11 Jan 2024 : Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs

11 -January-2024

1.Diplomatic Turmoil Threatens Decades-Long Partnership: Maldives-India Relations at Crossroads

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – India and its Neighbourhood

This topic is not much relevant in the context of Prelims but more for Mains in the context of India-Maldives relations.

  • The government of President Mohamed Muizzu’s Maldives has recently come under fire for a number of contentious actions.
  • These include cancelling a significant water survey agreement, requesting that India remove its armed forces, and selecting China for diplomatic contacts.
  • When Muizzu’s cabinet members were fired for their undiplomatic remarks against Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Indians in general, the situation became more heated.
  • There have been calls in India to stop visiting the Maldives as a travel destination.

What’s at Stake in the Relationship?
·      Decades of Diplomatic Relationship:

  • Since the British gave up power in 1965, the island nation of Maldives and India have developed a close connection spanning six decades.
  • India established diplomatic relations and over time expanded its network of contacts into the corporate, military, political, and civil society spheres.
  • This long-standing diplomatic and political partnership is under jeopardy due to the recent occurrences.

Why Does India Need the Maldives?
Strategic Location and Maritime Security:

  • Maldives is strategically significant for India’s maritime security due to its close proximity to the country’s west coast and its position at the centre of commercial water lanes in the Indian Ocean.
  • India has made large investments in the Maldives defence forces, with estimates indicating that India carries out about 70% of the Maldives defence training.

Counteracting Chinese Influence:

  • India’s desire to counter the growing influence of China in the region is another reason for its interest in the Maldives.
  • China has recently been aggressively involved in the Maldives, but India wants to keep its strategic presence there and keep China’s influence in the region to a minimum.

Why Does Maldives Need India?
Daily Needs and Economic Dependence:

  • Maldives relies heavily on India to supply basic necessities like rice, spices, fruits, vegetables, and medications.
  • India is a big trading relationship as well; a sizable portion of the Maldives’ imports originate there. India has a history of providing assistance during difficult times.
  • During the COVID-19 epidemic, for example, India supplied vital supplies and offered disaster relief.

Educational and Infrastructural Support:

  • Maldivians rely heavily on India for their education, as evidenced by the students who attend Indian universities.
  • Furthermore, India provides infrastructure assistance for hospitals and other important facilities in the Maldives.

Security Provider in Times of Crisis:

  • With its intervention during a coup attempt in 1988 and combined naval drills, India has shown to be a dependable security partner for the Maldives.
  • In order to protect the island nation, the Indian Navy is ever-vigilant.


  • De-escalating tensions, addressing concerns, and working together on topics that are important to both countries is in the best interests of both New Delhi and Male, given their common history, strategic interests, economic interdependence, and the significance of cooperation during times of crisis.
  • Decades of cooperation between India and the Maldives that have benefited both countries are in danger of being undermined by the current diplomatic crisis.

Different Operations in Maldives
Operation Cactus 1988: The Maldivian government has received assistance from the Indian Armed Forces in neutralising the coup attempt as part of Operation Cactus.
Operation Neer 2014: Under Operation Neer India supplied drinking water to Maldives to deal with the drinking water crisis.
Operation Sanjeevani: India supplied 6.2 tonnes of essential medicines to Maldives, under Operation Sanjeevani as assistance in the fight against COVID 19.
PYQ: Discuss the political developments in Maldives in the last two years. Should they be of any cause of concern to India? (200 words/10m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2013)
Practice Question: Analyze the reasons behind India’s strategic interest in the Maldives and the challenges posed by geopolitical shifts, considering the influence of external actors. (150 words/10 m)

2. India Raises Alarm Over Trade Secrets: Concerns Mount as EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism Threatens Confidential Data of Exporters

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Effect of policies and politics of developed countries on India’s interests

This topic relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of global efforts to address climate change, and its implications for Indian exporters

  • As it complies with the EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM), India has expressed worries about the possible compromising of its exporters’ private and sensitive trade data.
  • The world’s first carbon emission tariff system, known as the CBAM, is scheduled to go into effect in 2026 and will apply to imports of goods into the 27-nation EU bloc, including iron, steel, aluminium, and cement.
  • Indian exporters worry about losing their competitive advantage when the transition phase starts on October 1, 2023, requiring them to disclose roughly 1,000 data points and production processes to EU authorities.
  • This is especially true for exporters in areas like steel, cement, and oil refining.

