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Daily Current Affairs

2-March -2024- Top News of the Day

1. Supreme Court Ruling Upholds Judicial Discretion in Stay Orders: Overturns 2018 Decision in Asian Resurfacing Case

Topic: GS2 – Polity – Judiciary This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of knowing facts about the ruling which addresses a pressing issue in the Indian legal system – the impact of stay orders on trial proceedings and the resulting delays in justice delivery.
  • A recent ruling by a five-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court overturned a decision from 2018, highlighting the complexities surrounding the grant of stay orders in legal proceedings.
  • The ruling, stemming from the case of Asian Resurfacing v. Central Bureau of Investigation, reflects the judiciary’s attempt to address the issue of undue delays in trials caused by interim stay orders.
More about the news: The 2018 Case and its Implications:
  • In the 2018 case, a three-judge Bench comprising Justices Adarsh Goel, Navin Sinha, and Rohinton Nariman deliberated on a series of cases related to the Prevention of Corruption Act.
  • One common aspect across these cases was the issuance of stay orders by various High Courts at different stages of the trial.
  • Stay orders, intended to temporarily halt judicial proceedings to safeguard the rights of citizens, often lead to significant delays in trials, regardless of which party benefits from them.
Impact of the Ruling:
  • Following the Supreme Court’s ruling, several trials previously stalled by stay orders experienced a resurgence, as lawyers cited the Asian Resurfacing case to alter the status quo.
  • Trial courts began issuing non-bailable warrants for non-appearance, even though the High Courts, which had stayed the proceedings, might not have initiated hearings on the matter.
Legal Questions Raised:
  • The ruling also prompted important legal questions, framed by a three-judge Bench headed by Chief Justice of India (CJI) DY Chandrachud, regarding the scope of the Supreme Court’s authority under Article 142 of the Constitution.
  • These questions questioned whether the Court could automatically vacate all interim stay orders after a certain period and direct High Courts to decide pending cases within fixed timelines.
Rationale for Overturning the 2018 Ruling:
  • The five-judge Bench, in its recent ruling, emphasized the need for constitutional courts to refrain from imposing precise timelines for deciding cases.
  • It argued that different courts have varying patterns of pending caseloads, making it imperative for the concerned courts to prioritize cases based on their individual circumstances.
  • The Bench held that the automatic vacation of stay orders after six months, as proposed in the Asian Resurfacing case, would undermine the principles of justice by nullifying interim orders without due consideration of all parties involved.
Legal Arguments and Judicial Opinion:
  • During the hearing, Senior Advocate Rakesh Dwivedi, representing the petitioner, argued against automatic vacation of stay orders, stressing the importance of judicial discretion in such matters.
  • Solicitor General Tushar Mehta, representing the central government, contended that setting timelines for judicial proceedings should be the prerogative of the legislature, not the courts.
  • The Supreme Court’s recent ruling underscores the importance of judicial discretion and case-by-case analysis in deciding matters related to stay orders and trial proceedings.
  • By overturning the 2018 decision, the Court reaffirms its commitment to uphold principles of fairness and due process in legal proceedings, ensuring that justice is not compromised by arbitrary timelines or blanket rulings.
About Article 226(3):
  • Justice Manoj Misra in his separate opinion drew attention to Article 226(3) of the Constitution, which already provides a two-week time limit for High Courts to consider an application for the vacation of an interim order.
  • If the application is not disposed of within those two weeks, Article 226(3) provides that the interim order will be vacated.
  • It is pointed out that this essentially provides a process for automatically vacating a stay order, so long as an application is filed in the first place.
Practice Question:  Critically analyze the recent Supreme Court ruling overturning the 2018 decision in the Asian Resurfacing case regarding the validity and duration of stay orders in legal proceedings. Discuss the implications of the ruling on judicial efficiency, fairness, and the administration of justice in India. (250 words/15 m)

2. India's GDP Surges to Six-Quarter High of 8.4% in Q3 2023-24, but Concerns Arise Over Divergence with GVA Growth Rates and Sectoral Performance

