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Daily Current Affairs

22-November-2023

1. Out of jail on furlough, Ram Rahim heads to U.P. ashram.

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity.

Context:

  • Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh, chief of Dera Sacha Sauda and a rape convict, has been released on a 21-day furlough from Sunaria jail in Rohtak.

What is furlough:

Furlough Overview:

  • Temporary Leave: Furlough refers to a temporary leave of absence from work or imprisonment.
  • Duration: It is typically for a specified period, during which the individual is granted permission to be away.

Prison Furlough:

  • Authorized Release: In the context of imprisonment, furlough is an authorized temporary release of a prisoner.
  • Purpose: It may be granted for various reasons, such as family emergencies, special occasions, or other specific circumstances.

Conditions and Restrictions:

  • Approval: Furlough requires official approval from relevant authorities.
  • Conditions: Specific conditions and restrictions, like adherence to rules and regulations, are often attached to the furlough.

Difference between furlough and bail:

Furlough:

  • Type of Leave: Temporary leave granted to individuals, often in the context of imprisonment.
  • Duration: Temporary and typically for a specified period.
  • Purpose: Authorized release for specific reasons, such as family emergencies or special occasions.
  • Conditions: Granted with conditions and restrictions, subject to official approval.

Bail:

  • Legal Status: Legal release of an accused person before trial, ensuring their appearance in court.
  • Duration: Can be temporary (until trial) or conditional (with specific terms).
  • Purpose: Ensures the accused’s presence in court proceedings and does not imply guilt.
  • Conditions: May involve financial security (bail bond) and compliance with certain terms set by the court.

2. Tribal activists hail compensation for land regularised under FRA

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity.

Context:

  • The Odisha government has disbursed compensation totalling ₹85,76,375 to 63 beneficiaries for the 9.71 hectares of FRA land in Raighar Tahasil.
  • Individual forest rights can only be inherited and not transferred by sale.
  • The compensation awarded for FRA land is a welcome move.

More information on Forest Rights Act 2006

Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006:

  • Enacted to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation of forest land in forest-dwelling communities, including scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers.

Key Objectives:

  • Acknowledge and secure individual and community rights to forest land and resources.
  • Address historical injustices and empower marginalized communities dependent on forests for their livelihood.

Recognition of Rights:

  • Provides for the recognition of individual forest rights (IFR) and community forest rights (CFR).
  • Individual rights include ownership, access to non-timber forest produce, and community rights cover collective activities and habitat.

Inheritance and Non-Transferability:

  • Specifies that individual forest rights can be inherited but not transferred by sale or any other means.

Implementation Challenges:

  • Faces challenges in effective implementation, including issues related to awareness, bureaucratic hurdles, and conflicting land use policies.

Compensation Mechanisms:

  • Allows for compensation in cases of diversion of forestland for development projects, ensuring fair and just rehabilitation of affected communities.

Importance for Tribal Communities:

  • Critical for protecting the rights and livelihoods of tribal and forest-dwelling communities.
  • Aims to strike a balance between conservation efforts and the socio-economic well-being of forest-dependent communities.

Continued Relevance:

  • Ongoing discussions and efforts to address challenges and improve the implementation of the Forest Rights Act for sustainable forest management and community empowerment.

3. The OECD report on climate finance

Topic: GS2 – climate finance

Fulfillment of Climate Finance Commitments:

  • Developed countries failed to meet the promise of jointly mobilizing $100 billion annually for climate mitigation and adaptation needs of developing countries in 2021, missing the 2020 deadline by a year.

Financial Shortfall and Adaptation Funding:

  • Developed nations mobilized $89.6 billion in 2021, falling short of the target.
  • Financing for adaptation decreased by 14% in 2021 compared to the previous year.

Significance of OECD Report:

  • The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) represents economically developed countries, providing insights into their climate finance efforts.
  • The report precedes the COP28 climate talks in the UAE, highlighting potential contention over climate finance.

COP26 Pledge and Past Failures:

  • Developed nations pledged at COP26 in 2020 to double adaptation finance.
  • Acknowledgment at COP26 that the $100 billion climate finance goal for 2020 was not met, impacting trust among developing countries.

Climate Finance Accounting:

  • OECD report reveals that of the $73.1 billion mobilized by the public sector in 2021, $49.6 billion was provided as loans.
  • Concerns raised about the impact of loans on debt stress in poorer countries.

Issues of Additionality and Double-Counting:

  • UNFCCC’s requirement of “new and additional” financial resources faces challenges.
  • Criticism of double-counting, where funding serves both as overseas development assistance (ODA) and climate finance.

Lack of Definition for Climate Finance:

  • No commonly agreed definition of ‘climate finance.’
  • Ambiguity exploited by developed countries, allowing arbitrary classification and potentially diverting funds.

Projected Financial Needs:

  • OECD report estimates developing countries will require around $1 trillion per year in climate investments by 2025.
  • Between 2026 and 2030, annual needs are expected to rise to approximately $2.4 trillion.