Challenges for Indian Exports:

  • Important industries of Indian manufacturing exports match up well with standards for global cost competitiveness.
  • Exporters, meanwhile, fear that revealing vital information about carbon emissions may jeopardise their proprietary knowledge and undermine their competitive edge.
  • Given that India sells more than 15% of its total goods to the EU—$75 billion in the fiscal year 2022–2023—this concern is especially significant.

Impact on Weakening Exports and External Factors:

  • The difficulties coincide with a slowdown in India’s exports to the EU as a result of declining Western demand, and the recent situation in the Red Sea region is expected to have an impact on exports of agricultural and textile goods to the EU.
  • Trade experts stress that, given the EU’s goal of reviving its manufacturing sector and reducing trade imbalances with developing nations like China and India, the Indian government must closely examine the data collection procedure under CBAM.
  • Global Concerns and Negotiations:
  • India is not the only country expressing worries about CBAM. Similar concerns have also been raised by the industry associations in Brazil and Argentina, as well as the relevant ministries in Taiwan and Thai firms.
  • Data privacy issues are now a major concern for everyone. In an effort to address CBAM in the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) that is now being negotiated, the Indian government is actively engaging in negotiations with the EU through the Trade and Technology Council (TTC).
  • The specifics of these options, such as a longer transition period and accommodations for MSMEs, have not yet been decided upon.

Data Privacy Risks and Trade Secrets:

  • Experts worry that because of CBAM’s data needs, trade secrets may be compromised.
  • There is a serious chance that the EU’s data gathering procedure, which includes an auditor and around 1,000 data points, will reveal closely held trade secrets.
  • This problem may have an impact on Indian businesses’ ability to compete, particularly when it comes to enhancing cost-effectiveness and preserving a competitive advantage in international markets.


  • The possible difficulties for Indian exporters are highlighted by India’s worries over CBAM, underscoring the necessity of cautious negotiation to protect critical trade data and preserve competitiveness in international markets.

What is the EU’s Carbon Border Tax?
  • The EU’s Carbon Border Tax (Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)) is a policy measure that aims to put a fair price on the carbon emissions generated during the production of certain goods imported into the EU.
  • It is part of the “Fit for 55 in 2030 package”, which is the EU’s plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels in line with the European Climate Law.
  • The CBAM will apply to imports of cement, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizers, electricity and hydrogen from countries that have less stringent climate policies than the EU.
  • Importers of these goods will have to buy carbon certificates that reflect the amount of carbon emissions embedded in their products.
  • The price of these certificates will be equivalent to the price of carbon in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), which is a market-based system that regulates the emissions of industries within the EU.
  • It is intended to encourage cleaner industrial production in non-EU countries and prevent carbon leakage, which is the relocation of carbon-intensive activities to countries with lower environmental standards.
PYQ: ‘Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA)’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of negotiations held between India and (2017)
(a) European Union
(b) Gulf Cooperation Council
(c) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(d) Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Ans: (a)
Practice Question: Analyze the concerns raised by Indian exporters regarding the potential compromise of sensitive trade data and trade secrets. Discuss the strategic and economic challenges posed by CBAM and evaluate India’s negotiations under the Trade and Technology Council (TTC) and Free Trade Agreement (FTA) to address these concerns. (250 words/15 m)

3. UK Announces Major Military Deployments and Defence Collaboration with India During Defence Minister Rajnath Singh’s Visit to London

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Bilateral Relations

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains as it covers aspects of international relations, defense policies, security, and economic diplomacy.

