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19-December -2023


Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy – Mobilisation of Resources
Importance of this topic lies in its multidimensional nature – encompassing economic development, governance, trade policies, environmental sustainability.
  • The article highlights government measures to boost steel production, covering policies like DMI&SP and Steel Scrap Recycling.
  • It emphasizes the economic impact, trade strategies, and environmental sustainability, providing aspirants with insights into India’s multifaceted approach to fostering industrial growth within a global context.
 Steel Sector Overview:
  • Steel sector is deregulated; Government acts as a facilitator.
  • Individual companies (public and private) make decisions on steel production based on market dynamics.
Government Initiatives to Boost Steel Production: Domestically Manufactured Iron & Steel Products (DMI&SP) Policy:
  • Provides preference to domestically manufactured iron and steel products in Government Procurement.
Steel Scrap Recycling Policy:
  • Aims to enhance the availability of domestically generated scrap.
Steel Quality Control Orders:
  • Prevents manufacturing and import of non-standardized steel.
  • Ensures availability of quality steel products to the public.
Custom Duty Adjustments:
  • Basic Custom Duty adjustments on steel products and raw materials.
  • Calibration of trade remedial measures like Anti-Dumping Duty (ADD) and Countervailing Duty (CVD) on certain steel products.
  • Enhances competitiveness of India’s steel sector.
Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme:
  • Targets specialty steel to promote manufacturing within the country.
Capital Expenditure Increase:
  • Government increased Capital Expenditure to Rs. 10 lakh crores during FY 2023-24.
Infrastructure Projects and Economic Growth:
  • Increased Capital Expenditure encourages investments in infrastructure projects.
  • Expected boost in steel demand.
Overall Economic Growth Measures:
  • Government taking measures to accelerate overall economic growth.
  • Anticipated increase in demand for steel and other construction materials.
Market Dynamics:
  • Steel production decisions left to individual companies based on market dynamics.

2. Global Bio-fuel Alliance.

Topic: GS3 – Indian EconomyInfrastructure: Energy

UPSC candidates must be aware of GBA’s global biofuel initiative, encompassing energy transition, technology export opportunities, and international cooperation dynamics – from both prelims and mains perspective.

<trstyle=”background-color: #ffc000″>Context:

  • The Global Biofuels Alliance (GBA), launched during the G20 Summit in New Delhi, unites 19 countries and 12 international organizations.
  • It aims to accelerate global biofuel adoption, offering opportunities for Indian industries and acting as a knowledge hub for technology advancements.

 Global Biofuels Alliance (GBA) Launch:

  • Launched on September 9, 2023, at the G20 Summit in New Delhi.
  • Supported by 19 countries and 12 international organizations.

Multi-Stakeholder Alliance:

  • Comprises Governments, International Organizations, and Industries.
  • Aims to unite major consumers, producers of biofuels, and interested countries from the Global South.


  • Drive development and deployment of biofuels globally.
  • Position biofuels as a key element in the energy transition.

Facilitating Global Uptake:

  • Expedite adoption of biofuels globally.
  • Facilitate capacity-building and provide technical support for national biofuel programs.

Sharing Best Practices:

  • Foster sharing of best practices among member countries and stakeholders.

Promoting Technology Advancements:

  • Promote advancements in biofuel technology.

Knowledge Repository:

  • GBA to serve as a central repository of knowledge.
  • Act as an expert hub for biofuel-related information.

Opportunities for Indian Industries:

  • Expected to provide additional opportunities for Indian industries.
  • Exporting technology and equipment, generating employment, and supporting skill development.

Global Cooperation:

  • Aims to strengthen global cooperation for the rapid adoption and deployment of biofuels.

Wide Spectrum of Stakeholders:

  • Encourages participation from a diverse range of stakeholders.

Economic Impact:

  • Anticipated economic benefits for Indian industries through technology exports and employment generation.

3. Water Conservation Initiatives

Topic: GS3 – Environment – Conservation
Crucial for UPSC as it covers environmental sustainability, national resource management, and rural and urban development strategies.
  • The Government of India prioritizes water conservation, supporting states through initiatives like the Master Plan for Artificial Recharge and Jal Shakti Abhiyan.
  • Programs like PMKSY, ATAL JAL, and MGNREGS contribute to sustainable water use, while urban guidelines and finance commission grants promote rainwater harvesting.
 Water Conservation Priority:
  • Water conservation is a key priority for the Government of India.
Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Groundwater-2020:
  • Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) prepared the plan in consultation with States/UTs.
  • Envisages construction of 1.42 crore rainwater harvesting and recharge structures.
  • Aims to harness 185 Billion Cubic Metre (BCM) of monsoon rainfall.
  • Circulated to all States/UTs for implementation.
Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA):
  • Implemented by the Ministry of Jal Shakti since 2019.
  • Annual initiative promoting water conservation.
  • Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain 2023 launched for implementation nationwide.
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY):
  • Implemented since 2015-16.
  • Aims to enhance physical access to water on farms and improve irrigation efficiency.
  • Introduces sustainable water conservation practices.
Atal Bhujal Yojana (ATAL JAL):
  • Launched in 2019.
  • Objective: Improve groundwater resource management in water-stressed areas.
  • Emphasizes rainwater harvesting and community participation.
  • Implemented in 7 states.
MGNREGS (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme):
  • Includes water conservation and harvesting structures under its natural resource management component.
Urban Guidelines for Water Conservation:
  • Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs formulates guidelines.
  • Focus on rainwater harvesting and conservation measures.
  • Includes Unified Building Bye Laws (UBBL) and Model Building Bye Laws (MBBL).
15th Finance Commission Grants:
  • Released to States for utilization through Rural Local Bodies.
  • Can be used for rainwater harvesting and related initiatives.

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