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1. India’s AI Mission: Centre to Step up Compute Capacity, Offer Free Services to Startups

Topic: GS3 – Science and Tech
This topic is not much relevant in the context of Prelims but more for Mains in the context of the steps taken by the government to promote Artificial Intelligence and the potential impact of such steps.
  • The PM of India at the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI) Summit 2023 (New Delhi) announced that India will launch an artificial intelligence (AI) mission.
  • The aim of this mission will be to establish sufficient AI compute power in the country. This will help India’s innovators and startups get better facilities.
  • Under this mission, AI applications in agriculture, healthcare and education-related sectors will be promoted
What is the Centre’s Plan to Step up Compute Capacity under the AI Mission?
  • According to the Union Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY), the Centre is looking to build computational capacity in the country and offer compute-as-a-service to India’s startups.
  • The capacity building will be done both within the government and through a public-private partnership (PPP) model.
  • In total, the country is looking to build a compute capacity of anywhere between 10,000 GPUs (graphic processing units) and 30,000 GPUs under the PPP model.
  • An additional 1,000-2,000 GPUs through the PSU Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC).
  • The government is also exploring various incentive structures for private companies to set up computing centres in the country, ranging from:
    • A capital expenditure subsidy model which has been employed under the semiconductor scheme,
    • A model where companies can be incentivised depending on their operational expenses, to offer them a “usage” fee.
How the Public Model for Building Computing Capacity will Work?
  • Under the public model, compute capacity will be set up within the C-DAC as part of the National Supercomputing Mission.
  • C-DAC already has the Rudra and Param systems and it is planning to add 1,000-2,000 GPUs to them.
  • Rudra is an indigenous server platform built by the C-DAC which has two expansion slots for graphic cards.
  • Param Utkarsh is a high-performance computing system setup at C-DAC which offers AI over machine learning and deep learning frameworks, compute and storage as a cloud service.
What is the Significance of Building Computing Capacity?
  • Computing capacity or compute is among the most important elements of building a large AI system apart from algorithmic innovation and datasets.
  • It is also one of the most difficult elements to procure for smaller businesses looking to train and build such AI systems.
  • Given that AI is being seen as a crucial economic driver in the years to come, the government plans to substantially beef up the country’s computing capacity.
  • To expedite such additions, the government plans to invite the private sector by offering it incentives.
  • The government’s idea is to create a digital public infrastructure (DPI) out of the GPU assembly it sets up.
  • By this, startups can utilise its computational capacity for a fraction of the cost, without needing to invest in GPUs which are often the biggest cost centre of such operations.
Other Plans of Government to Push AI in India:
  • Apart from building computing capacities, the government is also working on building datasets and making them available to Indian startups.
  • Earlier, the MeitY released a draft of the National Data Governance Framework Policy under which it proposed the creation of an India Datasets platform.
  • The platform will consist of non-personal and anonymised datasets from Central government entities that have collected data from Indian citizens or those in India.
  • The idea is that the non-personal data housed within this programme would be accessible to startups and Indian researchers.
  • Among the stated objectives of the policy is to modernise the government’s data collection, with an aim to improve governance and to enable AI and data-led research and startup ecosystems in the country.
  • The Centre is also considering issuing a directive to big tech companies like Facebook, Google and Amazon to share anonymised personal data in their possession with the India Datasets platform.
PYQ: The emergence of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Digital Revolution) has initiated e-Governance as an integral part of government”. Discuss. (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2020) (150 words/10 m)
Practice Question: Discuss the key components of the Indian government’s push towards fostering Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its implications for governance and socio-economic development. Provide examples of specific initiatives and their potential impact on various sectors. (150 words/10 m)