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy – Inclusive growth.
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of knowing facts about latest GDP figures, revisions, and sectoral performance.
  • India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate surged to a six-quarter high of 8.4% in the third quarter (October-December) of 2023-24, according to data released by the National Statistical Office (NSO).
  • This growth exceeded expectations and contributed to an upward revision of the full-year GDP estimate to 7.6%, up from the earlier estimate of 7.3%.
More about the news: Sectoral Analysis: Mixed Performance Across Sectors:
  • The third-quarter GDP growth was supported by improvements in manufacturing, mining, construction, trade, hotels, transport, communication, and broadcasting services.
  • However, the agriculture sector recorded a contraction during this period, presenting a mixed picture of the economy’s performance across sectors.
Divergence Between GDP and GVA Growth Rates:
  • There was a notable discrepancy between GDP and Gross Value Added (GVA) growth rates, with GVA growth recorded at 6.5%, 190 basis points lower than GDP growth.
  • This divergence has raised concerns among economists, with some suspecting that GDP may have been overstated due to factors such as a lower-than-usual GDP deflator.
Key Reasons Behind the Surge in GDP:
  • The surge in GDP growth in Q3 was primarily driven by strong performances in sectors such as manufacturing and construction.
  • However, agriculture experienced a contraction, posing challenges to overall economic growth.
Revisions in GDP Growth Rates:
  • Revisions were made to the growth rates of previous financial years, with favorable base effects contributing to the third-quarter growth rate.
  • Quarterly growth rates for the current fiscal year were also revised, reflecting changes in economic performance over time.
Divergence Between GDP and GVA: Causes and Implications:
  • The divergence between GDP and GVA growth rates can be attributed to factors such as a rise in net taxes and a fall in subsidies.
  • This discrepancy has significant implications for assessing the true state of economic growth and volatility in GDP prints.
Growth Expectations and Concerns Going Forward:
  • Looking ahead, concerns remain regarding the sustainability of GDP growth, particularly in terms of consumption growth and private investments.
  • While investment growth has supported GDP growth, private consumption growth has remained subdued.
  • Additionally, factors such as a slowdown in profit growth and rising input costs could impact future growth prospects.
  • While India’s GDP growth in Q3 2023-24 surpassed expectations, concerns persist regarding the sustainability and inclusivity of this growth.
  • Addressing challenges in sectors like agriculture and ensuring a broad-based improvement in consumption and private investments will be crucial for sustaining economic momentum in the coming quarters.
About National Statistical Office (NSO)
  • In May 2019, the Central Government merged the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) and the Central Statistics Office (CSO) under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).
  • The merger created an overarching body i.e., National Statistical Office.
  • Hence, the statistical wing of the MoSPI is now called the NSO.
  • NSO acts as the nodal agency for planned development of the statistical system in the country.
  • It lays down and maintains norms and standards in the field of statistics, involving concepts and definitions, methodology of data collection, processing of data and dissemination of results.
Practice Question:  Discuss the recent trends in India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate. Assess the challenges and opportunities presented by the current economic scenario, and suggest measures to enhance sustainable and inclusive economic growth in India. (250 words/15 m)

3. Suspected IED Blast Rocks Bengaluru's Rameshwaram Cafe, Injures Nine

Topic: Important topic for Prelims
  • An explosion occurred at Rameshwaram Cafe in Bengaluru’s Whitefield area, injuring nine people, mostly customers having lunch. CCTV footage revealed a man with his face partially concealed placing a bag in the cafe, leading to suspicion.
  • Chief Minister Siddaramaiah indicated that the blast was caused by an improvised explosive device (IED).
  • The state police registered a case under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) and Explosives Substances Act, and the National Investigation Agency (NIA) is assisting in the investigation. Seven teams have been formed to identify and apprehend the suspect.
More about the news: Understanding Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs):
  • An IED, or improvised explosive device, is essentially a homemade bomb with various forms and capabilities.
  • These devices can range from small pipe bombs to sophisticated explosives capable of causing significant damage.
  • The term “IED” gained prominence during the United States’ invasion of Iraq in 2003.
Components and Composition of IEDs:
  • IEDs typically consist of several basic components, including an initiator or triggering mechanism, a switch to arm the explosive, a main charge for the explosion, a power source, and a container.
  • They may also contain enhancements such as nails, glass, or metal fragments to amplify the damage caused by the explosion.
Materials and Construction of IEDs:
  • Common materials used in the construction of IEDs include fertilizers like ammonium nitrate and urea nitrate, gunpowder, and hydrogen peroxide.
  • The ease of access to these materials poses security challenges, prompting restrictions on carrying large quantities of liquids aboard aircraft.
Purpose and Impact of IEDs:
  • IEDs serve various purposes beyond causing casualties, often used as distractions in active war zones.
  • The extent of damage caused by an IED depends on factors such as size, construction, placement, and the type of explosive used.
  • While smaller bombs are easier to conceal and deploy, they are generally less powerful than larger ones.
Notable Instances of IED Attacks in India:
  • India has witnessed several significant IED attacks, including the 1993 Mumbai serial blasts, the 2008 Jaipur blasts, and the 2013 Bodh Gaya bombings.
  • These devices have been frequently employed by Maoist insurgents and militants in Kashmir, highlighting the persistent security challenges posed by such improvised explosives.

