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Mains Test Series

Land resources and Cropping pattern in India

Q. Define the blue revolution and explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India. [UPSC CSE (M) 2018]

Introduction: The Blue Revolution means increasing fisheries production and productivity from aquaculture and fisheries resources in an integrated manner, both inland and marine. It aims to increase fish production, implement new technology, empower fishers and aquaculture farmers, ensure food and nutritional security, and generate employment. Problems of pisciculture development in India

  1. Resources quality Major reservoirs are zoologically degraded by industrial and human settlement and wash off agricultural pesticides. Water pollution is the main problem for fish production.
  2. Lack of infrastructure No proper extension network with field and laboratory facilities exists. Lack of resources specific fishing vessels.
  3. Disease outbreakSometimes outbreaks of major disease damage the growth and present production.
  4. Low productivityShortage of high-quality spawn and seedling and other critical inputs such as high-quality fish meal and medicine, etc.
  5. Lack of financing Absence of formal funding to smooth and efficient fisheries.
  6. Absence of standardization and branding of fish
  7. Inadequate training for fishers and fisheries personnel. Farmers are often unaware of the nutritional and economic benefits of fish.
  8. The lack of reliable data leads to the inefficiency of the enforcement agency in monitoring aquaculture and fisheries.
  9. Political Factors: Often, Indian fishermen get arrested by the Sri Lankan and Pakistani authorities due to difficulty in ascertaining the extent of Indian EEZ in high seas.

Strategies for pisciculture development in India

  1. Technological adoption and linkage development
    • Promoting modern fish farming technology such as bio-floc technology and recirculatory aquaculture systems.
    • A strong link between the research organization and development agency is essential for the laboratory to field.
  2. Market-induced infrastructure development Develop market links for farmers to ensure better prices and minimize wastage.
  3. Institutional support Support farmers through credit facilities, insurance coverage and subsidies.
  4. Capacity building Providing training to farmers to enhance technological knowledge and skills. Promote in the wake of increasing entrepreneurial interest in the freshwater aquaculture sector.
  5. Eco-friendly aquaculture Farming practice incorporates pollution control and environmental management.
  6. Quality control on seeds and feeds Ensuring the quality of fish seeds and meals.

Major initiative taken by the government to promote pisciculture

  1. Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada yojana– Development of marine and inland fisheries in sustainable ways.
  2. National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB)-Enhancing sustainable and responsible fish production and productivity by using modern technology and utilizing resources of the country in a coordinated, integrated and holistic manner.
  3. Fisheries and aquaculture development fund Providing concessional finance to farmers for periods of 5 years.
  4. Kishan credit card Providing finance to fishers and fish farmers to meet their working capital.

Conclusion: India is the second largest fish producer globally, and fishing is the primary livelihood of many communities. For perishable fish and prawns, efforts should be made to develop large-scale process products. Hence, the product should be preserved for a long period and can support new industries. Modern biotechnology can be used to improve fish production and aquatic health management.

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