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9 Feb 2024 : Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs

9-February-2024- Top News of the Day

1. Centre Approves Pradhan Mantri Matsya Kisan Samridhi SahYojana

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Government policies – Interventions for development in various sectors

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of Understanding the implications of government policies and agreements.
Context:
  • The Centre, under the chairmanship of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, approved the “Pradhan Mantri Matsya Kisan Samridhi SahYojana (PM-MKSSY)” as a central sector sub-scheme aimed at formalizing and supporting the fisheries sector and fisheries micro and small enterprises.

More about the news:
Investment and Duration of PM-MKSSY:

  • An investment exceeding Rs 6,000 crore will be made over a four-year period from financial year 2023-24 to 2026-27 in all States/Union Territories, emphasizing a significant financial commitment towards the development of the fisheries sector.

Creation of National Fisheries Digital Platform:

  • As part of the PM-MKSSY initiative, a National Fisheries Digital Platform will be established to provide work-based identities to 40 lakh small and micro-enterprises, indicating a digital transformation within the sector to enhance efficiency and inclusivity.

Extension of Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF):

  • The Cabinet also approved the extension of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF) for another three years up to 2025-26, within the previously approved fund size of Rs 7,522.48 crore, demonstrating continued support for infrastructure development in the fisheries sector.

Conclusion:

  • The approval of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Kisan Samridhi SahYojana (PM-MKSSY), extension of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF), reflect the government’s commitment to promoting growth and development across various sectors.
  • These initiatives signify a concerted effort towards fostering economic prosperity and enhancing infrastructure in key areas of focus.
What is the Blue Revolution?
About:

  • The Blue Revolution, with its multi-dimensional activities, focuses mainly on increasing fisheries production and productivity from aquaculture and fisheries resources, both inland and marine.

Objectives:

  • To increase overall fish production in a responsible and sustainable manner for economic prosperity
  • To modernise the fisheries with a special focus on new technologies
  • To ensure food and nutritional security
  • To generate employment and export earnings
  • To ensure inclusive development and empower fishers and aquaculture farmers
PYQ: Define blue revolution, explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India. (250 words/15m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-1 2018)
Practice Question:  Discuss the significance of the Centre’s approval of the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Kisan Samridhi SahYojana. (150 words/10 m)

2. Finance Minister Presents White Paper Comparing Economic Governance Records of UPA and NDA Governments

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of understanding the economic policies and governance strategies of different governments.
Context:
  • Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman presented a “white paper” on the Indian economy in Parliament, comparing the economic governance records of Congress-led UPA governments from 2004-05 to 2013-14 with those of BJP-led NDA governments from 2014-15 to 2023-24.

More about the news:
Understanding a White Paper:

  • A white paper typically provides information on a specific issue, aiming to inform the public about the problem’s nature, scope, and potential solutions.
  • However, the document presented in Parliament is more of a comparison between two government records rather than addressing a specific issue, making it less of a traditional white paper.

Purpose of Presenting the White Paper:

  • The white paper was presented at the end of 10 years to inform about the economic situation inherited by the NDA government in 2014 and the policies implemented to address the challenges.
  • It aims to generate informed debate on governance, fiscal responsibility, and national interest, echoing Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s call for national development.

Objectives of the White Paper:

  • The white paper has four main objectives:
    • to inform about the economic and fiscal crises inherited by the NDA government,
    • to highlight the policies and measures taken to revive the economy since 2014,
    • to encourage informed debate on governance priorities,
    • to align with the vision for national development articulated by Prime Minister Modi.

Key Claims in the White Paper:

  • The white paper discusses the macroeconomic situation during the UPA rule, corruption scandals, and the NDA government’s efforts to turn the economy around.
  • It highlights issues such as high inflation, fiscal deficit, and policy paralysis during the UPA era, contrasting them with achievements under the NDA, including lower inflation and successful implementation of schemes like Swachh Bharat and financial inclusion.

Conclusion:

  • Analyzing the economy over two decades is complex, influenced by various factors such as global oil prices.
  • While the white paper highlights NDA achievements, it overlooks challenges like unemployment and poverty.
  • The absence of comprehensive data and critical issues raises questions about the white paper’s completeness and objectivity in assessing the economy’s performance over the years.
What’s Black Paper?
A Black Paper presents a critical or dissenting viewpoint on a particular topic, issue, or policy. It challenges prevailing narratives, policies, or viewpoints through critical analysis, addressing controversial subjects, providing evidence, and proposing alternative approaches.
Characteristics of Black Papers:

  • Critical Analysis: Involves critical analysis and evaluation of existing policies, practices, or viewpoints.
  • Oppositional Stance: Expresses opposition or dissent, challenging prevailing narratives or perspectives.
  • Controversial Topics: Often addresses contentious or controversial topics, offering alternative viewpoints or interpretations.
  • Evidence-Based Arguments: Relies on evidence, data, and logical arguments to support critical assessment and perspective.
  • Advocacy for Change: May advocate for policy changes, reforms, or alternative approaches to address perceived deficiencies or injustices.

