28 March 2024 : Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs

28-March -2024- Top News of the Day

1. India TB Report-2024: Missing cases shrinking, 95% got treatment in 2023

Topic: GS2 – Social Justice – Health

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of understanding the trends and progress in tuberculosis (TB) control.


  • The India TB Report 2024, released by the Union Health Ministry, indicates a significant improvement in closing the gap between the estimated number and actual cases of tuberculosis (TB).
  • This reduction in the number of “missing cases” is crucial as it suggests better detection and treatment, preventing further transmission of the infection.
More about the news:

Reduction in Missing Cases: Tracking Progress:

  • According to the report, the number of missing TB cases decreased from 2 lakh in the previous year to 2.3 lakh in 2023.
  • This trend of decreasing missing cases has been consistent over the years, largely attributed to the government’s Ni-kshay portal, which tracks all TB patients, ensuring better surveillance and follow-up.

Increase in Private Sector Reporting: Changing Landscape:

  • While the majority of TB cases are still reported by government health centers, there has been a notable increase in notifications from the private sector.
  • Nearly 33% of the total cases reported in 2023 came from the private sector, reflecting a shift in reporting patterns compared to previous years.

Incidence and Mortality Rates: New Methodology:

  • The estimated incidence of TB in 2023 saw a slight increase to 27.8 lakh cases from the previous year’s estimate of 27.4 lakh.
  • However, the mortality rate due to TB remained constant at 3.2 lakh deaths.
  • These estimates are based on a new methodology developed by India and accepted by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Impact on Mortality Figures: Significant Improvements:

  • The adoption of the in-country model for estimating TB cases and deaths resulted in a notable drop in mortality figures compared to the global report released by the WHO.
  • India’s TB mortality decreased from 94 lakhs in 2021 to 3.31 lakhs in 2022, indicating significant progress in reducing TB-related deaths.

Achieving Treatment Targets: Focus on Drug Susceptibility Testing:

  • The report highlights India’s achievement of initiating treatment in 95% of diagnosed TB patients, meeting the 2023 target.
  • Additionally, there has been a significant increase in the percentage of diagnosed patients offered drug susceptibility testing, rising from 25% in 2015 to 58%.
  • This emphasizes the importance of early detection of drug-resistant TB and the need for appropriate treatment strategies.


  • Overall, the India TB Report 2024 reflects positive trends in TB detection, treatment initiation, and mortality reduction.
  • However, continued efforts are required to sustain these gains and further improve TB control measures, particularly in enhancing private sector participation, expanding drug susceptibility testing, and ensuring access to appropriate therapies for all TB patients.
What are the Steps to be Taken to Mitigate the TB Crisis?


Prioritising the Needs and Interests of Patients and Communities:

  • The needs and the interests of patients and communities must be prioritised within the care paradigm and the health-care system.
  • This principle, echoed by survivors, communities, health experts and policymakers, underscores the need for a person-centred approach to TB care and management.
  • Following an Individual-Centric Approach:
  • The rise of influential advocates among TB survivors who have vigorously pushed for the inclusion of affected communities’ needs in discussions.
  • They have advocated for changes in various areas, leading governments to adjust their approaches to meet these community needs.
  • For example, there has been some progress in providing nutritional support, albeit limited, which marks a significant advancement.
  • Bridge the Gap Between Policy Intent and Ground Realities:
  • There is a need to bridge the gap between policy intent and on-the-ground realities. For instance, India needs to prioritise targeted interventions aimed at improving and expanding access to TB diagnosis and treatment.
  • TB testing facilities must be expanded, particularly in rural and underserved areas, and ensure the availability of free, affordable and quality-assured TB drugs.
  • Molecular testing is the gold standard and less than a quarter of symptomatic patients are getting that as their first test.
  • Making TB Care More Humane:
  • Efforts are needed to strengthen community-based TB care models, empowering frontline health-care workers to deliver comprehensive care which addresses not just treatment but also social, economic and mental health needs and is closer to where patients live.
  • This is important as survivor narratives tell us the stigma, discrimination and mental stress they go through, not to mention the side-effects of treatment.
  • Adopting a Multi-Sectoral Approach:
  • Addressing the socio-economic determinants of TB requires a multi-sectoral approach. Poverty alleviation, improvement in nutritional status, well-ventilated housing and better air quality will all contribute towards reducing TB.
  • By tackling the underlying root causes of TB, India can make significant strides towards eliminating the disease and improving the overall health and well-being of its population.
  • Tapping Technology:
  • Leveraging technology and innovation holds promise in enhancing TB care efforts in India. The adoption of AI and digital health solutions for TB diagnosis, adherence and surveillance can revolutionise the way TB care is delivered and accessed in the country. By investing in developing better vaccines, we can hope to ultimately eliminate this airborne disease.
  • X-ray technology has advanced dramatically. Now, we not only have portable hand-held devices, but also software driven by AI that can read digital X-ray images and detect possible TB with a high degree of certainty.