2. Militant Ambush Claims Lives of Army Personnel in Rajouri, Jammu and Kashmir

Topic: GS3 – Internal Security This topic is not much relevant in the context of Prelims but more for Mains in the context of insurgency and its impact in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • In a tragic incident near Dehra Ki Gali (DKG) in Rajouri district of Jammu and Kashmir, four Army personnel lost their lives, and three others sustained injuries during a militant ambush.
  • The attack occurred as the troops were en route to the operational site, prompting an immediate retaliation by the army.
Regional Dynamics and Militancy Trends:
  • Once deemed “militancy-free” in 2011, the districts of Rajouri and Poonch have seen a rise in militant activity since Article 370 was repealed in August 2019.
  • Because of lower altitudes south of Pir Panjal and a leadership vacuum among militants in the Valley, the region is more vulnerable than usual.
  • The logistics of militants navigating the Pir Panjal mountain range account for the shorter and more intense confrontations in the Jammu region.
Factors behind Insurgency in J&K
  • Limited control of India: Under Article 370, Jammu and Kashmir was granted a special status that bestowed upon the state extensive powers. The Indian government’s ability to influence the state’s situation was restricted.
  • Support from Pakistan: “Mujahideen” militants operating in Jammu and Kashmir have received backing, arms, and training from Pakistani security services.
  • Religious fanaticism: Many religious leaders openly encouraged people to join the “religious war,” giving the insurgency a religious flavour.
  • Porous borders: J&K’s frontiers have been brittle mostly because of unresolved territorial disputes. As a result, militants who received training in Pakistan are now able to enter the region.
  • Draconian laws: Draconian laws such as Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) and Public Safety Act (PSA) have created some sort of discontentment against Indian administration.
Causes of the Rise in Terrorist Attacks in Recent Years
  • Infiltration: Terrorists who infiltrate across the porous LoC carry out the majority of terror attacks. They receive their training and weapons from Pakistani training centres.
  • Lone-wolf model: Recent patterns point to attacks carried out alone, without the use of a complex module. Security authorities find it challenging to anticipate new assaults due to individual actions.
  • Access to weapons: Drones are being used by terrorists’ handlers in J&K to supply them with weapons. For security organisations, having easy access to guns has been a significant concern.
  • Public sympathy: After committing a crime, offenders can simply conceal thanks to public sympathy. It gets harder for security services to find them.
  • Insider support: Insiders give terrorists with confidential information about their targets. This has been observed during a wave of targeted minority murders.
Way Forward:
  • Public outreach: The government and security agencies’ goodwill-earning initiatives are insufficient to deter young people from choosing the road of militancy. New initiatives are required to address the fundamental issues that valley dwellers face, such as those related to infrastructure, education, and subsistence.
  • De-radicalization: Youth who have become radicalised must be given the chance to reintegrate into society by undergoing deradicalization. It is necessary to restrict access to radicalization resources.
  • Strengthening security apparatus: It covers the exchange of intelligence, counterintelligence activities, advanced weaponry, and related technologies.
  • Financial sanctions: It is necessary to censure and cut off foreign funding for terrorist organisations that pose as non-governmental organisations.
PYQ: Analyze internal security threats and transborder crimes along Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan borders including Line of Control (LoC). Also discuss the role played by various security forces in this regard. (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2020) (150 words/10 m)
Practice Question: In light of recent security challenges in the Rajouri and Poonch districts of Jammu and Kashmir, critically analyze the factors contributing to the resurgence of militancy in areas that were once considered ‘militancy-free.’ (150 words/10 m)

3. The CEC and Other ECs (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, 2023

Topic: GS2 – Polity- Constitutional Bodies 

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of Proposed Bill for Selection of Chief Election Commissioner, its Significance and Associated Concerns.
  • Recently, the Government has introduced a bill in the Rajya Sabha aiming to alter the process of appointing the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and Election Commissioners (ECs).
  • The Bill seeks to remove the Chief Justice of India (CJI) from a panel to select the CEC and ECs.
  • This move has sparked discussions regarding the composition of the selection committee and its implications for the independence of the process.

What is the Background?

  • In March 2023, the Supreme Court (SC) decided that until a law is passed by Parliament regarding their nominations, the Chief Justice of India, the Prime Minister, and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha shall advise the President of India when appointing CECs and ECs.
  • This ruling emerged from a 2015 Public Interest Litigation (PIL) challenging the appointment process.
  • Since no parliamentary law was enacted as prescribed by Article 324 of the Constitution, the Court stepped in to address the “constitutional vacuum.”
  • The Bill now seeks to address this vacuum and set up a legislative process to make appointments to the EC.

What are the Key Provisions of the Bill?

  • The Bill replaces the Election Commission (Conditions of Service of Election Commissioners and Transaction of Business) Act, 1991.
  • It addresses the appointment, salary, and removal of the CEC and ECs.

Appointment Process:

  • The CEC and ECs will be appointed by the President upon the recommendation of a Selection Committee.
  • The Selection Committee will consist of the Prime Minister, a Union Cabinet Minister, and the Leader of Opposition/leader of the largest opposition party in Lok Sabha.
  • Recommendations of the Selection Committee will be valid even when there is a vacancy in this Committee.
  • A Search Committee headed by the Cabinet Secretary will propose a panel of names to the Selection Committee.
  • Eligibility for the posts includes holding (or having held) a post equivalent to the Secretary to the central government.

Changes in Salary and Conditions:

  • The salary and conditions of service of the CEC and ECs will be equivalent to that of the Cabinet Secretary.
  • Under the 1991 Act, it was equivalent to the salary of a Supreme Court Judge.

