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Indian Express

15- December-2023

1. The nature of the future

Topic: GS3 – Environment
  • The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held its 28th Conference of Parties (COP28) on December 13, underscoring the pressing need for international action to address the climate issue.
  • The summit served as the first worldwide stocktake required by the 2015 Paris Agreement, offering a grim evaluation of how far the world has come in combating climate change.

 Global Stocktake Findings

  • A sobering truth is shown by the global stocktake, which includes the most recent assessments from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
  • By 2030, relative to 2019 levels, current nationally determined contributions (NDCs) are expected to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by a pitiful 2%.
  • In order to keep the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2050, it is necessary to reduce emissions by 50% by 2030, which will need significant worldwide effort.

Challenges in Climate Finance

  • The accomplishment of developing countries’ NDCs is reliant on rich nations providing financial and technological support, but this relationship has not been good.
  • The $100 billion annually promised in 2009 to fund climate action has never materialised, and the sums cited have been supported by dubious sources.
  • Complicating matters further is the absence of a precise definition of climate financing, which emphasises how urgently transparent and widely accepted financial systems are needed.

Financial Shortfalls and Future Projections

  • The estimates provided by the IPCC highlight the significant financial disparity between present efforts and the necessary magnitude.
  • For the next seven years, developing nations must spend about $800 billion annually to implement their NDCs, with an extra $215–$387 billion needed each year for adaptation alone.
  • The insufficiency of the pledged amounts, even after the establishment of a loss and damage fund at COP28, presents a major obstacle to adequately addressing climate consequences.

Positive Outcomes and Reorienting the Global Economy

  • Notwithstanding these difficulties, COP28 produced a number of noteworthy results.
  • The conference endorsed historic wording emphasising a just, orderly, and equitable movement towards net-zero emissions by 2050, acknowledging the need to move away from fossil fuels.
  • Goals like tripling the world’s renewable energy capacity and tripling advancements in energy efficiency show a dedication to sustainable growth patterns.
  • Furthermore, the acceptance of green, blue, and nuclear energy signifies a move towards cleaner energy sources.

India’s Stand and Collaborative Initiatives

·      Leading the way in renewable energy, India has largely followed the UNFCCC’s consensus targets, staying out of particular groups.

·      The clear recognition of the effects of climate change on food security, health, and biodiversity loss demonstrates a deeper comprehension of the interrelated ecological issues.

·      In order to handle complex global concerns, COP28 establishes a direction towards a cross-domain and cross-disciplinary approach.

What is COP 28’s theme and agenda?
  • The main objective of Cop every year is to review and assess the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) terms, the Paris Agreement, and the Kyoto Protocol. The latter is a binding treaty agreed in 1997 for industrialised nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • At Cop28, member states negotiate while also facing their first Global Stocktake (GST). This refers to a scorecard that analyses countries’ progress towards the Paris Agreement, with the goal of sparking actionable objectives for climate action plans due in 2025.


  • Even though COP28 shown encouraging progress in recognising the pressing need for climate action, major obstacles were also made clear, particularly with regard to closing the funding gap and meeting aggressive emission reduction objectives.
  • A transparent and equitable climate finance framework is still necessary, as countries struggle to prevent the worst effects of the global climate crisis.
Practice Question: Discuss the significance of the global stocktake, emphasizing the urgency for coordinated international efforts to address the climate crisis


Topic: GS3 – Internal Security
  • Considered the temple of democracy and a symbol of the might of the Indian people, the Parliament building suffered a serious security breach when two people entered via the main hall and nearly made it to the well.
  • This episode highlights a serious weakness in the otherwise strong security system, taking place on the sad anniversary of honouring the martyrs of the 2001 Parliament attack.

 Significance of Parliament:

  • One of the safest locations on Earth, the Parliament building is a stronghold symbolising the might and might of the 140 million Indians.
  • The intrusion is especially concerning because it was anticipated that the recently opened new Parliament building would improve security.

Security Breach and Timing:

  • The intrusion, which occurred in the middle of the Parliament despite increased protection because of the anniversary of the 2001 attack, is a damning critique of the efficiency of the security and intelligence agencies.
  • There were concerns regarding the lack of preparation when the event happened just a few hours after dignitaries, including Prime Minister Narendra Modi, paid respects to the martyrs.

Government’s Response:

  • The swift establishment of a high-level inquiry group by the government to look into the breach shows how seriously the situation is being handled.
  • Even while these committees frequently offer suggestions for preventative actions, the central query still needs to be answered: How did the breach happen, and why wasn’t the security system able to stop it?

Collective Failure and Accountability:

  • The security of Parliament was compromised due to a collective failure on the part of intelligence services, law enforcement, and security forces.
  • The seriousness of the security breach is underscored by the possible repercussions of invaders having hazardous materials on them.
  • Accountability is critical, requiring both a thorough redesign of the security system and punitive actions.

Irony and Urgency:

  • Irony is added to the breach by the incident’s timing, which coincides with the anniversary of the Parliament attacks.
  • Although security agencies usually improve their readiness after an event, this breach happened on a day that was historically noteworthy, which highlights the need for a thorough review of security procedures.
2001 Parliament Attack
  • The Lok Sabha was in session on this day in 2001 when a five-person suicide squad made up of terrorists from Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad attacked Parliament House. Although the Houses had adjourned at the time of the attack, a number of parliamentarians and staff members were inside the building.


  • In conclusion, the security compromise in the Indian Parliament should serve as a serious wake-up call, necessitating prompt action to fix the shortcomings.
  • The incident highlights the need for responsibility, a comprehensive investigation, and quick action to strengthen the security system protecting the cornerstone of the country’s democracy.
Practice Question: Analyze the role of intelligence agencies, police, and security personnel in securing vital institutions, and suggest measures for a comprehensive overhaul of the security structure.

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