  • Plans for major military deployments to the Indian Ocean Region were revealed by UK Defence Secretary Grant Shapps during Defence Minister Rajnath Singh’s two-day visit to London.
  • Later this year, the UK’s Littoral Response Group will be dispatched, and in 2025, the Carrier Strike Group.
  • The declaration was made during talks to improve defence cooperation between the two countries.
  • The UK placed a strong emphasis on previously unprecedented levels of cooperation, including instructor exchanges, cooperative exercises, and knowledge sharing.
  • This expands on the extensive strategic alliance delineated in the India-UK 2030 strategy, which was formed in 2021.

Future Military Exercises and Shared Objectives:

  • The intention to carry out more intricate drills between the Indian and British forces in the upcoming years was emphasised in the joint statement.
  • Before the end of 2030, a historic joint exercise with a focus on safeguarding the global rules-based system and protecting vital trade routes is planned.
  • The strategic defence alliance is emphasised by the collaboration, which also involves industrial participation.
  • Both nations are collaborating to develop sophisticated weapons and electric propulsion systems for upcoming fleets.
  • In a world that is becoming more and more contested, the goal is to improve technology cooperation and solve changing security issues.

Defence Partnership-India Launch:

  • During Singh’s visit to the UK, Defence Partnership-India was introduced, a significant programme aimed at enhancing defence cooperation between the two countries.
  • This endeavour is in line with the common goals of improving security in the Indo-Pacific region and shows a commitment to closer cooperation.
  • The announcement of Defence Partnership-India demonstrates the dedication to a long-term, complex defence partnership.
  • Trade and Investment Collaboration:
  • During his visit, the Defence Minister spoke with CEOs and leading figures in the UK defence sector, praising investment and technological cooperation.
  • Singh underlined India’s preparedness, citing its pro-business environment and pool of highly qualified human resources.
  • The talks about expanding trade and investment cooperation highlight how crucial it is to develop economic relationships in addition to defence and strategic alliances.

Shared Commitment to Indo-Pacific Security:

  • Shapps stressed the value of developing strategic alliances, particularly with important allies like India, given how contested the world is becoming.
  • Both countries acknowledged their common security concerns and pledge to uphold an Indo-Pacific region that is free and prosperous.
  • By addressing changing geopolitical factors, the cooperative initiatives hope to promote security and stability in the area.


  • The declarations and discussions made by defence Minister Rajnath Singh during his visit to the UK demonstrate a strengthening of defence relations, strategic cooperation, and a common dedication to tackling current security issues in the Indo-Pacific area.

Indian Diaspora in the UK:
  • Indians make up around 2.86% of the United Kingdom’s population.
  • As per the UK Census 2021, Total Indian Population in the United Kingdom is around 19 Lakh or 1.9 million.
  • The UK is the largest source of European remittances to India.
PYQ: We adopted parliamentary democracy based on the British model, but how does our model differ from that model? (2021)
1. As regards legislation, the British Parliament is supreme or sovereign but in India, the power of the Parliament to legislate is limited.
2. In India, matters related to the constitutionality of Amendment of an Act of the Parliament are referred to the Constitution Bench by the Supreme Court.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: (c)

4. Darjeeling Zoo Garners Global Acclaim with World’s Largest Snow Leopard Population in Captivity

Topic: GS3 – Environment – Conservations

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of wildlife conservation, biodiversity, and the role of specific initiatives

  • With seven males and seven females, the Darjeeling zoo, also known as the Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park (PNHZP), is now home to the most number of snow leopards kept in captive in the world.
  • The World Association for Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) has acknowledged this milestone, which highlights the accomplishment of the conservation breeding programme that was started almost forty years ago.

Longstanding Conservation Efforts:

  • The Darjeeling zoo launched the nation’s first and only snow leopard conservation breeding programme in 1985.
  • The first snow leopard was born in 1989, according to the Conservation Breeding Centre (CBC), one of the program’s many notable accomplishments over the years.
  • In the zoo since then, 77 snow leopards have given birth.
  • The five-hectare breeding centre is situated in Topkeydara.

Key Highlights of the Breeding Program:

  • The Darjeeling zoo’s breeding programme is distinguished by its careful attention to establishing a natural habitat, cautious matching of male and female snow leopards, and utilisation of a broad genetic pool to guard against inbreeding and guarantee the health of the cubs.
  • The CBC has five 1,000 square metre naturalistic enclosures that are designed to resemble the arid alpine areas that make up the snow leopards’ native habitat.

