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Daily Current Affairs

15-December-2023

1. Allahabad High Court Approves Survey in Sri Krishna Janmabhoomi-Shahi Idgah Masjid Dispute: A Closer Look at Hindu-Muslim Claims and Legal Proceedings

Topic: GS2 – Polity and Governance, GS1- Culture

This topic is relevant for UPSC Mains in the context of historical and cultural issues and their legal implications

Context:
  • The ongoing issue about the Shahi Idgah Masjid and Sri Krishna Janmabhoomi has been taken up by the Allahabad High Court.
  • Hindu petitioners claim that the mosque, which was built in 1670 on Emperor Aurangzeb’s instructions, coexists with the Krishna Janmasthal Temple nearby on the site of Lord Krishna’s birth.
  • A recent application to appoint a panel to inspect the mosque complex was spurred by the controversy.

The Latest Plea and Survey Approval

  • The latest application, which was submitted in accordance with Order 26 Rule 9 of the Civil Procedure Code, is a component of a larger petition (353/2023) that was submitted by eight parties, one of whom is Bhagwan Shree Krishna Virajman’s “next friend.”
  • The UP Sunni Central Waqf Board and the Shahi Idgah mosque committee have authorised the application, which asks the court to compel the removal of works encroaching upon the disputed area and to conduct a survey of the mosque complex.

Hindu Assertions and Plea Details

  • Four indicators, including a Kalash and Pinnacle that symbolise Hindu architectural style, are shown by the Hindu side of the building, signifying its identity as a temple.
  • The 1968 compromise agreement between the Trust Shahi Masjid Idgah and the temple management authority is also contested in the plea, which declares it to be invalid and unlawful.
  • The petition makes reference to historical occurrences and asserts that Hindu temples were demolished under Aurangzeb’s orders, with the Idgah Mosque being built in their stead.

Muslim Side’s Claims and Counterarguments

  • Lawyers for the Shahi Idgah mosque committee and the UP Sunni Central Waqf Board respond by claiming that the mosque is not located on the 13.37 acres that the Hindu petitioners have claimed.
  • They contest the notion that the birthplace of Lord Krishna is beneath the mosque and the absence of written proof bolstering Hindu assertions.

Comparison with Gyanvapi Mosque Case

  • The Gyanvapi Mosque case in Varanasi and the Sri Krishna Janmabhoomi case are comparable in their judicial proceedings.
  • The Gyanvapi case was similar to the continuing developments in Mathura in that it involved a videographic survey followed by a scientific survey.
  • Gyanvapi surveying was initially put on hold, but it was eventually carried out again following court orders.
  • The Mathura case serves as a reminder of the difficulty of settling historical and theological conflicts through the legal system.
More about Gyanvapi Mosque
  • India’s Banaras, Uttar Pradesh, is home to the Gyanvapi Mosque.
  • Rumour has it that the ancient Vishweshwar temple was demolished in order to construct the Gyanvapi Mosque in 1669, during the reign of Aurangzeb the Mughal emperor.
  • A further mention of Aurangzeb’s 1669 temple destruction order from Governor Abul Hassan can be found in Saqib Khan’s book “Yasir Alamgiri.”
  • A new Kashi Vishwanath temple was then constructed in 1780, adjacent to the mosque, by Ahilya Holkar, the queen of Indore, approximately a century later.
  • It is regarded by many as the most important shrine dedicated to Lord Shiva. The Skanda Purana also mentions Vishveshvara, also known as Vishvanath, as one of the more well-known of Shiva’s 12 Jyotirlingas.
Practice Question: Discuss the constitutional and historical dimensions of the Sri Krishna Janmabhoomi-Shahi Idgah Masjid dispute in Mathura.

2) Supreme Court's Nod to Jammu and Kashmir Changes: International Responses and India's Diplomatic Path Ahead

Topic: GS2- IR

This topic is relevant for UPSC Mains in the context of understanding the complexities of the issue, its historical background, and the diplomatic challenges faced by India in the global context. 