Practice Question:  Explain the significance of the India TB Report 2024 released by the Union Health Ministry. Discuss the key indicators highlighted in the report and their implications for tuberculosis control efforts in India. (250 words/15 m)

2. Centre Notifies New Wage Rates for MGNREGA Workers: Goa Sees Highest Hike, Uttar Pradesh Lowest

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Government policies – Interventions for development in various sectors

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of understanding the process of setting wage rates for MGNREGA workers provides insights into governance mechanisms and policy implementation in rural development schemes.


  • The Centre recently notified new wage rates for unskilled manual workers under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 2005 for the financial year 2024-2025.
  • Notably, these rates are set to become effective from April 1, 2024. The notification, issued by the Ministry of Rural Development under section 6 of MGNREGA 2005, delineates varied increases in wage rates across different states in India.
More about the news:

State-wise Variations in Wage Hikes:

  • The notification reveals considerable discrepancies in the wage hikes among different states.
  • While Goa experienced the highest hike of 10.56%, with Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand recording the lowest raises of 3.04% each, other states witnessed varying increments.
  • For instance, Haryana saw the highest NREGS wage rate set at Rs 374 per day, whereas Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland had the lowest rate at Rs 234 per day.

Significant Increases in Wage Rates:

  • Certain states such as Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana observed substantial increases in NREGS wages, each witnessing a hike of over 10%.
  • Karnataka’s new wage rate stands at Rs 349 per day, while Andhra Pradesh and Telangana have rates fixed at Rs 300 per day for the financial year 2024-2025, representing an increase of 10.29% compared to the previous fiscal year.

Factors Influencing Wage Adjustments:

  • The wage adjustments are determined based on changes in the Consumer Price Index- Agriculture Labor (CPI-AL), reflecting rural inflation rates.
  • The Central government fixes state-wise wage rates for NREGS workers in accordance with this index.
  • Despite variations in the extent of wage hikes across states, the average increase in wages for the financial year 2024-25 stands at approximately 7%.

Election Commission Approval:

  • The Ministry of Rural Development had sought permission from the Election Commission to notify the revised NREGA wages, which was granted by the poll panel.
  • This highlights the significance of administrative and regulatory procedures in the implementation of welfare schemes such as MGNREGA, particularly in the context of electoral processes and governance.


  • The notification of new wage rates under MGNREGA for the financial year 2024-2025 reflects varying adjustments across states, influenced by factors such as inflation rates and administrative procedures.
  • These adjustments play a crucial role in ensuring equitable wages for unskilled manual workers and addressing rural livelihood challenges.
What is MGNREGA?


  • MGNREGA is the abbreviation for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005.
  • It is a law passed by the Indian government in 2005 that guarantees the “right to work” to rural citizens of India.
  • Under this, the government assures a minimum of 100 days of unskilled manual work to an adult member of an eligible rural household.
  • The main objective of the MGNREGA is to provide employment to rural citizens and improve their economic conditions.
  • Several organizations and people played key roles in championing the cause of the right to work, especially the Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS), renowned development economist Jean Drèze, and many others.
  • ·      MKSS’s initial efforts at organizing workers working on government drought relief programmes spearheaded the way for sustained activism that led to the creation of MGNREGA.
  • What are the key provisions of MGNREGA?
  • Some of the key features of the MGNREGA Act, 2005 include
  • Eligibility Criteria: For receiving the benefits of the MGNREGA Scheme, the following eligibility criteria are to be met by the applicant:
  • Citizen of India
  • 18 years of age at the time of application
  • Rural Household
  • Willing to do unskilled work
  • Guaranteed Employment: The MGNREGA program guarantees 100 days of unskilled employment to all willing rural citizens, at the government-set minimum wage.
  • Unemployment Allowance: If work is not assigned within 15 days, the applicant is entitled to receive an unemployment allowance. This allowance is 1/4 of the minimum wage for the first 30 days and a half for the following period.
  • Social Audit: A social audit is a powerful tool for social transformation, community participation, and government accountability. Section 17 of the MGNREGA has mandated a social audit of all the works executed under the MGNREGA.
  • Preference of employment near residence: The work provided is usually within a 5 km radius of the applicant’s village, with a travel allowance provided for work beyond this radius.
  • Decentralized planning: Panchayati Raj Institutions take the lead role in planning, implementing, and monitoring the allocated and executed works. Gram Sabhas are given the authority to suggest work and are required to carry out at least half of the work.
  • Implementing agencies are responsible for providing proper working conditions, medical facilities, and compensation.
  • Payments are made on a weekly basis and cannot be delayed more than 15 days, with compensation for delays. Complaints can be made and must be addressed within 7 days.