Role of the Private Sector:

  • Private financing for climate action stagnated for a decade, while public funding from multilateral channels increased.
  • OECD suggests de-risking with government intervention to encourage private sector involvement.

Challenges in Private Sector Scaling:

  • Private sector’s limited interest in massive climate investments, particularly for adaptation.
  • Need for proactive government and international institution involvement to incentivize and de-risk projects.

Conclusion:

  • The OECD report underscores the critical role of public funding, governments, and multilateral development banks in addressing climate finance challenges and enabling climate action.

4. What’s the matter: a short treatise on Indian Materialism

Topic: GS1 – Indian culture.

Philosophy as Unified Theory of Life: An Introduction

Philosophy, defined as a unified theory of life, seeks to explain the universe and provide a comprehensive view of life. Indian philosopher Manabendra Nath Roy emphasized the materialistic nature of philosophy, asserting that materialism is the only possible philosophy.

Materialism: Origin and Definition

Materialism posits that the origin of everything real is matter. It asserts that all phenomena, including intelligence, are transformations of matter, governed by inherent laws in nature. Materialism has deep historical roots, evident in ancient Indian philosophy, particularly the Lokāyata, and early Greek philosophers like Democritus and Epicurus.

Materialism in India: Names and Variants

Materialism in India goes by various names such as Lokāyata, Chárváka, Bhautikvad, Jadavāda, and Dehātmavāda. These terms capture different aspects of materialist philosophy, emphasizing worldliness, hedonism, physicality, and the unity of self and body.

Philosophical Resilience of Materialism

Despite challenges and shifts in dominant philosophies, materialism continued to influence Indian thought. The Upanishads reflected a critique of ritualism, aligning with materialist perspectives. Even with the rise of Buddhism and Jainism, materialist ideas persisted.

Names and Meanings: Unraveling Materialist Philosophy

The term Lokāyata signifies the worldly philosophy, emphasizing objects and entities in the world. Chárváka, associated with hedonism, conveys the idea of ‘chewing the self.’ Bhautikvad highlights materiality, while Jadavāda emphasizes seeking the root or jada of existence.

Elementary Foundations: Mahābhūtas and Svabhāva

Materialism in India acknowledges the existence of four classical elements (Mahābhūtas): agni (fire), apa (water), vāyu (wind), and prthvī (earth). The Lokāyatas posit that reality emerges from these elements through svabhāva or self-becoming, rejecting divine providence and asserting the singular existence of our world.

Body and Self: Dehātmavāda

Materialists reject a distinct self (atman) apart from the body (deha). The Bhagavad Gita’s idea of soul transmigration is countered by the Lokāyatas, asserting that the self is the body itself. This aligns with Friedrich Nietzsche’s later declaration about the body being the essence of self.

Consciousness and Materialism

Materialist ontology views consciousness as a physical phenomenon. The mind is considered a state of physical composition, and consciousness arises from material processes, reflecting the fundamental properties of matter.

Conclusion: Relevance and Endurance

Materialism, despite its portrayal as hedonistic or Western, is deeply rooted in Indian philosophical traditions. Its resilience is evident in the ancient Lokāyatas’ insights, providing a unique perspective on life, matter, and consciousness.

Note: article not much important from mains perspective, but points can be relevant from essay perspective.

5. SC calls for collaborative efforts to bring children into the adoption pool

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity.

Context:

  • The Supreme Court has issued directives to address concerns related to children living in childcare institutions and awaiting adoption.

Identification of Children for Adoption:

  • Children in childcare institutions with parents who haven’t visited them in over a year or have “unfit” parents should be identified.
  • An “unfit guardian” is defined as someone unwilling or unable for parenting, involved in substance abuse, known for child abuse, having a criminal record, in need of care, mentally unsound, etc.

Focus on Children with Undetermined Legal Status:

  • The court acted on findings by the Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) that many children have undetermined legal status while residing in institutions.

Bi-Monthly Drive and Data Compilation:

  • States and Union Territories are ordered to conduct a bi-monthly drive starting from December 7, 2023, to identify children in the orphaned-abandoned-surrendered (OAS) category.
  • The court directed the compilation of data on potential adoptable children, especially those in childcare institutions, to be submitted to CARA and the Ministry of Women and Child Development by January 31.

Ensuring Registration on CARINGS Portal:

  • States are mandated to ensure the registration of all OAS children in the district on CARA’s portal (CARINGS).

Addressing Mismatch Between Children and Adoptive Parents:

  • Highlighting a “huge mismatch,” the court mentioned that there are 2,146 children available for adoption compared to 30,669 registered prospective adoptive parents.
  • Prospective adoptive parents often prefer children up to the age of two, contributing to delays in the adoption process.

Challenges in Adoption Process:

  • Only 390 out of 760 districts have specialized adoption agencies, causing delays.
  • CARA’s data indicates a significant preference among prospective adoptive parents for children aged zero to two years.

Order to Bridge the Gap:

  • The court’s directives aim to bridge the gap between available adoptable children and prospective adoptive parents, streamlining the adoption process and ensuring the well-being of children in childcare institutions.