4. India and Mauritius Jointly Inaugurate Development Projects on Agaléga Island, Signifying Bilateral Cooperation and Regional Security Commitment

Topic: GS2 – International Relations- Bilateral Relations This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of understanding India’s bilateral relations with Mauritius and its involvement in regional development projects, such as those on Agaléga Island.
  • The Agaléga Islands, belonging to Mauritius, have long been underdeveloped, presenting challenges for its native population due to their remote location and lack of basic facilities.
  • Recognizing the vulnerability posed by this neglect, the Mauritian government deemed it imperative to develop the islands, thereby enhancing socio-economic conditions and addressing national security concerns.
  • In pursuit of this goal, they sought India as a strategic partner, given the deep historical, social, and cultural ties between the two nations.
More about the news: Reasons for Choosing India:
  • The strong bilateral relations between India and Mauritius, characterized by friendship and trust, guided the decision to involve India in the development of Agaléga.
  • Deliberations were conducted with caution, addressing concerns over sovereignty and security, before India was chosen as the preferred development partner.
  • This choice reflects the mutual trust and commitment to cooperation between the two countries.
Expected Benefits for Mauritius:
  • The development of Agaléga promises substantial benefits for Mauritius, including improved connectivity and infrastructure, job creation, and enhanced well-being for the local population.
  • With the establishment of a jetty and airstrip, accessibility to the islands will significantly improve, potentially boosting tourism opportunities.
  • Additionally, enhanced government presence facilitated by these developments will enable better monitoring and policing of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding the islands, thus bolstering maritime security.
Implications for India:
  • India’s involvement in the development of Agaléga underscores its commitment to regional security and cooperation, as outlined in its Security And Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR) vision.
  • By assisting smaller maritime nations like Mauritius in capacity building and development, India aims to foster goodwill and strengthen its reputation as a reliable and benign partner in the Indian Ocean Region.
  • However, India remains committed to respecting Mauritius’ sovereignty and has no intention of establishing a military base on Agaléga.
Assistance in Maritime Security:
  • India stands ready to assist Mauritius in enhancing its maritime security capabilities, provided such assistance is requested.
  • Any cooperation in this regard would adhere to established diplomatic and military dialogue mechanisms, ensuring mutual agreement and respect for sovereignty.
  • India’s support may include material and technical assistance, information exchange, and joint maritime security exercises.
  • The joint development of Agaléga symbolizes the enduring friendship and cooperation between India and Mauritius, rooted in mutual trust and shared interests.
  • Through this collaboration, both countries aim to realize socio-economic development objectives while safeguarding regional security and stability in the Indian Ocean.
Practice Question:  Discuss the significance of India-Mauritius collaboration in the development of Agaléga Island in the Indian Ocean region. How does this collaboration align with India’s maritime vision, and what are its implications for regional security and diplomatic relations? (250 words/15 m)