PYQ: Among the following who are eligible to benefit from the “Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act”? (2011)


(a) Adult members of only the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households

(b) Adult members of below poverty line (BPL) households

(c) Adult members of households of all backward communities

(d) Adult members of any household

Ans: (d)

Practice Question:  Critically analyze the recent notification of new wage rates under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) for the financial year 2024-2025. Evaluate the effectiveness of MGNREGA in addressing rural livelihood challenges and its role in promoting inclusive growth and poverty reduction in India. (250 words/15 m)

3. US Sanctions on Russian Shipping: Impact on Indian Crude Oil Trade

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Effect of policies and politics of developed countries on India’s interests

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains as this analysis delves into the implications of US sanctions on Russian shipping for India’s crude oil trade, highlighting the interconnectedness of nations in the global arena.


  • In a significant move, the United States imposed sanctions on Russian shipping major Sovcomflot and its associated tankers, alleging violations of price caps.
  • This action, occurring against the backdrop of previous sanctions targeting Russian oil transportation, has led Indian refiners to avoid oil transported by Sovcomflot tankers to mitigate any risk of secondary sanctions.
More about the news:

Indian Refiners’ Response:

  • Indian refiners, being major buyers of Russian crude, have demonstrated reluctance to accept deliveries from Sovcomflot tankers, fearing repercussions from US/Western sanctions.
  • This reluctance reflects India’s cautious approach to international trade amid geopolitical tensions and the desire to avoid sanctions-related risks.

Impact on Crude Oil Trade:

  • The analysis by commodity market analytics firm Vortexa suggests that while Indian refiners’ avoidance of Sovcomflot tankers may disrupt crude oil trade initially, it is expected to have a muted overall impact on the trade between Moscow and New Delhi.
  • The possibility of deeper discounts on Russian oil is anticipated as buyers may demand stricter compliance with the G7 price cap of $60 per barrel on seaborne Russian crude.

Shift in Delivery Patterns and Opaque Fleet:

  • With Indian refiners scaling back purchases of Russian crude transported by Sovcomflot tankers, deliveries are shifting towards China, another major buyer of Russian oil.
  • However, the presence of a large opaque fleet involved in Russian oil trade suggests minimal impact on both markets from US sanctions, as these vessels operate with obscure ownership structures and lax regulatory oversight.

Diversified Crude Oil Supplier Base:

  • India maintains a highly diversified crude oil supplier base, enabling it to maintain a steady supply even in the event of disruptions from a major supplier.
  • Despite Russia’s emergence as India’s biggest source of crude post-Ukraine conflict, New Delhi’s diversified procurement strategy ensures resilience in its energy supply chain.


  • While US sanctions targeting Russian shipping may initially disrupt crude oil trade patterns, India’s diversified supplier base and cautious approach to trade mitigate the potential impact.
  • The situation underscores the complex interplay of geopolitics, international trade, and energy security in shaping India’s crude oil procurement strategy.
Who are the Top Crude-Oil Suppliers for India?


  • Status of Oil Imports: India currently is the 3rd largest consumer of oil behind the US and China. It imports 85% of its oil needs and this dependence is likely to rise as domestic production falls.
  • India will overtake China as the biggest driver of global oil demand in 2027. Diesel will be the single largest source of demand growth, accounting for almost half of the rise in the nation’s demand (International Energy Agency).
  • Major Oil Suppliers:
  • Russia: Russia is currently India’s largest supplier of oil. Russian oil imports to India surged to 1.53 million barrels per day (bpd) in January, 2024.
  • India capitalised on discounted Russian offers following Western sanctions on Russia (due to Russia-Ukraine Conflict), displacing traditional suppliers.
  • The Urals crude oil grade of Russia has become a cornerstone of India’s energy diversification efforts.
  • Iraq: Iraq is the second-largest source of crude supplier to India, with imports reaching 1.19 million bpd in January 2024, the highest since April 2022.
  • India’s efforts to diversify oil procurement channels aim to mitigate geopolitical risks and ensure a stable energy supply.
  • Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia is India’s third-largest oil supplier and exported approximately 690,172 bpd of crude oil to India in January, 2024 maintaining its position as a key player in India’s energy security landscape.
  • UAE: Oil imports from the UAE surged by 81% in January, 2024 reaching around 326,500 bpd.
  • Abu Dhabi is India’s fourth-largest supplier of crude oil.


