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15-December -2023

1. Over the last three years, ISRO has been steadily leveraging Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Space domain, says Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh

Topic: GS3 – Science and technology – Space exploration

This topic is not much relevant in the context of prelims but more from mains perspective.

  • ISRO has integrated Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) into space exploration, with applications ranging from launch vehicles to interplanetary missions.
  • Collaborating with institutions, ongoing projects include trajectory design, health monitoring, and Earth observation.
  • Achievements include enhanced satellite data analysis, weather forecasting, and successful interplanetary missions. Future initiatives focus on accelerating AI adoption, upskilling employees, and promoting private sector involvement.

 ISRO’s AI and Machine Learning applications in Space:

Focus areas:

  • Launch vehicle and spacecraft operations
  • Big data analytics
  • Space robotics
  • Space traffic management

Projects and programs:

  • Mission trajectory design and autonomous operations:for launch vehicles and spacecraft
  • Health monitoring and prediction:using telemetry data for launch vehicles and satellites
  • Satellite data processing:for resource mapping, weather prediction, disaster prediction, precision agriculture, etc.
  • Humanoid robots and chatbots:under development
  • Space robotics and smart manufacturing in space: for future missions


  • With IITs, IISc, and other institutions for niche AI applications

Integration with existing projects:

  • Gaganyaan Program
  • Chandrayaan-3 mission
  • Operational launch vehicle and spacecraft programs
  • Earth observation data analysis

Achievements and outcomes:

  • Faster satellite data analysis and processing
  • Earth observation applications: crop yield prediction, weather forecasting, disaster prediction, land use mapping, etc.
  • Interplanetary missions: orbit manoeuvring and soft landing (Chandrayaan-3)

Future steps:

  • Setting up dedicated AI labs
  • Upskilling employees in AI technologies
  • National AI events, workshops, and conferences


Overall, ISRO is actively leveraging AI and Machine Learning for various space applications, with a focus on mission efficiency, data analysis, and future exploration.


Topic: GS3 – Urban Development. 
  • The Indian government integrates startups and technology in urban development, employing them in services like water supply and traffic management.
  • Efforts include disseminating best practices, publishing data stories, and adopting progressive SmartProcure Guidelines.

 Government Integration of Startups:

  • The Indian government has incorporated startups and technological interventions in urban development initiatives.
  • Technology is effectively utilized in managing urban services, including water supply and solid waste management.

Smart City Mission Inclusion:

  • The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has integrated startups and technology in Smart City Mission, Swachh Bharat Mission (U), and AMRUT.

Integrated Traffic Management Systems (ITMS):

  • ITMS is deployed in various smart cities to monitor and manage city traffic, enhancing urban mobility.

Efforts for Replicable Models:

  • Constant efforts are made to popularize innovative solutions as replicable models.
  • A repository of use cases and solutions across cities is published on websites, along with compendiums and documents on best practices.

Publication of Data Stories:

  • Successful data stories are published on the India Urban Data Exchange (IUDX) platform to showcase the impact of startups and technological interventions.

SmartProcure Guidelines:

  • Engagement between startups and technological interventions is facilitated through the SmartProcure Guidelines.
  • The guidelines are recognized as progressive and have been adopted by Gujarat Urja Vikas Nigam Limited, indicating their effectiveness in driving innovation adoption.

Dissemination of Best Practices:

  • Information on best practices is disseminated through various channels, contributing to the widespread adoption of innovative solutions in urban development.

Focus on Adoption of Startup Solutions:

  • The SmartProcure Guidelines serve as a progressive process for the adoption of innovative startup solutions in urban development projects.

3. Fast Track Courts to Deliver Speedy Justice.

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity – Judiciary.

This topic is not much relevant in the context of prelims but more from mains perspective.

  • India’s Prison Statistics reveal 4,34,302 undertrial prisoners as of December 2022.
  • The government implements Fast Track Courts and Special Courts, introduces financial assistance schemes, legal reforms, and technology for efficient prison management.

 Undertrial Prisoner Statistics:

  • As of December 31, 2022, there are 4,34,302 undertrial prisoners in India, according to the Prison Statistics India-2022 by the National Crime Records Bureau.

Fast Track Courts (FTCs) and Fast Track Special Courts (FTSCs):

  • The 14th Finance Commission recommended 1800 Fast Track Courts during 2015-20 for speedy trials in specific cases.
  • 848 FTCs are functional as of October 31, 2023, and 758 FTSCs, including 412 exclusive POCSO Courts, are operational across 30 State/UTs, having disposed of over 2,00,000 cases.

Government Schemes and Proposals:

  • The government introduced a scheme for financial assistance to indigent prisoners for fine payment with a budget provision of Rs 20 crore annually.
  • No current proposal exists for setting up Fast Track Courts specifically for undertrial prisoners.

Legal Reforms and Initiatives:

  • Section 436-A in the Code of Criminal Procedure allows the release of an undertrial prisoner on bail after serving half of the maximum prescribed imprisonment period.
  • “Plea Bargaining” introduced in CrPC facilitates pre-trial negotiations between defendants and the prosecution.

Prison Management Application:

  • The “Prison Management Application” integrated with the “Inter-Operable Criminal Justice System” aids State Prison Authorities in efficient prisoner data management and identification, facilitating the Undertrial Prisoner Review Committee (UTRC) process.

Legal Services Clinics:

  • State Legal Services Authorities (SLSAs) have established Legal Services Clinics in prisons, providing free legal aid through empanelled advocates and trained para-legal volunteers.

Awareness and Legal Rights:

  • NALSA organizes awareness camps in prisons to educate inmates about their legal rights, including free legal aid, plea bargaining, Lok Adalats, and their right to bail.

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