Biosecurity Protocols and Veterinary Care:

  • The breeding centre of the zoo adheres to the strictest biosecurity guidelines, which include routine parasite testing, deworming, and other steps to keep the habitat hygienic.
  • Modern technology was added to the zoo’s veterinary hospital last year, and the Conservation Breeding Centre now has a new hospital.
  • Blood testing, frequent weight measurements, and round-the-clock CCTV surveillance are used to closely monitor the snow leopards’ well-being.

International Recognition and Collaborations:

  • A noteworthy accomplishment for both the Darjeeling Zoo and the larger conservation community is the recognition from WAZA.
  • Since 2007, the zoo has taken the lead in organising conservation initiatives for snow leopards in India.
  • The country’s zoos have received snow leopards born in the Darjeeling zoo, which has helped with international conservation and breeding efforts for this threatened species.

Research and Continuous Improvements:

  • The Central Zoo Authority funded a research study in 2013 that made recommendations for facilities, cub care, and overall survivorship, which were essential in the establishment of the breeding centre.
  • The Darjeeling Zoo’s unwavering commitment to ongoing enhancements, such as modernised facilities, is a reflection of its commitment to the welfare and conservation of snow leopards.


  • The world’s largest population of snow leopards kept in captivity is a result of the Darjeeling Zoo’s accomplishments, which also underscore the value of international recognition in promoting international cooperation for wildlife conservation and the effectiveness of long-term conservation efforts and strict adherence to biosecurity protocols.

About Snow Leopard?
  • Scientific Name: Panthera uncia
  • Top Predator: As the apex predator in the food chain, snow leopards serve as an indicator for the state of the mountain ecosystem in which they reside.

Protection Status:

  • IUCN List of Threatened Species: Vulnerable.

CITES: Appendix I.
Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule-I.

  • Habitat: They are widely but unevenly distributed throughout the highlands of central Asia, which includes the Himalayan regions of Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim.
  • Threat: primarily threatened by the extinction of natural prey species, retaliatory killing brought on by human conflict, and the illicit trafficking in its bones and fur.
PYQ: Q. Consider the following: (2012)
1. Black-necked crane
2. Cheetah
3. Flying squirrel
4. Snow leopard
Which of the above are naturally found in India?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 1, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Ans: (b)
Practice Question: Examine the significance of Darjeeling Zoo’s achievement in hosting the world’s largest snow leopard population in captivity. Discuss the conservation efforts, breeding programs, and biosecurity protocols implemented by the zoo. (200 words/12.5 m)

5. After a record 1,111 NGOs got FCRA nod in 2023, 30 get clearance in Jan.

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Role of NGOs

The FCRA clearance for Fo Guang Shan Cultural Centre highlights India’s regulation of foreign contributions, relevant for UPSC governance and legal aspects.

  • Fo Guang Shan Cultural and Educational Centre in Delhi, linked to a Taiwanese monastic order, secures FCRA clearance for foreign funds, enabling support for its diverse programs.

 Additional information on this news:

  • Fo Guang Shan Cultural and Educational Centre in Delhi, affiliated with a Taiwan-based monastic order, secures FCRA clearance for foreign funds.
  • Originating in Taiwan in the 1960s, the Delhi center was established in 2008, focusing on religious, cultural, economic, educational, and social programs.
  • Overall, 30 NGOs and associations received FCRA registration in the first month of the year.
  • In 2023, a record 1,111 NGOs were permitted to receive foreign donations, marking the highest since 2014.
  • FCRA registration is essential for NGOs to accept foreign contributions, requiring a defined cultural, economic, educational, religious, or social program.
  • Ministry data reveal that 3,294 associations obtained fresh FCRA registration from 2014 to 2023.

NGOs and FCRA Regulation
Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA): Governs inflow and utilization of foreign donations by NGOs in India. Aims to ensure transparency, accountability, and prevent misuse.
Recent Amendments: Stricter regulations since 2020 include:

  • Prior government approval for donations exceeding ₹25 lakh.
  • Mandatory bank accounts in designated branches.
  • Increased restrictions on administrative expenses.


