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Mains Answer Writing

One of the key components of these exams is the written test, which consists of a number of essay and comprehension questions. Candidates are expected to write clear and well-structured answers that demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the topics being tested.

28-August-2023

1. Discuss how fundamental rights of the Indian Constitution evolved over time to safeguard the individual liberties?

Solution:

 Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution, enshrined in Part III (Articles 12-35), refer to the essential provisions that guarantee and protect the inherent liberties and entitlements of every citizen.

Evolution of Fundamental Rights

  • The 1215 Magna Carta: established fundamental rights, shaping limited government and individual liberties, though not directly influencing the Indian Constitution.
  • British India Acts: like,

o Government of India Act, 1858: Transferred control to the British Crown, setting the stage for future constitutional developments.

o Indian Councils Act, 1861: Expanded legislative councils, promoting representation and political engagement.

o Government of India Act, 1919: Introduced dyarchy, granting limited legislative powers and paving the way for demands for fundamental rights.

o Government of India Act, 1935: Established provincial autonomy, expanded legislative powers, and provided some fundamental rights with restrictions.

  • The Indian National Movement: led by Gandhi, Nehru, and Ambedkar, shaped fundamental rights in India. Their demands for Swaraj and civil liberties influenced the evolution of these rights. The Nehru Report, proposing a bill of rights, impacted the framing of constitutional provisions.
  • Indian Constitution: The Indian Constitution, drafted by the Constituent Assembly after independence, incorporates fundamental rights in Part III. These rights guarantee individual liberties and protection against arbitrary state actions. They include equality, freedom of speech, and the right to life and personal liberty.
  • Evolution through Judiciary: The Indian judiciary, through landmark judgments like Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala and Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, has expanded the interpretation of fundamental rights. Examples include establishing the doctrine of basic structure and broadening the right to life and personal liberty.
  • Amendments and Evolving Rights: Constitutional amendments, such as the 86th Amendment Act (right to education) and 93rd Amendment Act (reservation in educational institutions), have further enhanced fundamental rights and promoted equality.

Future Perspectives:

  • Embracing Technological Advancements: Address privacy, data protection, and digital rights through effective legislation.
  • Inclusive and Progressive Reforms: Protect LGBTQ+ rights and gender equality through legal reforms and awareness campaigns.
  • Environmental Protection: Prioritize environmental rights and sustainable practices.
  • Strengthening Economic and Social Rights: Enhance access to healthcare, education, and social security for marginalized communities.
  • Balancing Rights and Security: Strike a balance between individual liberties and national security through appropriate legal frameworks.

Conclusion

The evolution of fundamental rights in the Indian Constitution has played a significant role in safeguarding individual liberties and upholding principles of justice, equality, and democracy, providing a positive outlook for a future that embraces technological advancements, inclusive reforms, environmental sustainability, strengthened economic and social rights, and a harmonious balance between rights and security.

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Q2. Examine the environmental impact of projects like the Chardham Mahamarg Vikas Pariyojna on the Himalayan region. How can regulatory measures ensure both development and ecological conservation in such ecologically fragile areas?

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Q3. Discuss the factors enabling resource-constrained economies like India to achieve significant milestones in space exploration. Highlight the role of an active state and collaborative models in fostering innovation.

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Q4. Explain the need for a comprehensive refugee policy in India. Discuss the challenges faced by refugees due to the absence of a structured policy framework. Highlight the potential benefits of such a policy.

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Q5. Examine the disconnect between India’s health research publications and disease burden measured by DALYs. Discuss its implications and propose strategies for aligning research priorities with public health needs.

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Q6. Discuss the challenges faced by migrant workers in India and suggest potential strategies to address their issues and ensure their socio-economic well-being.

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