Context:
  • With a few notable exceptions, the Supreme Court’s recent approval of constitutional modifications in Jammu and Kashmir drew little response from other countries.
  • China contested the status of Ladakh, Pakistan refused to recognise the sovereignty of the Indian Constitution over Jammu and Kashmir, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) demanded that modifications made after August 5, 2019, be undone.

 Historical Context and Initial Reactions:

  • Four years ago, Pakistan recalled its ambassador, suspended trade with India, and terminated train and bus services in response to the revocation of Jammu and Kashmir’s special status.
  • A peaceful resolution was advocated by Saudi Arabia, but the UAE considered it a domestic affair of India in the Islamic world.
  • Nonetheless, the prime minister of Malaysia and Turkish President Erdogan also chastised India.

Western Powers and Diplomatic Nuances:

  • Before the August 2019 developments, Western countries cautioned their nationals not to travel to the area.
  • The US demanded the maintenance of peace while expressing alarm over restrictions and detentions.
  • The European Union pressed Pakistan and India to have talks in order to find a bilateral resolution to the Kashmir dispute.

Russian Support and China-Pakistan Relations:

  • Citing bilateral agreements and stressing loyalty to the Indian Constitution, Russia welcomed India’s actions.
  • China voiced concern about Ladakh and emphasised the need for moderation, while Pakistan, beset against opposition from the US, France, and Germany, sought Chinese backing at the UN Security Council.

India’s Diplomatic Outreach:

  • Following August 5, 2019, India communicated with members of the UNSC, highlighting the internal nature of the amendments.
  • President Trump moderated his remarks after receiving a message from Prime Minister Modi expressing worries over anti-Indian language.
  • Diplomatic efforts proceeded, as Jaishankar reiterated on his tour of Europe and the US that the abrogation of Article 370 was an internal affair.

Supreme Court Endorsement and Future Challenges:

  • The latest ruling by the Supreme Court that recognises Kashmir as a domestic matter supports India’s foreign policy.
  • Major nations prioritised preventing a worsening of relations with Pakistan and defending human rights in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The challenges facing New Delhi include handling potential tensions following Pakistan’s national elections in February 2024, addressing human rights issues, and having elections by September 2024.
  • The world is eagerly watching developments after witnessing J&K tours led by India.
Significance of the Verdict
  • The verdict reaffirms the legality of the government’s decision to abrogate Article 370.
  • It acknowledges the temporary nature of the reorganization and paves the way for the restoration of statehood and democratic processes in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The recommendation for a Truth and Reconciliation Commission reflects a commitment to addressing human rights concerns in the region.
PYQ: To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “Temporary provision with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this provision in the context of Indian polity. (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2016)
Practice Question: Examine the international responses and diplomatic repercussions of the constitutional changes in Jammu and Kashmir, with specific reference to the recent Supreme Court endorsement.