  • Bureaucratic hurdles and delays in processing applications can impede NGO work.
  • •        Potential chilling effect on legitimate funding, hampering critical social services.
  • Overreach in monitoring activities may stifle free speech and dissent.

Way Forward:

  • Streamline approval processes while maintaining financial accountability.
  • Engage in open dialogue with NGOs to address concerns and find workable solutions.
  • Focus on risk-based approach, targeting potential misuse instead of blanket restrictions.
PYQ: Examine critically the recent changes in the rules governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign contribution (regulation) Act (FCRA), 1976. (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2015) (200 words/12.5 m)

6. SC report exposes severe gaps in accessibility for disabled persons across courts in India

Topic: GS2 – Social Justice – Vulnerable sections

UPSC aspirants should be aware of critical infrastructural gaps hindering accessibility and justice for persons with disabilities in Indian district court complexes. 

  • A Supreme Court report reveals significant infrastructural inadequacies in Indian district court complexes, with over 50% lacking ramps, 25.2% without wheelchairs, and only 5.1% having tactile paving for the visually impaired.
  • Poor accessibility poses serious concerns for people with disabilities in accessing justice

 More about this news:

  • Over 50% of district court complexes lack ramps, and only 25.2% have wheelchairs, as revealed by a Supreme Court report.
  • Tactile paving for visual disability assistance is available in just 5.1% of district courts.
  • Only 30.4% of court complexes feature separate disabled-friendly toilets.
  • Sign language interpreters for hearing disabilities are available in only 2.8% of Indian districts.
  • Infrastructure gap: 4,250 courtrooms needed out of the sanctioned 25,081 judges in the district judiciary.

Accessibility Issues for Disabled People
Physical Access:

  • Buildings: Lack of ramps, elevators, accessible toilets, and wider doorways.
  •   Transportation: Inaccessible public buses, trains, and stations. Lack of designated parking for disabled vehicles.
  • Public spaces: Uneven pavements, narrow walkways, absence of braille signage or audio cues.

Information Access:

  • Websites and apps: Lack of screen reader compatibility, unclear font sizes and color contrast.
  • Documents and forms: Unavailable in accessible formats like braille, audio, or easy-to-read language.
  • Communication: Lack of sign language interpreters, insufficient training for deaf awareness.

Attitudinal Barriers:

  • Stereotypes and discrimination: Negative perception of abilities, exclusion from social activities, lack of empathy.
  • Lack of awareness: Misunderstanding of different disabilities and their needs.
  • Insensitive language and behavior: Patronizing or offensive communication, failing to ask for preferred terms.

Technology Access:

  • Cost of assistive devices: Affordability remains a major barrier to essential technologies like screen readers, wheelchairs, and prosthetics.
  • Digital divide: Unequal access to the internet and technology further marginalizes disabled communities.
  • Lack of training and support: Insufficient guidance on using assistive technologies effectively. 
PYQ: The Rights of Persons with disability Act, 2016 remains only a legal document without intense sensitization of government functionaries and citizens regarding disability. Comment.
(UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2022) (150 words/10 m)
Practice Question: Critically analyze the challenges faced by disabled people in accessing public services in India. Suggest two legislative and two non-legislative measures to improve accessibility and inclusion. (250 words/15 m)

7. How a super-energetic particle from outer space could help physics

Topic: GS3 – Science and Technology – Development & their applications

The discovery of ‘Amaterasu’ cosmic ray challenges cosmic physics theories, crucial for understanding high-energy cosmic phenomena, relevant for UPSC.

  • The article discusses the discovery of a high-energy cosmic-ray event named ‘Amaterasu’ by Japanese scientist Toshihiro Fujii.
  • With an energy of 240 exa-electron-volt, it’s the second-highest-energy cosmic ray, posing questions about its origin and challenging current understanding of cosmic phenomena.