 Removal Process:

  • The Bill retains the constitutional provision (Article 324(5)) that allows the CEC to be removed like a Supreme Court Judge, while ECs can only be removed on the recommendation of the CEC.

Protection for CEC And ECs:

  • Bill safeguards CEC and ECs from legal proceedings related to actions taken during their tenure, provided such actions were carried out in the discharge of official duties.
  • The amendment aimed to shield these officials from civil or criminal proceedings related to their official functions.

What are the Concerns Regarding the Bill?

Transparency and Independence:

  • Allowing the Selection Committee’s recommendations to be valid even with a vacancy could result in a monopoly of ruling party members during certain circumstances, undermining the diversity and independence of the committee.

Shift from Judicial Benchmark to Executive Control:

  • Equating the salary of the CEC and ECs with that of the Cabinet Secretary, whose salary is determined by the executive, raises concerns about potential government influence.
  • Unlike the salary of a Supreme Court Judge, which is fixed by an Act of Parliament, this shift may compromise the financial independence of the EC.

Limiting Eligibility to Civil Servants:

  • Restricting eligibility to individuals who have held a position equivalent to the Secretary to the government may exclude potentially qualified candidates, limiting the diversity of backgrounds and expertise in the ECI.

Concerns About Lack of Parity:

  • The Bill retains the constitutional provision that allows the CEC to be removed like a Supreme Court Judge, while ECs can only be removed on the recommendation of the CEC.

This lack of parity in removal processes may raise questions about fairness.

How are the CEC and ECs Currently Appointed?

Constitutional Provisions:

  • The Constitution’s Part XV, which deals with elections, contains merely five articles (324–329).
  • The Constitution does not specify a legislative procedure for the CEC and EC appointments.
  • According to Article 324 of the Constitution, an Election Commission made up of “the Chief Election Commissioner and such number of other Election Commissioners, if any, as the President may from time to time fix” is given “superintendence, direction and control of elections.”
  • On the recommendation of the Prime Minister-led Union Council of Ministers, the President appoints the new member.
  • The Prime Minister is presented with a list of qualified applicants to choose from by the Law Minister. On the PM’s recommendation, the President appoints the new member.


  • They are free to leave at any moment, or they can be fired before their term is up.
  • Only Parliament can remove the CEC from office through a procedure akin to that of a SC judge.
  • Any other EC cannot be removed except on the recommendation of CEC.
PYQ: To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful? (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2017) (250 words/15 m)
Practice Question: Discuss the significance and potential implications of the proposed “CEC and Other ECs (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, 2023” on the functioning and autonomy of Election Commissions in India. (250 words/15 m)

4. The Press and Registration of Periodicals (PRP) Bill 2023

Topic: GS2 – Polity and Governance 
This topic is not much relevant in the context of Prelims but more for Mains in the context of legislative process, government policies, and debates.
  • By voice vote, the Lok Sabha passed the Press and Registration of Periodicals Bill, 2023.
  • Information and Broadcasting Minister Anurag Thakur claimed that the bill, which replaced the Press and Registration of Books (PRB) Act of 1867, which was enacted during the British colonial era, would streamline the registration procedure for newspapers.
Key features and provisions of the PRB Act 1867
  • The Act provides for the regulation of printing presses and newspapers in India. It lays down rules and guidelines for the functioning of printing establishments to ensure responsible journalism and avoid misuse.
  • It mandates the registration of all books and newspapers printed in India. Publishers are required to submit copies of their publications to the concerned authorities for preservation and record-keeping.
  • It defines the term “book” broadly to include not only conventional books but also pamphlets, sheets of music, maps, charts, and other similar materials.
  • It does not cover electronic media. It focuses on regulating the print media sector and does not extend to digital news platforms or electronic publications.
  • Under the Act, only the District Magistrate (DM) has the authority to cancel the declaration of a periodical. The Press Registrar General (PRG) does not possess suo motu powers to cancel or suspend the Certificate of Registration granted by it.
  • The Act makes an improper declaration of information a punishable offence with a potential prison term of up to 6 months.
Salient provisions of the Press and Registration of Periodicals (PRP) Bill 2023
  • It simplifies the registration process for periodicals by requiring only a one-time registration with the Press Registrar General (PRG), instead of filing annual statements and declarations before the District Magistrate (DM).
  • It extends the registration requirement to digital news platforms, which were not covered by the previous act. The digital news platforms will have to do a one-time registration with the PRG within six months of the commencement of the act.
  • It gives more powers to the PRG to suspend or cancel the registration of a periodical if it violates any provision of the act or any other law.
  • It prohibits any person who has been convicted of a terrorist act, an unlawful activity, or anything against the security of the state from bringing out a periodical. The PRG can also refuse to register such a person or cancel their registration if they are already registered.
  • It reduces the punishment for publishing a periodical without a certificate of registration or continuing to publish after the suspension or cancellation of registration by the PRG. The previous act provided for imprisonment of up to six months and a fine for such offences. The new bill provides for imprisonment only if the publisher fails to stop publishing within six months of receiving a direction from the PRG.
  • It creates an appellate authority, called the Press and Registration Appellate Board, to hear appeals against the decisions of the PRG. The board will consist of the chairperson and two members of the Press Council of India (PCI), which is a statutory body that oversees media ethics and standards.
  • The PRP Bill 2023 is expected to bring more transparency and accountability in the media sector and also ensure compliance with other laws related to national security, public order, defamation, etc.
  • However, some critics have raised concerns about the potential misuse of the powers given to the PRG and the impact on media freedom and diversity.
More about the News
  • The PRB Act 1867 has been significant legislation in the media industry in India, especially concerning print media. However, with the rapid growth of digital media and online news platforms, there have been calls for modernizing regulations and bringing digital news under a more comprehensive legal framework.
  • The introduction of the Press and Registration of Periodicals (PRP) Bill 2023 is a step towards addressing these issues and updating the regulatory landscape to encompass digital news platforms.
Practice Question: What is the role of the media in a democracy, and why is it considered a significant pillar of democratic governance? Discuss its impact on society, governance, and public opinion. Additionally, highlight some of the challenges faced by the media in fulfilling its democratic role and suggest possible ways forward to address these challenges effectively. (250 words/15 m)

