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PIB Summary for UPSC

8-February -2024

1. Central Government's Initiatives to Address Cyber Crimes

Topic: GS3 – Challenges to internal security through communication networks – Cyber Security
Critical for UPSC: Addresses national cybersecurity through I4C, State coordination, financial fraud prevention, and public awareness initiatives.
Context
  • The Indian government strengthens cybercrime response with I4C initiatives, blocking SIMs, financial fraud prevention, and awareness campaigns.
 Central Government’s Initiatives to Address Cyber Crimes Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C):
  • Established by the Ministry of Home Affairs to deal with all types of cyber crime in a coordinated and comprehensive manner.
Joint Cyber Coordination Teams (JCCTs):
  • Seven teams constituted for specific regions/hotspots.
  • Workshops organized in various cities for JCCTs in 2023 to enhance coordination among Law Enforcement Agencies.
National Cyber Forensic Laboratory:
  • Part of I4C, located in New Delhi, providing early-stage cyber forensic assistance to Investigating Officers (IOs) of State/UT Police.
  • Services include mobile forensics, memory forensics, Call Data Record (CDR) Analysis, etc.
National Cyber Crime Reporting Portal:
  • Launched as part of I4C to enable the public to report cyber crimes.
  • Special focus on crimes against women and children.
  • Incident reporting, conversion into FIRs, and subsequent actions handled by State/UT Law Enforcement Agencies.
Citizen Financial Cyber Fraud Reporting and Management System:
  • Launched under I4C for immediate reporting of financial frauds.
  • More than Rs. 1200 Crore saved in over 4.7 lakh complaints.
  • Toll-free Helpline number ‘1930’ operationalized for online cyber complaints.
CyTrain Portal:
  • MOOC platform developed under I4C for capacity building of police and judicial officers.
  • Over 76,000 police officers registered, more than 53,000 certificates issued.
Blocking of SIM Cards and IMEIs:
  • Government of India has blocked over 3.2 lakhs SIM cards and 49,000 IMEIs based on reports from police authorities.
Cyber Hygiene Training:
  • I4C provided cyber hygiene training to 6,000 officials of various Ministries/Departments and more than 23,000 NCC cadets.
Financial Assistance and Schemes:
  • Ministry of Home Affairs provided Rs. 122.24 crores under the ‘Cyber Crime Prevention against Women and Children (CCPWC)’ scheme.
  • Funding used for capacity building, setting up cyber forensic-cum-training laboratories, and training LEAs’ personnel, public prosecutors, and judicial officers.
National Cyber Forensic Laboratory (Evidence):
  • Set up at Hyderabad to provide necessary forensic support, evidence preservation, and analysis in cyber crime cases.
Awareness Initiatives:
  • Various mediums used, including SMS, social media, radio campaigns, and collaborations with MyGov.
  • Cyber Safety and Security Awareness weeks organized.
  • Handbook for Adolescents/Students published.
CERT-In (Computer Emergency Response Team – India):
  • Issues alerts and advisories regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities.
  • Advises authorized entities and banks issuing pre-paid payment instruments (wallets) to carry out special audits and implement security best practices.
Joint Awareness Campaign with RBI:
  • CERT-In and RBI jointly conduct a cyber security awareness campaign on ‘beware and be aware of financial frauds’ through the Digital India Platform.
PYQ: What are the different elements of cyber security? Keeping in view the challenges in cyber security, examine the extent to which India has successfully developed a comprehensive National Cyber Security Strategy. (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2022) (250 words/15 m)

2. NATIONAL POLICY TO COMBAT LEFT WING EXTREMISM

Topic: GS3 – Internal security – Role of external state and non-state actors
Critical for UPSC: Understands constitutional roles, national policy tackling Left Wing Extremism, security measures, development initiatives.
Context
  • Government combats Left Wing Extremism with holistic policy, emphasizing security, development, and community rights, leading to significant decline.
 Left Wing Extremism (LWE) Policy and Action Plan:  Constitutional Authority:
  • Subjects of Police and Public Order under the Seventh Schedule belong to State Governments.
National Policy and Action Plan (2015):
  • Holistic approach addressing LWE through security measures, development interventions, and community rights.
Security Measures:
  • GoI supports affected States with CAPF battalions, training, modernization funds, equipment, intelligence sharing, and fortified police stations.
Financial Assistance (2018-19 to 2022-23):
  • 4931 crore released for capacity building under Special Infrastructure Scheme, Security Related Expenditure, and Special Central Assistance schemes.
  • Additional Rs. 765 crore for helicopters and critical infrastructure under ACALWEM Scheme.
Development Initiatives:
  • Road Network: 13620 km roads constructed.
  • Telecom Connectivity: 13823 towers sanctioned, over 3700 commissioned.
  • Financial Inclusion: 4903 new Post Offices, 955 Bank Branches, and 839 ATMs in 30 Most LWE Affected Districts.
  • Skill Development: 46 ITIs and 49 Skill Development Centres in LWE districts.
  • Education: 130 Eklavya Model Residential Schools in LWE affected areas.
Results and Impact:
  • Consistent decline in violence and geographical spread.
  • LWE-related incidents and deaths reduced by 73% and 86% respectively in 2023 compared to 2010.
  • Number of Police Stations reporting LWE violence reduced from 465 in 2010 to 171 in 2023.
  • SRE districts reduced from 126 to 70 by July 2021.
Geographical Constriction:
  • Resolute implementation led to constriction of geographical spread and decline in the number of SRE districts.
Overall Decline:
  • Reflects a strategic and effective reduction in LWE-related violence and its impact on affected areas.
PYQ: What are the determinants of left-wing extremism in Eastern part of India? What strategy should Government of India, civil Administration and security forces adopt to counter the threat in the affected areas? (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2020) (250 words/15 m)
Practice Question:  Discuss the multidimensional approach of the Indian government in addressing Left Wing Extremism, emphasizing security measures, development initiatives, and its impact on the affected regions. (250 words/15 m)

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