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Mains Answer Writing

One of the key components of these exams is the written test, which consists of a number of essay and comprehension questions. Candidates are expected to write clear and well-structured answers that demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the topics being tested.

3-August-2023

Q1. Throw light on the significant events that resulted in the redrawal of national boundaries in the post world War 2 era. (250 words)

Solution

Introduction

The result of World War II radically altered the political world map with the defeat of the Axis power Germany, Italy and Japan.

Redrawal of National boundaries:

  1. Start of decolonisation:
  2. After the world war, allied power was envisaged with various domestic and external issues.
  3. Therefore, they were not in a position to maintain their colonies. So, the world witnessed the end of colonialism in Asia and Africa in the post-war era. For example, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia etc, got its independence.
  4. Iron Curtain of Europe:
  5. Postdam conference: The conferees uttered the substance and procedures of the peace settlements in Europe. It also discussed the demarcation of the boundaries of Poland, Austria and so on.
  6. Yalta Conference: In this conference, Germany was further divided into eastern and western parts. On Feb 1945, three chief Allied leaders — President Roosevelt of the USA, PM Winston Churchill of the UK, and Joseph Stalin of the USSR met at Yalta (Crimea)to discuss the final defeat and occupation of Nazi Germany.

III. The era of Cold war:

  • After world war II, Germany, along with its capital Berlin, was divided into 4 parts which were controlled by the USA, USSR, UK and France, respectively.
  • Soon the 3 Western allies and the communist USSR started to disagree in many terms, so the clash started.
  • USSR started to spread Iron Curtain in East Germany, and many other places, and the era of the cold war began.
  • Cold war tensions:
    • Korean Peninsula was divided into North Korea (Above 38th Parallel) and South Korea, where North was supported by communist regimes and South by US allies.
    • Vietnam was divided into North Vietnam (Above 17th Parallel) and South Vietnam, where North was supported by communist regimes and South by US-French allies.

Institutions to ensure the stability of New world:

  1. Declaration of the United Nations (UN): 
  • It was established in the USA in 1945 to replace the futile League of Nations. It was established to promote international harmony, world peace and foster international collaboration.
  • The Trusteeship Council, one of the main organs of the UN, was established to supervise the administration of trust territories as they transitioned from colonies to sovereign nations.
  1. New Financial system for reconstruction and financial stability:
  • At the Bretton Woods conference (1944), the Bretton Woods twins came into the picture. i.e. IMF and World Bank were established to fulfil the financial needs of industrial countries for reconstruction.
  • A Marshall Plan was concluded in 1947, under which loans to rebuild Europe via World Bank.

Conclusion: Thus, the second world war led to two development: One, the redrawal of boundaries, and two, the mechanism to ensure that these boundaries are respected and that the nations thus formed are stable.

Although the new institutions were dominated by the US and its allies which resulted in a suspicion of Neo-colonialism. Further, the US itself acted as a hegemon in certain situations by not respecting the international boundaries.

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