Practice Question:  Discuss the implications of the Finance Minister’s presentation of a white paper comparing the economic governance records of UPA and NDA governments on India’s economic trajectory and governance. Analyze the significance of such comparisons in shaping public policy, fostering accountability, and guiding future economic reforms in the country.
(250 words/15 m)

3. Supreme Court Reserves Judgment in Scheduled Castes Sub-Classification Case, Pivotal Decision Awaits

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Government policies

GS2 – Polity – Judiciary
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of knowing about sub-classification of Scheduled Castes (SCs) and the implications of this case.
Context:
  • A seven-judge Constitution Bench, led by Chief Justice of India D Y Chandrachud, has reserved judgment in the sub-classification among Scheduled Castes (SCs) case, marking a pivotal moment in the ongoing legal debate surrounding reservation policies.

More about the news:
Background and Legal Framework:

  • Several states advocate for sub-classification within the SC quota to address underrepresentation of certain castes, proposing a separate quota within the existing 15% reservation for SCs.
  • However, a 2004 ruling by a five-judge Constitution Bench in EV Chinnaiah v State of Andhra Pradesh emphasized that only the President can notify communities eligible for reservation under Article 341, prohibiting states from altering this list.

Legal Challenges and Appeals:

  • Punjab’s attempt in 1975 to divide its SC reservation for Balmiki and Mazhabi Sikh communities faced legal scrutiny, leading to subsequent legislative and judicial battles.
  • Despite efforts to reintroduce reservation preferences, legal challenges persisted, culminating in a Supreme Court referral to a five-judge Constitution Bench in 2014.

Reconsideration and Subsequent Developments:

  • In 2020, a Constitution Bench, led by Justice Arun Mishra, questioned the premise of the 2004 ruling and suggested its reconsideration, arguing that not all SCs are homogeneous.
  • Moreover, the concept of a “creamy layer” has influenced SC reservations, as upheld in the 2018 Jarnail Singh v Lachhmi Narain Gupta case.
  • With the recent seven-judge Bench hearing, the issue gains renewed scrutiny.

Arguments and Perspectives:

  • Advocates for sub-classification argue that states should have the power to address underrepresentation effectively, citing Article 16(4) and the introduction of Article 342A.
  • They contend that the Chinnaiah ruling is outdated in this context.
  • Conversely, opponents assert that all SCs suffer from untouchability’s stigma and argue against hierarchical comparisons among SCs, emphasizing the Constituent Assembly’s intentions.

Conclusion:

  • The debate over sub-classification within SC reservations underscores complex legal and constitutional considerations regarding affirmative action policies in India.
  • The pending judgment from the Constitution Bench will likely have far-reaching implications on reservation policies, governance, and social justice in the country.
What are the Major Aspects Related to Subcategorisation of SC in India?
About:

  • Subcategorisation refers to the division or classification of a larger category into smaller, more specific subcategories based on certain criteria or characteristics.
  • In the context of SC in India, subcategorisation may involve further classification within the SC group based on factors such as socioeconomic status or historical disadvantages.

Madiga Community’s Struggle:

  • The Madiga community, constituting 50% of SCs in Telangana, has faced challenges in accessing government benefits intended for SCs due to dominance by the Mala community.
  • Despite their substantial population, the Madiga community argued that it has been excluded from SC-related initiatives.
  • They have been struggling since 1994 for the sub-categorisation of SCs and it was this demand that first led to the formation of the Justice P. Ramachandra Raju Commission in 1996 and later a National Commission in 2007.