3) ASYMMETRIC FEDERALISM

Topic: GS2- Polity This topic is relevant for both UPSC prelims and mains in the context of nuanced aspects of India’s quasi-federal structure, the differential equality of states, special provisions, and legal implications
Context:
  • India is said to have a quasi-federal government that strikes a compromise between a unitary and federal system.
  • States have autonomy, but the Constitution creates a quasi-federal structure by tilting in some directions towards the centre.
  • The Union, State, and Concurrent lists, which specify topics for federal and state legislation, are outlined in the Seventh Schedule.
Differential Equality and Special Status:
  • India’s diverse landscape demands that states receive various treatment when it comes to finances, politics, and administration.
  • Asymmetric federalism’s critics claim that special statuses could encourage separatist and regionalism, which could have an adverse effect on national unity.
  • One such example is Article 370, which formally establishes India’s connection with Jammu & Kashmir.
Beyond Jammu and Kashmir:
  • Several states, including Jammu and Kashmir, are entitled to special provisions, as stated in Article 371A-I.
  • These clauses are designated as “Temporary, Transitional, and Special Provisions,” denoting that they will remain in effect until crises such as war or secessionist sentiments pass.
  • Negotiated autonomy is enjoyed by states like Mizoram and Nagaland, which protects their social, religious, and land rights.
Challenges to Special Provisions:
  • Legal disputes arose in the case of Jammu and Kashmir following the 2019 repeal of Article 370, with petitioners claiming that the special provision granted internal sovereignty.
  • Nonetheless, it was made clear by a Supreme Court decision that Article 370 refers to asymmetric federalism rather than internal sovereignty.
Concessions for Unique Circumstances:
  • Some states, such as Delhi, are granted concessions for reasons other than political exigency.
  • A unique system for managing the nation’s capital is outlined in Article 239AA, which grants legislative authority above and beyond that of a non-state.
  • Delhi has the authority to enact laws on topics covered by both state and concurrent lists of the Seventh Schedule, even though it is not included as a state in the First Schedule.
What is Asymmetric Federalism?
  • Asymmetric federalism is based on unequal powers and relationships in political, administrative, and fiscal arrangement spheres between the federal units constituting a federation.
  • Asymmetry in the arrangements of a federation can be viewed in both vertical (between the centre and states) and horizontal (among the states) senses.
  • Constitutional arrangements do not always result in asymmetric arrangements. They may also arise from the way a federation’s political, budgetary, and administrative processes are run.
  • India’s founding fathers recognized the need for a salad bowl approach to governance which recognizes the distinctive cultural differences in the country and permits self-rule within the scheme of a shared rule.
PYQ: Does the functioning of the federalism in India tend to make it appear as a unitary state in practice? (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2020)
Practice Question: Evaluate the argument against asymmetric federalism, emphasizing its potential impact on regionalism and national integration.

4) ADB increases India growth forecast to 6.7%

Topic: Prelims- Economy

This topic is relevant for UPSC prelims in the context of economic growth, GDP, or international financial institutions

Context:
  •  India’s growth estimate for the current fiscal year has been raised by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), which increased it from the previous estimate of 6.3 percent to 6.7 percent.
  • The reason for this upward revision is the nation’s good economic trajectory, which is indicated by the second-quarter results that were higher than anticipated.

Implications for India’s Economic Outlook:

·      The revised growth estimate shows resilience and recovery, which bodes well for India’s economic future.

·      This favourable revision reflects the nation’s ability to overcome obstacles and seize opportunities as seen by the solid performance of major economic indicators during the second quarter.

Considerations for Policymakers:

  • The upward revision by the ADB may provide policymakers with encouragement as India works to solidify its economic recovery.
  • The research emphasises how crucial it is to keep an eye on economic trends, create environments that are favourable to long-term growth, and capitalise on the momentum created in the first half of the fiscal year.
About Asian Development Bank
  • The 19th of December 1966 saw the establishment of this multilateral development bank.
  • “Fostering economic growth and cooperation” among nations in the Asia-Pacific region is its main goal.

Functions:

  • To support social and economic development, ADB offers loans, grants, technical assistance, equity investments, and assistance to its members and partners.
  • Along with public-private partnerships, it also finances specific projects in the private sector.
  • Regular policy discussions are facilitated and advisory services are rendered by the ADB.
  • In addition, they employ co-financing operations that offer support by utilising official, commercial, and export credit sources.
  • Headquarter: Philippines’ Manila.
  • Members: Since its founding in 1966, ADB has expanded to include 68 members, 49 of whom are based in Asia and the Pacific and 19 of whom are not.

Control:

  • A board of governors, representing the ADB’s member nations, is in charge of overseeing the organisation.
  • The World Bank served as a major inspiration for the ADB, which adopted a weighted voting system similar to that of the World Bank, with votes being allocated according to members’ capital contributions.
  • The People’s Republic of China (6.4%), India (6.3%), Australia (5.8%), Japan and the United States (15.6% of total shares) are ADB’s five largest shareholders as of 2022.

Source of Funding:

  • The organisation is financed by member contributions, retained earnings from loans, and loan repayments.