5. ISRO Set to Launch XPoSat: A New Milestone in Space Research

Topic: GS3 – Science and Tech- Achievements of Indians in Science and Tech
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of India’s Space missions
  • The first polarimetry mission of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), XPoSat, is set to launch on January 1st, potentially ushering in the New Year.
  • After the 2015 launch of AstroSat and the recent solar mission Aditya-L1, this mission is India’s third space-based observatory.
Mission Objective:
  • The purpose of XPoSat is to investigate the “polarisation” of astronomical X-rays, which will provide important information about how celestial bodies emit light.
  • Polarimetry is an imaging technique used to analyse astronomical events that also looks at variations in light and energy emitted by celestial bodies.
Scientific Significance:
  • The mission could improve our knowledge of emission mechanisms from a variety of objects, including neutron stars and black holes, especially the collapsing cores of big stars.
  • With two payloads, POLIX (Polarimeter Instrument in X-rays) and XSPECT (X-ray Spectroscopy and Timing), XPoSat is expected to operate for five years.
Payloads and Capabilities
  • With a target energy range of 8-30 keV, POLIX is intended to observe about 40 distinct types of brilliant celestial objects. It will put particular emphasis on polarimetry observations.
  • XSPECT makes use of spectroscopy, an observing technique that studies the electromagnetic spectrum produced by various substances. The capabilities of the mission are expanded by this cargo.
Collaboration and Complementarity
  • The POLIX payload from XPoSat is anticipated to supplement the work of NASA’s Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) satellite, which was launched in 2021 and is operated by the US space agency.
  • POLIX will function in the 2–30 keV energy range, whereas IXPE measures in the 2–8 keV range.
  • This coordination makes it possible to see occurrences in great detail throughout a broad range of energies.
ISRO’s Scientific Surge
  • Scientific missions flowed into ISRO as the Indian space industry opened to private participation.
  • The organization has completed five more missions in addition to Chandrayaan-3 and Aditya L1, exhibiting accomplishments including SSLV’s successful flight, a navigation satellite for the Indian GPS-type service, and a commercial mission using its heaviest LVM3 vehicle.
  • With its advanced polarimetry research, XPoSat promises to make important advances to the knowledge of celestial phenomena, marking a significant milestone in India’s space exploration endeavours.
Importance in Understanding Astronomical Sources
  • Measurements of polarimetry provide a valuable diagnostic for understanding the emission mechanisms of different types of astrophysical objects.
  • The current understanding of complicated emission mechanisms is challenged by astronomical sources such as pulsar wind nebulae, black holes, neutron stars, and active galactic nuclei.
  • The goal is to overcome the current understanding of astronomical emission mechanisms by integrating spectroscopic and timing data with polarimetric observations.
PYQ: India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chadrayaan and Mars Orbitter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space missions. What are the main obstacles to launching a manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics. (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2017) (150 words/10 m)
Practice Question: Examine the potential contributions of XPoSat in advancing our understanding of astronomical phenomena, particularly in the study of the polarisation of X-rays. (150 words/10 m)