PYQ: The term ‘West Texas Intermediate’, sometimes found in news, refers to a grade of (2020)

(a) Crude oil

(b) Bullion

(c) Rare earth elements

(d) Uranium

Ans: (a)

Practice Question:  Discuss the implications of recent US sanctions on Russian shipping, for India’s crude oil trade and energy security. Evaluate the significance of maintaining a diversified crude oil supplier base in ensuring energy security amidst geopolitical tensions.  (250 words/15 m)

4. Now, boys can learn Mohiniyattam at Kalamandalam

Topic: GS1 – Indian Art and Culture – Art Forms

From the UPSC perspective, this topic highlights cultural reforms, gender inclusivity, and societal controversies in the arts domain.

●  Kerala Kalamandalam opens Mohiniyattam courses to boys, lifting gender restrictions, following a controversy involving derogatory remarks made by a dancer.

 Additional information on this news:

  • Kerala Kalamandalam, renowned for arts and culture education, has removed gender restrictions for Mohiniyattam courses.
  • The decision was unanimously made in a governing council meeting.
  • Boys can now enroll in Mohiniyattam courses starting from the next academic year.
  • The move followed controversy over alleged derogatory remarks by dancer Kalamandalam Sathyabhama against R.L.V. Ramakrishnan.
  • A performance by Mr. Ramakrishnan at Kalamandalam triggered the decision.
  • Mohiniyattam education is available up to postgraduate level at Kalamandalam.
  • Sathyabhama’s comments faced widespread criticism, leading to legal action by Kerala State Human Rights Commission and SC/ST commissions.
Indian Classical Dances:
  • Bharatanatyam:
  • Origin: Tamil Nadu.
  • Features: Intricate footwork, hand gestures (mudras), facial expressions, and elaborate costumes.
  • Themes: Often depict stories from Hindu mythology and ancient texts.
  • Techniques: Emphasises precise movements, rhythmic patterns, and expressive storytelling.
  • Influence: Highly revered for its spiritual and cultural significance.
  • Kathak:
  • Origin: Northern India.
  • Characteristics: Rhythmic footwork, pirouettes (chakkars), storytelling through mime, and vibrant costumes.
  • Expressions: Emphasis on facial expressions (abhinaya) to convey emotions and narratives.
  • Music: Accompanied by Hindustani classical music.
  • Odissi:
  • Origin: Odisha.
  • Style: Fluid movements, sculpturesque poses, and expressions inspired by temple sculptures.
  • Themes: Often draw inspiration from the life of Lord Krishna and stories of Radha.
  • Costume: Elaborate traditional attire, including jewellery and makeup.
  • Music: Accompanied by Odissi music, characterised by unique rhythms and melodies.
  • Kuchipudi:
  • Origin: Andhra Pradesh.
  • Blend: Combines dance, drama, and music.
  • Characteristics: Graceful movements, intricate footwork, and storytelling.
  • Themes: Draw from Hindu mythology, folklore, and social themes.
  • Performances: Traditionally performed by both male and female dancers.
  • Kathakali:
  • Origin: Kerala.
  • Style: Highly stylized dance-drama.
  • Makeup: Elaborate facial makeup (chutti), vibrant costumes, and exaggerated expressions.
  • Stories: Often based on epics like the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
  • Movements: Characterised by powerful, exaggerated gestures and facial expressions.
  • Mohiniyattam:
  • Origin: Kerala.
  • Style: Characterised by gentle swaying movements, subtle expressions, and graceful gestures.
  • Theme: Celebrates feminine beauty and grace.
  • Music: Accompanied by Carnatic music, often featuring themes of love and devotion.
  • Costumes: White or off-white sarees with gold borders, adorned with traditional jewellery.
PYQ: Discuss the Tandava dance as recorded in the early Indian inscriptions. (100 words/5m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-1 2013)
Practice Question:  Discuss the cultural significance and distinguishing features of any two Indian classical dance forms, highlighting their regional origins, thematic content, and technical elements. (250 Words /15 marks)

5. ‘India achieves 16% decline in new TB cases since 2015’

Topic: GS2 – Social security – Health

The topic is significant for UPSC as it assesses India’s healthcare achievements and challenges, reflecting on public policy effectiveness.