5) ISRO's Vision 2047: Chandrayaan-4 and Bharatiya Antariksh Station

Topic: GS3- Science and Tech This topic is relevant for both UPSC prelims and mains in the context of strategic vision, upcoming missions, technological developments, and potential collaborations with other Space agencies.
Context:
  • As part of its Vision 2047, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is preparing for large-scale space exploration missions.
  • S Somanath, the chairperson of ISRO, disclosed intentions to launch Chandrayaan-4, a spacecraft designed to return samples from the Moon, in less than four years.
  • Furthermore, by 2028, the first module of Bharatiya Antariksh Station, India’s planned space station outfitted for robotics studies, is expected to launch.
  • A manned journey to the Moon by 2040 and the establishment of a space station by 2035 are the objectives that Prime Minister Narendra Modi has set for ISRO.
 SPADEX Experiment: Autonomous Docking Capability:
  • Even if these missions appear far off, ISRO is scheduled to carry out a crucial experiment in the next three to four months.
  • Autonomous docking capability, which involves two linked spacecraft separating, moving independently, and then reuniting in a precise orbit, will be shown by the SPADEX experiment.
  • The importance of this experiment for long-term human spaceflight was emphasised by Somanath.
 Challenges and Technology Development for Sample-Return Mission:
  • Somanath stressed the need for cutting-edge technology for a sample-return mission, even though India has had success with the Chandrayaan-2 and Chandrayaan-3 missions.
  • Technologies including robotic arms for gathering samples, docking systems in Earth and Moon orbits, and re-entry into Earth’s atmosphere without burning up are among the technologies under development.
  • The planned Gaganyaan mission, which aims to carry astronauts into low Earth orbit and safely return them, will serve as a demonstration of these technology.
Inflatable Habitat Module and Other Technological Advancements:
  • ISRO is now developing an inflatable habitat module that will allow astronauts to roam around and carry out experiments in the hopes of establishing a long-term human presence in space.
  • The organization is also concentrating on creating technologies like robotic arms for service module replacement and satellite refuelling capabilities.
Next-Generation Launch Vehicle (NGVL) and Collaboration with International Partners:
  • While the Bharatiya Antariksh Station’s first module can be launched in 2028 using current rockets, ISRO is currently developing the Next-Generation Launch Vehicle (NGVL), which will be able to deliver 16–25 tonnes into low Earth orbit.
  • Additionally, in order to facilitate cooperative operations, ISRO is in talks with NASA and the European Space Agency to create a common interface between the Indian space station and those of other nations.
  • India’s standing in the international space exploration scene could be improved by this interface, which might allow cooperative work and perhaps make docking with the International Space Station (ISS) easier.
Significance of Indian Space station
  • Space station is essential for collecting meaningful scientific data, especially for biological experiments.
  • Offer platforms that enable longer and more numerous scientific experiments than those possible on other spacecraft.  (As Gaganyaan will take humans and experiments in microgravity for few days only).
  • Typically, each crew member spends weeks or months rarely longer than a year aboard the station.
  • Research on the consequences of prolonged space travel on the human body is conducted aboard space stations.
 
PYQ: What is India’s plan to have its own Space station and how will it benefit our space program? (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2019)
Practice Question: Analyze the significance of ISRO’s proposed missions, including Chandrayaan-4 and the Bharatiya Antariksh Station, in advancing India’s space capabilities.

6. Do pregnancy test in all POCSO cases, says Karnataka HC

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity – Legal Developments
Context:
  • The Karnataka High Court mandates pregnancy tests for rape victims under POCSO Act, emphasizing comprehensive medical examinations to determine gestation, mental health, and termination options promptly.

