work laid the foundation for Bose-Einstein condensation and quantum statistical mechanics.
  • Bose collaborated extensively with Albert Einstein, and together they developed Bose-Einstein condensate theory.
  • Bose’s work significantly influenced the understanding of the behavior of particles at the quantum level, leading to the identification of particles known as bosons.
  • The term “boson” was coined to honor Bose, and particles like the Higgs boson are crucial components in the Standard Model of particle physics.
  •  Bose’s pioneering contributions have left an indelible mark on the field of quantum mechanics, earning him global recognition and numerous accolades.
PYQ: Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’ done by Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of Physics. (150 words/10m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2018)
Practice Question: What was Satyendra Nath Bose’s role in advancing quantum mechanics and his key contribution to the field? (150 words/10 m)

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