5. GST collections up 12.54% in February

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy – Issues related to mobilization of resources. Critical for UPSC as it covers economic aspects, fiscal policies, and government revenue, reflecting on India’s financial health.
  • India’s Goods and Services Tax (GST) revenue in February reaches ₹1.68 lakh crore, showing a 12.54% growth, marking the fourth-highest monthly collection, and contributing to positive fiscal performance.
 GST Revenue Growth:
  • India’s Goods and Services Tax (GST) revenues surged by 12.54% in February, reaching ₹1.68 lakh crore.
  • February marked the fourth-highest monthly collections, reflecting a positive growth momentum.
Yearly Comparison and Total Collections:
  • Collections in February were 3.3% lower than January’s updated figures but marked the third-highest growth in the fiscal year 2023-24.
  • The total GST collections for the fiscal year reached ₹18.4 lakh crore, a notable 11.7% increase compared to the same period last year.
Breakdown of Collections:
  • Domestic transactions contributed to a 13.9% rise in revenues, while goods imports saw an 8.5% increase.
  • After refunds, the net GST collection for February stood at ₹1.51 lakh crore, indicating a growth of 13.6% over the same month in 2023.
State-wise Performance:
  • Five states recorded revenue contractions, while 18 states had lower upticks than the national average growth of 13.9% in domestic transaction revenues.
  • Mizoram and Manipur experienced significant declines of 14% and 13%, respectively.
Regional Disparities and Quicker Growth:
  • Twelve states, including Jammu and Kashmir, Assam, Maharashtra, Kerala, and Delhi, witnessed faster revenue growth than the national average.
  • February’s gross GST intake included components such as Central GST (₹31,785 crore), State GST (₹39,615 crore), Integrated GST (₹84,098 crore), and GST compensation cess (₹12,839 crore).
Government Settlements:
  • The Central government settled ₹41,856 crore to CGST and ₹35,953 crore to SGST from the IGST collected, resulting in a total revenue of ₹73,641 crore for CGST and ₹75,569 crore for SGST after regular settlement.
PYQ: Enumerate the indirect taxes which have been subsumed in the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India. Also, comment on the revenue implications of the GST introduced in India since July 2017. (150 words/10m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2019)

6. Unrestrained poaching plays big role in decline of Odisha’s leopards

Topic: GS3 – Environment – Conservation – Important species The drastic decline in Odisha’s leopard population due to poaching and habitat loss raises conservation concerns, impacting biodiversity.
  • Odisha witnesses a 25.26% decline in leopard population (192 leopards lost) due to widespread poaching and habitat loss between 2018 and 2022, according to the ‘Status of Leopards India’ report.
 Additional information on this news:
  • Odisha witnesses a sharp decline in leopard population, losing approximately one-fourth, primarily due to poaching between 2018 and 2022.
  • The ‘Status of Leopards India’ report reveals a dismal picture, estimating the leopard population at 568, a significant drop from the previous countrywide estimate of 760.
  • Leopard densities in tiger reserves have increased, indicating recovery efforts are mainly restricted to these protected areas.
  • Leopard occupancy reported exclusively within Protected Areas like Similipal and Satkosia tiger reserves, Hirakud and Kotagarh wildlife sanctuaries.
  • Poaching for bush meat, tiger and leopard skins, habitat loss, and road accidents identified as major threats.
  • Seizure of 116 leopard skins by authorities between 2018 and 2024 underscores the severity of poaching.
  • The report urges the state to enhance patrolling, prey recovery, and habitat management outside tiger reserves.
Poaching of Big Cats In India
Issues Contributing to Big Cat Poaching in India
  • Demand in Traditional Medicine: Belief in the medicinal properties of tiger parts fuels poaching for the illegal wildlife trade.
  • Human-Wildlife Conflict: As human populations expand into big cat habitats, conflicts arise, sometimes leading to retaliatory killings.
  • Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Degradation and shrinking of natural habitats pushes big cats closer to human settlements, increasing risks.
  • Limited Resources and Enforcement: Anti-poaching efforts are often underfunded and lack the personnel and technology needed for effective patrolling.
  • Lucrative Illegal Market: High prices for big cat parts in international black markets provide strong incentives for poachers.
Ways Forward to Address Poaching
  • Strengthening Habitat Protection and Restoration: Identify and protect critical big cat habitats, create corridors for movement, and mitigate habitat fragmentation.
  • Enhancing Anti-Poaching Measures: Invest in better technology, intelligence networks, and training of frontline staff to detect and deter poaching.
  • Promoting Sustainable Human-Wildlife Coexistence: Compensate communities for losses due to conflict, raise awareness, and develop strategies to minimize interactions.
  • Community Engagement and Awareness: Collaborate with local communities for conservation efforts, reduce dependency on forest resources, and change attitudes towards wildlife.
  • International Cooperation: Crack down on the illegal wildlife trade networks through cross-border collaboration and stricter enforcement.
Practice Question:  Analyze the factors driving the poaching of big cats in India and suggest a multi-pronged approach to tackle this persistent threat. (150 words/10 m)

