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Indian Express

5- December-2023



  • The All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), located in New Delhi, recently made public its plan to open a transgender healthcare center of excellence in 2024.
  • This action is noteworthy in light of the historical marginalization and discrimination experienced by transgender people, who were frequently the targets of pathologization and cruel treatments, such as “conversion therapy” administered by medical experts.

Legal Recognition and Rights of Transgender People

  • The NALSA v. Union of India ruling, which upheld the transgender community’s fundamental rights, marked the beginning of the community’s legal recognition in India in 2014.
  • Governments are required by the Supreme Court to provide medical care that addresses the mental, sexual, and reproductive health of transgender people.
  • The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act of 2019 followed, emphasizing holistic healthcare that included HIV surveillance, hormone therapy, counseling, sex reassignment surgery, and mental health services.

Challenges and Discrepancies in Healthcare Access

  • Even with legal protections, structural obstacles including discriminatory architecture, inadequate services, and a shortage of sensitive medical personnel make it difficult for transgender people to receive healthcare.
  • Insufficient measures have been taken by the state to guarantee equal access, particularly in primary and secondary healthcare.
  • For instance, tertiary institutions continue to dominate mental healthcare, and government hospitals do not frequently offer gender-affirming operations.

AIIMS-Delhi’s Center of Excellence: A Step Forward

  • The proposed Center of Excellence at AIIMS-Delhi is a step in the right direction for meeting transgender people’s healthcare requirements.
  • But it’s important to understand that it can’t meet all of the transgender population in India’s varied healthcare needs on its own.
  • Government hospitals, such as AIIMS, have not been as involved in gender-affirming treatments as private providers have.

Concerns Regarding the Transgender Act and Legal Recognition

  • The Transgender Act’s requirement that transgender people have to undergo surgery to change their gender within the binary distinction between male and female raises certain problems.
  • This condition runs counter to the NALSA ruling, which declares it unlawful to demand on surgery in order to obtain legal gender recognition.
  • The emphasis on tertiary care and surgery could force people to have surgery in order to receive legal recognition, which would be against the goal of meeting felt needs.

Call for Comprehensive Healthcare Policies and Revisions

  • The article stresses the necessity for gender-affirming services to be offered by all government hospitals and medical schools in India in order to provide a holistic approach to transgender healthcare.
  • Beyond specialized facilities, the emphasis should be on providing inclusive, easily accessible primary and secondary healthcare at the local level.
  • Organizations that want to be Centers of Excellence have to follow the law and make sure that their facilities and grievance procedures are inclusive of transgender people.
  • There is also a need for the medical curriculum to be revised in order to better meet the requirements of those who identify as gender non-conforming.
  • The focus is on creating Centers of Inclusion at prestigious institutions that give priority to basic healthcare services above Centers of Excellence.

2) The untold oil stories


  • The article talks about how hard it is to forecast the global oil market and how several factors other than supply and demand dynamics might affect it.
  • The article points out that although recent geopolitical unrest in the Middle East may indicate a substantial rise in oil prices, the market has not reacted as anticipated.

Fundamentals of Supply and Demand

  • The article acknowledges that the current state of the oil market can be reasonably explained by the laws of supply and demand.
  • Supplies have not been hampered by regional hostilities, such as the most recent assault by the Al-Qassam brigade.
  • The current market dynamics are also influenced by rising production of shale oil and fresh oil discoveries.
  • The article raises doubts about the situation’s sustainability, implying that there might be a false calm preceding a violent storm.

Role of Non-Fundamentals and Leadership Psychology

  • The article makes the case that non-fundamental elements—more especially, the mindset of important leaders dominantly influence the dynamics of the oil market.
  • President Joe Biden, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu are seen as key players whose personal struggles and emotional states might affect the state of the market.
  • The article suggests that the way they react to the geopolitical unrest in the Middle East may have a big effect on how the petroleum market develops.

Potential Scenarios for Oil Prices

  • Two opposing scenarios are presented in the article’s conclusion: one in which oil prices rise to triple digits, and the other in which they fall sharply.
  • These are possible alternate futures that make sense, rather than predictions.
  • Particular advice is given to India to increase its strategic petroleum stocks in case prices rise and to simplify trade procedures in case prices fall and allow for the possibility of arbitrage profits.

Conclusion: Stretching Decision-Makers Mentally

  • The article highlights the significance of strategic planning and contingency actions in the volatile international oil market by examining various scenarios and taking into account the psychological characteristics of world leaders.

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