●     The news highlights India’s progress in reducing tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality rates since 2015, with increased private healthcare sector involvement.

 Additional information on this news:

  • India has witnessed a significant decline in tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality rates since 2015.
  • Incidence rate dropped from 237 to 199 per lakh population, and mortality rate declined from 28 to 23 per lakh population by 2022.
  • The Union Health Ministry’s India TB report 2024 highlights a 16% reduction in incidence and an 18% decrease in mortality since 2015.
  • Private healthcare sector notifications rose to 32% of all TB cases in 2023, marking a 17% increase from the previous year.
  • The National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (NTEP) intensified efforts post-COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on accelerating TB elimination.
  • NTEP provided free diagnostic services, conducting approximately 1.89 crore sputum smear tests, guided by the National Strategic Plan 2017–25.
Tuberculosis and Burden on India


● Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

●  It primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body like the kidneys, spine, and brain.

● TB spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, making it easily transmissible in crowded or poorly ventilated environments.

● Common symptoms include persistent cough, chest pain, weight loss, fatigue, and night sweats.

● TB is a major global health concern, with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths annually.

●Factors contributing to the high TB burden in India include poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, and limited access to healthcare services.

● Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics taken over several months, but drug-resistant TB strains pose a significant challenge to effective treatment.

●Efforts to control TB include early diagnosis, access to quality treatment, public awareness campaigns, and strengthening healthcare systems.

Burden on India:

●  High Burden:  India had the highest number of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the world in 2022, accounting for 27% of the world’s total cases.  In 2022, an estimated 2.82 million people contracted TB, with a  with a case fatality ratio of 12 per cent. [Indian Express].

● Decreasing Rates: The Union Health Ministry’s India TB report 2024 highlights a 16% reduction in incidence and an 18% decrease in mortality since 2015, exceeding the global average decrease [Press Information Bureau].

Practice Question:  Examine the impact of India’s initiatives in tuberculosis control on public health outcomes and healthcare delivery. (150 Words /10 marks)

6. Is Australia’s carbon credit scheme a ‘catastrophe’?

Topic: GS3 – Environment

The topic is crucial for UPSC as it evaluates environmental policies, carbon trading, and sustainability challenges in global contexts.

●     The news discusses how Australia’s carbon credit scheme faces criticism due to underperforming reforestation projects, raising doubts about its effectiveness in offsetting emissions.

 Additional information on this news:

  • Australia’s carbon credit scheme faced criticism as research revealed underperforming reforestation projects, failing to offset emissions effectively.
  • Reforestation efforts across 80% of designated areas showed stagnant growth or woodland shrinkage, contrary to expectations.
  • Despite this, Australia had amassed millions of tonnes in questionable carbon credits from these projects, used to offset polluting industries.
  • The scheme encompasses nearly 42 million hectares, touted as one of the world’s largest natural carbon offset projects.
  • However, the peer-reviewed study using satellite imagery raised doubts about the claimed carbon sequestration figures.
  • Australia’s Clean Energy Regulator defended the integrity of the carbon offsets, stating they’re issued only where projects demonstrate native forest regeneration.
  • Despite controversy, Australian Climate Change Minister Chris Bowen maintains confidence in the scheme’s underlying assumptions.
  • Australia aims to reduce carbon emissions by 43% by 2030 and achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 but faces challenges amid its high per capita emissions and continued reliance on fossil fuels.
What is Carbon Credit?

● Carbon credits are tradable permits that represent the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or its equivalent.

● They are a key component of emissions trading, aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

● Carbon credits are typically generated by projects that reduce, avoid, or remove greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere.

● These projects can include renewable energy installations, reforestation efforts, and energy efficiency initiatives.

●  Once a project is verified to have reduced emissions, it earns carbon credits, which can be sold to organisations or governments to offset their own emissions.

●  Carbon credits play a vital role in incentivizing climate-friendly practices and mitigating climate change.

PYQ: Should the pursuit of carbon credit and the clean development mechanism set up under UNFCCC be maintained even though there has been a massive slide in the value of carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth.

(200 words/12.5m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2014)

Practice Question:  Discuss the significance of carbon credits in combating climate change and their role in promoting sustainable development.

(150 Words /10 marks)

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