7. India to establish international alliance to protect big cats.

Topic: GS2 – Government – government policies, GS3 – Environment – conservation – Important species Critical for UPSC as it involves international conservation, aligning with sustainable development goals, and India’s leadership in biodiversity.
  • The Union Cabinet approves the establishment of the International Big Cat Alliance (IBCA) in India, allocating Rs.150 crore over five years, aiming to enhance global cooperation for big cat conservation.
 Additional information on this news:
  • The Union Cabinet approves the establishment of the International Big Cat Alliance (IBCA) in India with a one-time budgetary support of Rs.150 crore for five years from 2023-24 to 2027-28.
  • The initiative stems from India’s leadership in big cat conservation, as highlighted by the Prime Minister on Global Tiger Day 2019 and the 50th anniversary of India’s Project Tiger in 2023.
  • IBCA aims to bring together 96 big cat range countries, non-range countries, conservation partners, scientific organizations, and business groups to collaborate on big cat conservation.
  • The alliance seeks to establish networks, share successful practices, and provide financial support to strengthen the conservation agenda and reverse the decline in big cat populations.
  • IBCA’s multipronged approach includes knowledge sharing, capacity building, networking, advocacy, financial and resource support, research, technical assistance, and education and awareness.
  • The framework envisions collaboration through a common platform, brand ambassadors, and a focus on integrating biodiversity policies with sustainable development goals (SDGs).
  • IBCA’s governance structure includes an Assembly of Members, Standing Committee, and a Secretariat headquartered in India, with an initial budget of Rs. 150 crore from the Indian government.
  • Contributions from bilateral and multilateral agencies, public sector organizations, and international institutions will augment the alliance’s financial resources.
  • The initiative aligns with SDGs, promoting sustainable land-use practices, habitat restoration, and ecosystem-based approaches for biodiversity conservation.
  • IBCA emphasizes the importance of safeguarding big cats and their habitats for climate adaptation, water and food security, and the well-being of communities dependent on these ecosystems.
Conservation of Big Cat Species
Need for Conservation
  • Ecological Role: Big cats are apex predators, crucial for maintaining ecosystem balance by regulating prey populations.
  • Biodiversity Indicators: Their presence is an indicator of overall ecosystem health.
  • Economic Value: Big cats attract tourism, generating revenue and supporting local livelihoods.
  • Cultural Significance: Many big cats hold significant cultural and symbolic value in various societies.
  • Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Deforestation, agricultural expansion, and infrastructure development destroy and fragment big cat habitats.
  • Human-Wildlife Conflict: Retaliatory killings, livestock depredation, and competition for resources lead to conflicts with humans.
  • Poaching and Illegal Trade: Big cats are hunted for their skins, body parts used in traditional medicine, and the live pet trade.
  • Limited Resources and Capacity: Conservation efforts often face funding shortages and lack of trained personnel.
Way Forward
  • Protected Areas and Connectivity: Expanding protected areas and establishing corridors to allow for gene flow and reduce isolation.
  • Human-Wildlife Conflict Mitigation: Community-based initiatives, compensation schemes, and innovative solutions to minimize conflict.
  • Combating Poaching: Strengthening anti-poaching measures, intelligence networks, and enforcement of wildlife laws.
  • Community Engagement: Involving local communities in conservation efforts, providing alternative livelihoods, and promoting benefits of co-existence.
  • International Cooperation: Collaboration for transboundary conservation, tackling the illegal wildlife trade, and sharing best practices.
Practice Question:  Critically examine the challenges faced in the conservation of big cat species in India. Suggest a multi-pronged approach for their effective conservation. (150 words/10 m)