 Additional information on this news:

  • The High Court of Karnataka has issued a directive related to victims of rape and sexual offenses under the POCSO Act, 2012.
  • The directive mandates a pregnancy test for every victim of rape and sexual offenses.
  • This testing is part of a series of mandatory medical examinations conducted after the registration of a First Information Report (FIR) on the alleged offenses.
  • The purpose of the pregnancy test is to ascertain various medical conditions, including the gestation period, which is crucial for determining the possibility of terminating the pregnancy at the earliest.
  • Other aspects to be assessed through these examinations include the physical and mental status of the victim.
  • The directive also considers the victim’s ability to undergo medical termination of pregnancy and identifies aggravating factors that may impact the health and well-being of the victim.
  • Overall, the measure aims to ensure comprehensive medical assessments for victims of sexual offenses, taking into account both the physical and mental aspects, with a focus on addressing health-related concerns and facilitating appropriate actions.
More about POCSO 2012.
  • POCSO, the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012, safeguards children in India from sexual abuse, assault, and exploitation.
  • Stringent punishments: POCSO prescribes rigorous penalties for various offenses, including imprisonment and hefty fines, protecting children effectively.
  • Wide range covered: It tackles diverse forms of abuse, including physical contact, non-contact offenses like sexual harassment, and even pornography involving minors.
  • Special procedures: POCSO prioritizes child well-being, mandating child-friendly investigation procedures and dedicated courts for sensitive handling of cases.
  • Focus on rehabilitation: Beyond punishment, POCSO emphasizes victim support, providing access to medical aid, counseling, and compensation as needed.
  • Community awareness: POCSO fosters awareness through educational campaigns and encourages reporting of child abuse, empowering communities to protect children.
Practice Question: Critically analyze the effectiveness of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012, in combating child sexual abuse in India. Highlight the key challenges in its implementation and suggest potential solutions to overcome them.

7. ‘India’s fastest’ solar-electric boat launched

Topic: GS3 – Renewable Energy.

This news is not much relevant from mains perspective, but can be asked in prelims.

Context:
  • India launches Barracuda, its fastest solar-electric boat for eco-friendly maritime transport, designed to navigate rough seas silently with efficiency.

 More on this news:

  • Barracuda, India’s fastest solar-electric boat, launched at Navalt Solar and Electric Boats yard in Alappuzha.
  • Designed for eco-friendly maritime transportation, it can ferry up to 12 passengers and cargo in rough seas.
  • The 14m-long vessel reaches a top speed of 12.5 knots, with a range of seven hours on a single charge.
  • Features twin 50 kW electric motors, a marine-grade LFP battery, and 6 kW solar power.
  • Engineered to navigate waves up to four meters tall, operates without noise, vibration, and air pollution.
  • Built for Mazagon Dock Limited, it will be introduced at the Mumbai dock.
  • Recognized with the world’s best start-up award in the mobility and transportation category at the Berlin Start-up Energy Transition Awards 2023.

8. HC says UAPA allows grant of bail to even foreigners in exceptional circumstances

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity – Judiciary.
Context:
  • Madras HC reinstated bail for a UAPA accused, suspecting him to be a Sri Lankan wasn’t enough ground for cancellation.
  • He already had bail, NIA needed to prove illegal entry & lack of Indian citizenship to challenge it.

 What is in the news?

  • Madras High Court rules that a special court for NIA cases cannot cancel bail solely based on suspecting the accused’s nationality.
  • The case involved an individual accused of attempting to establish Islamic rule in India through unlawful means.
  • The special court cited Section 43D(7) of the UAPA, stating it doesn’t permit bail for foreigners, but the High Court disagrees.
  • Section 43D(7) allows bail for non-citizens under exceptional circumstances, with reasons recorded in writing.
  • The appellant, Mohamed Rifas, was only suspected to be a foreign national, and the court emphasizes discretion in such cases.
  • NIA sought bail cancellation, alleging the appellant suppressed nationality; however, the High Court disagrees, stating NIA should have approached the court for cancellation.
  • NIA lacked independent material to establish the appellant’s nationality as Sri Lankan.
  • The High Court sets aside the bail cancellation order, asserting the need for discretion and proper legal procedures.
More about UAPA
  • Legislation: Enacted in 1967 to curb unlawful activities threatening the sovereignty and integrity of India.
  • Objective: Addresses issues related to terrorism and activities aimed at the secession and destabilization of the country.
  • Stringency: Allows for preventive detention, stringent bail conditions, and the admission of confessions made to police as evidence.
  • Designated Authority: Permits the government to designate an organization as a terrorist organization.
  • Punishments: Prescribes severe penalties, including the death penalty, for certain offenses.
  • International Implications: Aligned with international efforts to combat terrorism, but criticized for potential misuse and infringement on civil liberties.
  • Controversies: Controversial for its potential misuse, particularly regarding dissent and political activism.
  • Judicial Scrutiny: Some provisions have faced scrutiny in the courts for being constitutionally questionable.