6. Lok Sabha passes Bill on CEC, EC appointment.

Topic: GS2 – Polity- Constitutional Bodies 
Critical for UPSC: Lok Sabha passage of Election Commissioners Bill, 2023, restructuring appointments process aligns with Supreme Court directives.
  • The Lok Sabha approves the Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners Bill, 2023, emphasizing the introduction of a search and selection committee for appointments, aligning with Supreme Court directions.
More information on this news:
  • Lok Sabha passes Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, 2023.
  • Limited presence of Opposition members during the passage.
  • Bill previously passed by the Rajya Sabha on December 12.
  • Law Minister Arjun Ram Meghwal highlighted the absence of an appointment clause in the 1991 Election Commission Act.
  • New legislation establishes a search and selection committee for appointing the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and other Election Commissioners.
  • Emphasis on aligning the process with Supreme Court directions, clarifying the “stop-gap” nature of the committee mentioned in the judgment.

7. Analysing the Post Office Bill, 2023.

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity
Crucial for UPSC: Post Office Bill, 2023 addresses interception powers, privacy concerns, and governance of postal services.
  • The Parliament passes the Post Office Bill, 2023, replacing the 1898 Act.
  • Key features include interception provisions, exemption from liability, and privacy concerns. Opposition highlights flaws, while the government emphasizes national security.

The Parliament passes the Post Office Bill, 2023, replacing the colonial-era Indian Post Office Act, 1898.

Aimed at enhancing the effective functioning of the Postal Department for messaging and banking services.

Key Features of the Bill: Allows interception of postal articles on grounds like state security, foreign relations, public order, emergency, and contravention of the Bill or other laws.

Officer-in-charge appointed by the Union government can ‘intercept, open or detain’ postal articles with disposal authority.

Union government can empower Post Office officers to deliver suspected articles to customs or specified authorities

Liability Exemption and Penalties:

Exempts Post Office from service liability unless officers act fraudulently, causing loss, delay, or mis-delivery.

No specified offenses or penalties, except non-payment by users recoverable as arrears of land revenue.

 Concerns Raised by Opposition:

Opposition MPs express privacy concerns, violation of Articles 14, 19(1)(a), and Article 21 of the Constitution.

Bill criticized for encouraging state surveillance and lack of clarity on interception grounds and procedures.

Absence of a grievance redressal mechanism noted, violating principles of natural justice and due process.

Government’s Response and Justifications:

Union Minister stresses the importance of interception for national security in India’s complex society.

Assurance of soon framing rules for interception procedures, ensuring fairness and transparency.

Expert Opinions:

Apar Gupta emphasizes the lack of safeguards, questioning the necessity and justification for interception without proper requirements.

Concerns raised about state surveillance, especially during citizen service deliveries, without adequate safeguards.

Conclusion: The Post Office Bill, 2023, raises significant concerns regarding privacy, surveillance, and procedural safeguards. The government’s assurance of framing interception rules aims to address transparency and fairness concerns.

8. Missing for 42 years, Namdapha flying squirrel resurfaces in Arunachal Pradesh.

Topic: GS3 – Environment and Ecology.
Significant for UPSC: Rediscovery of Namdapha flying squirrel after 42 years highlights biodiversity conservation and research importance.
  • The Namdapha flying squirrel, missing for 42 years, resurfaces in Arunachal Pradesh’s Namdapha Tiger Reserve.
  • Aaranyak’s expedition, led by Firoz Ahmed, spots the elusive mammal, prompting DNA study for confirmation and potential conservation significance.
The Namdapha flying squirrel:
  • Endangered Species: Namdapha flying squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi) is a critically endangered species.
  • Habitat Specificity: Exclusive to Namdapha National Park in Arunachal Pradesh, making it regionally unique.
  • Conservation Challenge: Faces threats from habitat loss due to logging and encroachment, demanding urgent conservation measures.
  • Scientific Significance: Discovered in 1981 and officially described in 1987, its study contributes to understanding and preserving biodiversity.
  • Biodiversity Hotspot: Indigenous to the Eastern Himalayas, its protection is crucial for maintaining the ecological balance of the region.
  • Conservation Strategies: Conservation efforts focus on habitat preservation, as well as raising awareness to garner support for the species.
  • Limited Data: Due to its critically endangered status, there’s a need for comprehensive studies to assess population size and formulate effective conservation strategies.
  • Ecotourism Potential: Protection and promotion of Namdapha National Park can also enhance ecotourism, contributing to the local economy while safeguarding the flying squirrel habitat.

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