 Additional information on this news:

  • Japanese scientist Toshihiro Fujii discovered a cosmic-ray event named ‘Amaterasu’ in May 2021, the second-highest-energy cosmic ray.
  • Amaterasu had an energy of 240 exa-electron-volt (EeV), about 40 million times higher than protons in the Large Hadron Collider.
  • Its discovery may aid in understanding cosmic-ray properties and reveal new astronomical phenomena.
  • Three proposed explanations for Amaterasu’s origin include an unidentified source, interactions with a stronger magnetic field, or a reevaluation of high-energy particle physics.
  • The high energy of cosmic rays helps scientists study the universe’s subatomic building blocks and explore theories fitting the data.

8. Why did north India fog heavily in last weeks of 2023?

Topic: GS1 – Geography

UPSC aspirants should understand the impact of winter fog in northern India on transportation and the atmospheric conditions leading to fog formation.

  • Dense fog enveloped northern India in late 2023 and early 2024, affecting states like Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, and more.
  • The fog disrupted transportation, causing flight and train delays, with significant impacts on visibility and travel.

Fog in Northern India (Late 2023 – Early 2024):

  • Dense fog reported in several northern Indian states, including Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Uttarakhand.
  • Minimum temperatures in the range of 6-12 degrees Celsius in affected regions, according to the India Meteorological Department (IMD).

Impact on Transportation:

  • Approximately 450 flights delayed or canceled at Delhi’s Indira Gandhi International Airport on December 27.
  • Train services disrupted, with several Delhi-bound trains delayed due to poor visibility.

Fog Formation and Characteristics:

  • Fog is created when evaporated water cools down and condenses, forming small droplets.
  • Temperature disparity between the ground and air, along with high humidity and abundant moisture, encourages foggy conditions.
  • Two primary mechanisms contributing to fog: infrared cooling and radiation fog.
  • Specific type, duration, and effects of fog depend on various environmental conditions.

Reasons for Fog in Northern India:

  • Indo-Gangetic plains prone to winter fog due to low temperatures, low wind speed, moisture availability, and aerosols.
  • Moisture incursion facilitated by Western Disturbance and sometimes from the Arabian Sea during winter months.

Expert Insight:

  • Madhavan Nair Rajeevan, former director of IMD and current Vice-Chancellor of Atria University, highlights the significance of temperature, wind speed, and moisture for fog formation in the region

9. ILO warns of rise in unemployment, decline in real wages

Topic: GS3 – Economy – Issues relating to development and employment.

UPSC-relevant: assesses India’s economic stability, social issues, and global labor market trends amid complex geopolitical conditions.

  • The article details the International Labour Organisation’s 2024 report on global employment. Despite job market improvements.
  • It warns of a slight unemployment rise in 2024 amid growing inequalities and economic concerns.
  • While real wages fell in most G20 nations, India and others saw positive growth, though data for India is older.


  • Global unemployment to increase slightly in 2024 (5.2%), despite pre-pandemic improvements.
  • Growing social inequalities and stagnant productivity remain major concerns.

Economic context:

  • Significant macroeconomic deterioration in 2023 due to geopolitical tensions and inflation.
  • Aggressive central bank interventions impacted global industrial activity, investment, and trade.
  • China, Türkiye, and Brazil experienced significant slowdowns.

Labor market trends:

  • Modest job growth in 2023 led to pre-pandemic unemployment and jobs gap levels.
  • Global unemployment rate at 5.1% and global jobs gap around 435 million.
  • Concerns about potential structural imbalances in labor markets.

Real wages:

  • Declines in most G20 countries due to inflation outpacing wage growth.
  • Increase in global extreme poverty (less than $2.15 daily income).
  • Positive real wage growth only in China, Russia, and Mexico (China and Russia with highest productivity gains).
  • India and Türkiye also saw positive real wage growth (data from 2022).
PYQ: Most of the unemployment in India is structural in nature. Examine the methodology adopted to compute unemployment in the country and suggest improvements. (250 words/15m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2023)  (250 words/15 m)
Practice Question: Analyze the International Labour Organisation’s 2024 report on global employment in the context of India’s economic outlook. Suggest policy measures India can implement to address potential future unemployment and social inequality risks. (250 words/15 m)


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