Similar Issue Across States:

  • SC communities in various states have reported similar challenges, leading to the formation of commissions by both State and Union governments.
  • States like Punjab, Bihar, and Tamil Nadu attempted sub-categorisation at the state level, but these efforts are currently tied up in legal battles.
PYQ: With reference to ‘Changpa’ community of India, consider the following statements:(2014)

  1. They live mainly in the State of Uttarakhand.
  2. They rear the Pashmina goats that yield a fine wool.
  3. They are kept in the category of Scheduled Tribes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans: (b)

Practice Question:  Examine the constitutional and legal intricacies surrounding the debate on sub-classification within Scheduled Castes (SCs) for reservation benefits in India. (150 words/10 m)

4. India to Commence LNG Supply to Sri Lanka; Petronet LNG to Operate Offshore Terminal

Topic: GS2 – International relations – India and its neighbourhood.

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of understanding India’s engagement with neighboring countries like Sri Lanka, particularly in the context of energy cooperation.
Context:
  • India is set to commence the supply of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to Sri Lanka by the end of next year.
  • The supply operations, facilitated by tankers transporting LNG to Colombo, will be managed by Petronet LNG, India’s largest LNG terminal operator.
  • The agreement entails Petronet LNG providing approximately 850 tonnes per day of LNG to Sri Lanka over a period of five years.
  • Concurrently, Petronet LNG plans to construct and operate an offshore regasification terminal at the Colombo port to facilitate the reception and utilization of LNG.

More about the news:
Terminal Construction and Operational Plans:

  • Petronet LNG aims to construct and commission a floating storage regasification unit (FSRU) within the stipulated timeline.
  • This FSRU, essentially a regasification unit housed on a vessel, will enable the efficient delivery and processing of LNG.
  • The project is expected to materialize by 2028, pending formal approval from the Sri Lankan government.
  • The estimated cost for the FSRU project stands at approximately Rs 2,500 crore, with detailed feasibility assessments awaiting governmental consent.

Logistics and Operational Details:

  • To meet Sri Lanka’s LNG requirements, Petronet LNG anticipates deploying a fleet of tankers, with an estimated frequency of one supply every two days.
  • The LNG supply will originate from Petronet LNG’s Kochi terminal, leveraging existing long-term purchase agreements with suppliers in Qatar and Australia.
  • Furthermore, Petronet LNG is enhancing the capacity of its Dahej terminal and plans to construct a 4-mtpa FSRU at Gopalpur in Odisha to accommodate increased demand and diversify supply sources.

Future Gas Procurement Strategies:

  • Given the expansion of regasification capacity, Petronet LNG and its promoter companies are exploring additional long-term LNG procurement through contractual arrangements.
  • While long-term contracts ensure pricing stability, spot contracts continue to play a role in meeting demand flexibility.
  • Petronet LNG’s strategic expansion and procurement initiatives underscore India’s commitment to bolstering energy infrastructure and fostering regional energy cooperation.
What is the Significance of Bilateral Relations Between these two Countries?
  • Focus on Regional Development: India’s development is closely tied to the neighborhood, and Sri Lanka seeks integration with the Southern economy to boost its own growth.
  • Geographical Location: Sri Lanka is located just off the southern coast of India, separated by the Palk Strait. This proximity has played a significant role in shaping the relationship between the two countries.
  • The Indian Ocean is a strategically important waterway for trade and military operations, and Sri Lanka’s location at the crossroads of major shipping lanes makes it a critical point of control for India.
  • Ease of Doing Business & Tourism: The adoption of UPI will contribute to economic integration and ease of doing business between India and Sri Lanka. It will not only facilitate trade but also enhance connectivity for tourism between the two countries.
PYQ: In respect of India — Sri Lanka relations, discuss how domestic factors influence foreign policy. (200 words/10m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2013)
Practice Question:  Discuss the significance of India’s plan to commence LNG supply to Sri Lanka considering its implications on bilateral relations, energy security, and economic cooperation between the two countries.
(250 words/15 m)

5. Will scrap Free Movement Regime on Myanmar border, says Amit Shah

Topic: GS3 – Internal Security – Security challenges and their management in border areas


GS2 – International Relations – Bilateral Relations
UPSC Perspective: Scrapping the Free Movement Regime (FMR) impacts border security and reflects demographic and governance concerns in Northeast India.
Context
  • India plans scrapping the Free Movement Regime (FMR) along the Myanmar border for internal security, citing lack of standard documents and border pass concerns.
  • Construction of fence has also been announced.