9. Urgent need to control use of e-cigarettes, says WHO

Topic: GS3 – Health sector.

Context:

  • The WHO warns against the ineffectiveness of e-cigarettes for quitting tobacco and highlights alarming global health effects.
  • Urgent control is needed to protect children and non-smokers. E-cigarettes pose addiction risks, especially among youth, with global regulatory disparities.

 World Health Organization (WHO) Warning on E-cigarettes:

  • Effectiveness for Quitting Tobacco: E-cigarettes as consumer products are not proven effective for quitting tobacco use at the population level.
  • Population Health Effects: Alarming evidence indicates adverse population health effects from e-cigarette use.
  • Urgent Control Needed: Urgent need to control e-cigarettes to protect children, non-smokers, and minimize population health harms.
  • Recruitment of Children: Children are recruited and trapped early to use e-cigarettes, potentially leading to nicotine addiction.
  • Global Market and Marketing: E-cigarettes allowed on the open market, aggressively marketed to young people globally.
  • Global Regulations: 34 countries ban e-cigarette sales, 88 have no minimum age, and 74 lack regulations for these harmful products.
  • India’s Stance: Possession of e-cigarettes is a violation of the Prohibition of Electronic Cigarette Act, 2019, in India.
  • Social Media Influence: Brief exposure to e-cigarette content on social media associated with increased intention to use, especially among young people.
  • Youth Usage Trends: Children aged 13-15 use e-cigarettes at higher rates than adults globally.
  • Global Usage Trends: In Canada, e-cigarette use among 16-19-year-olds doubled from 2017-2022; in the U.K., young users tripled in three years.
  • Addictive and Harmful: E-cigarettes with nicotine are highly addictive and harmful to health, generating toxic substances with known health risks.
  • Long-term Effects: Long-term health effects not fully understood, but established risks include cancer, heart/lung disorders, and impact on brain development.
  • Pregnancy Risks: Foetal exposure to e-cigarettes can adversely affect foetal development in pregnant women.
  • Secondhand Risks: E-cigarette emissions pose risks to bystanders.
  • Call for Urgent Measures: WHO emphasizes urgent measures to prevent e-cigarette uptake and counter nicotine addiction, advocating a comprehensive tobacco control approach.

10. India and U.S. discuss steps to combat financial crimes.

Topic: GS2 – International relations.

Details mentioned in the news can be added to the mains answer related to India – US relations from IR.

Context:
  • India and the U.S. jointly address anti-money laundering and terrorism financing.
  • They emphasize the global adoption of standards for virtual assets, discuss transparency in beneficial ownership with registries, and focus on tracking fund flow to combat financial crimes effectively.

 Additional information on the news:

  • India and U.S. Agreement: Both nations agree on the urgent need to accelerate global implementation of standards for virtual assets, including cryptocurrencies.
  • Addressing Regulatory Arbitrage: The focus is on effectively addressing regulatory arbitrage in the context of virtual assets.
  • Transparency in Beneficial Ownership: Discussion includes steps to enhance transparency in beneficial ownership.
  • Implementation of Registries: Agreement on the importance of implementing beneficial ownership registries as a crucial measure against money laundering and financial crimes.
  • Tools for Verification: Exploring tools to verify information related to beneficial ownership, aiming to combat illicit financial activities.
  • Tracking Fund Flow: Emphasis on implementing measures that allow tracking the flow of funds, aiding in identifying responsible parties.

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