8. Centre’s housing scheme for tribal groups facing hurdles due to lack of accurate data

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Government policies, GS2 –  Social Justice – Vulnerable sections PM-JANMAN housing project reflects governance challenges, data discrepancies, and potential exclusion of tribal beneficiaries, relevant for governance and tribal welfare topics in UPSC.
  • The PM Janjati Adivasi Nyay Maha Abhiyaan (PM-JANMAN) housing project faces delays as data discrepancies between the Centre and states hinder sanctioning, potentially leaving beneficiaries out.
 Additional information on this news:
  • PM Janjati Adivasi Nyay Maha Abhiyaan (PM-JANMAN) housing project faces delays in sanctioning houses.
  • Target of sanctioning 2.5 lakh houses by February 15 falls short, with only 1.59 lakh houses sanctioned.
  • PM Gati Shakti portal used to estimate Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups’ (PVTG) population, grouping 75 tribes.
  • Discrepancies arise between the data of Tribal Affairs Ministry and state governments, causing delays.
  • States conduct surveys with incomplete data to meet the January 15 deadline, leading to potential beneficiaries being left out.
  • Madhya Pradesh and Tripura flag concerns about PVTGs found outside Centre-notified villages.
  • PM-JANMAN, launched in November, has a total outlay of ₹24,104 crore for housing and road construction over three years.
Lack of Accurate Data for Tribal Development:
  • Ineffective policy design: Without accurate data, policymakers lack a clear understanding of the specific needs and challenges faced by different tribal communities, leading to poorly targeted interventions.
  • Misallocation of resources: Inaccurate data can lead to the misallocation of resources, hindering progress and potentially leaving some communities further behind.
  • Limited accountability: Difficulty in measuring the impact of implemented programs due to a lack of reliable data can hinder accountability and make it difficult to track progress.
  • Exacerbating existing inequalities: Faulty data might mask the true extent of inequalities within and between tribal communities, hindering efforts to bridge existing gaps and promote equitable development.
Way Forward:
  • Strengthening data collection: Invest in robust data collection methods that ensure inclusivity and address under-representation of specific tribal communities.
  • Community involvement: Partner with tribal communities in data collection to ensure their voices are heard and cultural sensitivities are considered.
  • Data aggregation: Aggregate data by various factors like gender, age, and specific tribal groups to reveal deeper insights and inform targeted interventions.
  • Capacity building: Build capacity within tribal communities to collect, analyze, and interpret data to foster ownership and self-representation.
  • Technological adoption: Explore leveraging technology for efficient data collection, analysis, and dissemination to ensure timely and accurate information.
PM Janjati Adivasi Nyay Maha Abhiyaan (PM-JANMAN)
  • Launched: November 15, 2023, on Janjatiya Gaurav Divas
  • Aim: To improve the socio-economic condition of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India
  • Key Features:
    • ○     Focus on 11 critical interventions
    • ○     Implemented by 9 line Ministries/Departments
    • ○     Total outlay of Rs. 24,104 crore
    • ○     Central Share: Rs. 15,336 crore
    • ○     State Share: Rs. 8,768 crore
    • ○     Implementation period: FY 2023-24 to 2025-26
  • Expected Outcomes:
    • ○     Saturation of PVTG households and habitations with basic facilities
    • ○     Improved access to education, health, and nutrition
    • ○     Enhanced road and telecom connectivity
    • ○     Sustainable livelihood opportunities
Key Interventions:
  • Issuance of Aadhar Cards, Community Certificates, and Jan Dhan Accounts
  • Provision of safe housing, clean drinking water, and sanitation
  • Improved access to education and healthcare
  • Skill development and livelihood training
  • Promotion of Van Dhan Vikas Kendras
  • Ensuring Minimum Support Price (MSP) for PVTG produce
  • Strengthening of grievance redressal mechanisms
  • PM-JANMAN is a comprehensive scheme that aims to address the multiple challenges faced by PVTGs in India
  • It has the potential to transform the lives of PVTGs and bring them into the mainstream of society
  • The scheme is a significant step towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
PYQ: Why are the tribals in India referred to as the Scheduled Tribes? Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their upliftment. (200 words/12.5m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-1 2016)
Practice Question:  Critically examine the challenges posed by the lack of accurate data in formulating and implementing effective policies for development in India. Suggest a multi-pronged approach to address this issue. (250 words/15 m)

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