 Additional information on this news:

  • Union Home Minister Amit Shah announced the scrapping of the Free Movement Regime (FMR) along the India-Myanmar border for internal security and demographic reasons.
  • The FMR allowed tribal people within 16 km on both sides of the border to cross with few restrictions, using a border pass valid for a year, for a stay of up to two weeks per visit.
  • The decision to suspend the FMR was recommended by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) as part of Government’s commitment to securing borders.
  • India and Myanmar share a 1,643-km-long border, with the FMR provisions last revised in 2016.
  • The government had initially planned to fence a 10 km stretch in Manipur in 2010, with only 6.81 km of fencing completed by 2022-23, despite earlier efforts by the UPA government.
  • Drawbacks of the FMR included the lack of a standard document or border pass recognized by both countries, and implementation through state government officials rather than a centralized force.
  • There was no mechanism to track entry dates of individuals, and concerns were raised about the potential misuse of the FMR.
  • Home Minister Amit Shah has also announced the construction of a fence along the entire 1,643-km border with Myanmar on February 6.
PYQ: Cross-border movement of insurgents is only one of the several security challenges facing the policing of the border in North-East India. Examine the various challenges currently emanating across the India-Myanmar border. Also, discuss the steps to counter the challenges.
(250 words/15m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2019)
Practice Question:  Discuss the need and implications of India’s decision to scrap the Free Movement Regime (FMR) along the India-Myanmar border for national security and regional demographics. (250 words/15 m)

6. ‘India’s Kaladan project in Myanmar in limbo as rebels control key town’

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Bilateral Relations


UPSC Perspective: Kaladan project setback reveals regional instability; vital for understanding geopolitical challenges in India’s connectivity projects and Myanmar’s internal conflicts.
Context
  • The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project faces setbacks as the rebel Arakan Army captures Paletwa in Myanmar, hindering the crucial Indian connectivity project with Southeast Asia.

 Additional information on this news:

  • The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project (KMTTP), is a key Indian connectivity project with Southeast Asia, faces setbacks.
  • The rebel Arakan Army (AA) captured Myanmar’s Paletwa township, crucial for the Kaladan project, leading to its near demise.
  • The KMTTP aimed to connect Kolkata’s port to Sittwe in Rakhine, then to Mizoram via road and the Kaladan River.
  • The AA controls major towns and supply routes in Rakhine, impacting the $500-million Kaladan project.
  • The conflict between the AA and Myanmar’s military junta is fueled by nationalist aspirations, unlike the religious roots of the Rohingya crisis.
  • The AA’s capture of Paletwa raises concerns about a tripartite conflict involving the junta’s forces, AA, and rebels in Chin State.
  • The AA aims to control the entire Rakhine State, targeting the historic Sittwe port and airport, potentially by summer.

Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project
  • Kaladan Project: The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project is a strategic infrastructure initiative connecting the eastern Indian seaport of Kolkata to Myanmar’s Sittwe port.
  • Transport Modes: Encompasses a combination of river transport, road, and sea routes.
  • Trade Corridor: Aims to create a trade corridor, enhancing connectivity between India’s northeastern states and the Bay of Bengal.
  • Sittwe Port: Involves the development of the Sittwe port in Myanmar and the construction of an inland waterway to Mizoram in India.
  • Regional Integration: Fosters economic integration and trade between India and Myanmar, facilitating access to Southeast Asian markets.
  • Strategic Importance: Enhances connectivity for the northeastern region, reducing dependency on traditional routes through India.
  • Cross-Border Cooperation: A joint effort showcasing collaboration in infrastructure development between India and Myanmar.
Practice Question:  Examine the geopolitical implications of the Arakan Army’s control over Paletwa on India’s Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project and its broader strategic ramifications. (150 words/10 m)

7. Women head only 5% of Information Commissions: report

Topic: GS2 – Indian Polity – Statutory Bodies – Appointments

UPSC Perspective: Examining gender disparity in Information Commissions sheds light on governance, diversity, and transparency issues in public institutions.
Context
  • Report flags gender disparity in Information Commissions, revealing only 5% led by women, none currently.
  • The report also highlights low disposal rates and untimely appointments.

 Additional information on this news:

  • Report reveals lack of diversity in Information Commissions; only 5% headed by women, none currently.
  • Since 2005, only 9% of all information commissioners in India have been women.
  • 41% of Information Commissions have never had a woman commissioner.
  • Out of 465 commissioners, 58% were retired government officials, 14% lawyers or former judges, 11% from journalism, 5% academics, 4% social activists.
  • Several commissions return many cases without orders, some show low disposal rates.
  • The report also highlights the issue of untimely appointments to Information Commissions.
Gender equality in Appointments at Constitutional/Statutory Bodies
  • Inclusive Representation: Gender equality ensures fair representation of both men and women in constitutional posts, reflecting the diversity of the population.
  • Diverse Perspectives: Women bring unique perspectives and experiences to decision-making, enriching discussions and policies with a broader range of ideas.
  • Enhanced Governance: A balanced representation fosters a more inclusive and responsive government, addressing a wider array of issues and concerns affecting all citizens.
  • Role Modeling: Women in leadership positions serve as role models, inspiring future generations and breaking stereotypes, contributing to a more equitable society.
  • Economic Impact: Promoting gender equality in appointments can contribute to economic growth by harnessing the full potential of the organisation’s mandate.
  • Social Cohesion: Balanced representation promotes social harmony and cohesion, reducing gender-based disparities and fostering a more just and equitable society.
PYQ: Explain the Constitutional perspective of Gender justice with the help of relevant Constitutional Provisions and case laws.
(250 words/15m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2023)
Practice Question:  How does gender equality in constitutional appointments enhance governance and societal harmony in India? Discuss key advantages and challenges. (150 words/10 m)

8. With CRISPR poised to revolutionise therapy, a pause to consider ethics

Topic: GS3 – Science and Technology – Development and their applications
CRISPR’s transformative role in gene editing, addressing genetic disorders, healthcare equity, and ethical considerations is vital for UPSC aspirants’ awareness.
Context
  • The article explores the revolutionary impact of CRISPR technology in gene editing, focusing on its applications in treating genetic disorders like sickle cell anemia.
  • It also addresses shortcoming in regulatory frameworks in India, ethical concerns, and the need for equitable healthcare access.

 CRISPR Technology Overview:

  • The CRISPR system in bacteria serves as a warehouse for past infections by storing viral genetic material and incorporating it into its own, providing immunity against future attacks.
  • Inspired by German ghost stories, Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein 200 years ago, exploring themes of creating life.

Applications of CRISPR Technology:

  • Casgevy and Lyfgenia, cell-based gene therapies, use CRISPR/Cas9 for treating sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia.
  • CRISPR/Cas system is versatile, enabling precise DNA manipulation for treating genetic disorders, modifying crops, and even de-extinction projects.

Challenges in Sickle Cell Anemia Treatment:

  • Sickle cell anemia affects over 20 million people in India, primarily in economically backward populations.
  • Casgevy, costing $2.2 million per patient, highlights the need for affordable CRISPR-based treatments.
  • Limited healthcare access for tribal populations exacerbates the challenge of treating genetic disorders.

Efforts to Address Healthcare Disparities:

  • The Sickle Cell Anemia Elimination Mission in India aims to strengthen healthcare systems for equitable access.
  • Government involvement, scientific collaboration, and industry partnerships are crucial for making therapies accessible globally.

Regulatory Framework for CRISPR in India:

  • CRISPR research in India is governed by existing legal and regulatory frameworks, including the New Drugs and Clinical Trials Rules (2019).
  • Oversight by organizations such as CDSCO, RCGM, and GEAC ensures adherence to ethical guidelines in biomedical research.

Germline Editing and Ethical Concerns:

  • The controversy around germline editing involves ethical considerations, particularly regarding heritable changes.
  • Genome editing is currently restricted to somatic cells, with a moratorium on germline editing, but long-term effects are still not fully understood.

Public Engagement and Societal Implications:

  • Ongoing dialogues around ethical, societal, and safety issues are essential as CRISPR technology evolves.
  • Concerns include the potential commodification of gene editing and a divide between wealthy and less affluent nations in accessing therapies.

Importance of Ethics in CRISPR Research:

  • The success and societal acceptance of CRISPR depend on the integration of ethics in research work.
  • Open dialogues, community engagement, education, and truthful communication are crucial to building trust among stakeholders.
Gene Editing and Concerns
  • Potential benefits: Treating and preventing genetic diseases, improving food crops, combating climate change.
  • Major concerns:
    • Safety: Unintended consequences, off-target effects, long-term risks.
    • Germline editing: Changes passed to future generations, raising ethical dilemmas.
    • Eugenics: Selecting desirable traits, exacerbating social inequalities.
    • Accessibility: Potential for technology to widen access gaps in healthcare.
    • Informed consent: Ensuring understanding and fair participation in research.
    • Human dignity: Questions about altering fundamental human characteristics.
    • Regulation: Balancing innovation with responsible use.
Practice Question:  Examine the ethical considerations surrounding gene editing technologies, highlighting potential risks and benefits. Discuss the role of regulatory frameworks and global governance in ensuring responsible and equitable use. (150 words/10 m)

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