6. Ministry asks States to encourage use of SATHEE portal.

Topic: GS2 – Government initiatives

Context:

  • With the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) for admission to the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) and other engineering colleges only 45 days away, Education Ministry officials have announced a new initiative to help aspirants prepare for the exam.
  • The newly launched portal, SATHEE (Self Assessment Test and Help for Entrance Exams), is an open learning platform that is available to students free of charge.

Key Features of SATHEE

  • Free and open to all students: SATHEE is a free online coaching platform that is available to all students, regardless of their socioeconomic background.
  • AI-powered learning:SATHEE uses artificial intelligence (AI) to interact with students and provide personalized learning experiences.
  • Pan-India mock tests:SATHEE hosts pan-India mock tests every weekend, which are designed to help students prepare for the JEE.
  • Expertly designed curriculum:SATHEE’s curriculum was developed by experts from the IITs and other leading institutions.
  • Doubt-clearing sessions:SATHEE offers doubt-clearing sessions to help students address any questions or concerns they may have.

7. Inflation still remains a key risk to growth, cautions Finance Ministry

Topic: GS3 – Indian economy

Indian Economy Monthly Review for October

Inflationary Pressures

  • Inflationary pressures have moderated but price rise remains a key risk to growth.
  • Private final consumption expenditure has emerged as the strongest driver of growth this year.
  • Domestic demand had been solid,but a fuller transmission of monetary policy may temper that demand.
  • The recent steep and rapid decline in global crude oil prices removes an important source of potential impact on public finances.

Rural Demand

  • Rural demand has sustained sequential momentum in the July to September quarter.
  • Stable incomes from foodgrain production and moderating inflationary pressures have contributed to this momentum.
  • The festive season has further strengthened consumption demand.
  • Accumulated savings and declining unemployment also support consumption demand.
  • Rising real estate prices have also helped boost consumption.

External Financial Flows

  • External financial flows could affect the rupee’s value and the balance of payments situation.
  • The rapid reversal of rate hike expectations in the U.S.and the slide in the U.S. 10-year Treasury yield, coupled with the decline in oil prices, was good news for emerging markets in general, India included.

Fiscal Deficit

  • The Centre is on track to achieve the fiscal deficit target of 5.9% of GDP for the current year.

Overall Assessment

  • The Indian economy has been remarkably resilient amid a global slowdown.
  • Rural demand has been strong,and private final consumption expenditure has been the key driver of growth.
  • Inflationary pressures have moderated,but they remain a key risk to growth.
  • External financial flows could also pose a risk to the economy.
  • The Centre is on track to achieve the fiscal deficit target for the current year.

8. Which Countries Recognise Hamas as A ‘Terrorist’ Organisation?

Topic: GS2- IR, Prelims

Context:

  • On November 21, Israel formally declared Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) to be a terrorist group, calling it a “deadly and reprehensible terror organization” that has killed hundreds of Indian citizens.
  • This action comes before the 26/11 terror attacks in Mumbai have been commemorated for 15 years, and it could serve as a catalyst for India to declare Hamas a terrorist group as well.

Context and Timing: 26/11 Anniversary and Hamas Designation

  • The coming anniversary of the Mumbai terror attacks on November 26, 2008, aligns with the timing of Israel’s designation.
  • India’s first description of Hamas attacks as a “terrorist attack” and its subsequent appeals for a two-state solution to the Israel-Palestine issue have sparked speculation over whether this step is meant to prod India to identify Hamas.

Global Designation of Hamas as a Terrorist Organization

  • Israel has designated Hamas as a terrorist group, in contrast to the few other countries in the world that do the same.
  • Officially, six nations and the European Union label Hamas as a terrorist group.
  • The list of nations that have recognized Hamas is included in the text, and it includes the United States, Australia, Canada, Japan, Paraguay, and the United Kingdom.

Designation Criteria and Implications

  • According to the given details, national laws such as the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act of 1967 in India or the Terrorism Act of 2000 in the UK determine whether an organization is considered terrorist.
  • A designation carries certain requirements and can lead to a number of restrictions, such as the freezing of assets and the acquisition of properties connected to the designated organization.
  • Presently, 44 organizations are classified by India as terrorist organizations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act’s First Schedule.

Conclusion: Significance of Designation

  • In the global fight against terrorism, the naming of terrorist organizations is essential.
  • It involves criteria, legal frameworks, and possible restrictions on the assets and operations of designated entities.
  • Which groups are officially classified as terrorists varies throughout the world, and these determinations frequently take geopolitical and national security concerns into account.

9. Fight against climate change

Topic: GS3- Environment

Context:

  • The article talks about the regular publication of research and papers assessing the state of the global climate change movement in advance of the annual COP meeting.
  • Even though these evaluations are routine, the state of affairs seems to be getting harder, and little improvement has been seen over time.

Worsening Climate Scenario: Daily Average Global Temperatures Exceed 2 Degrees Celsius

  • The article emphasizes the alarming news that, for the first time, daily average global temperatures on November 17 exceeded the pre-industrial baseline by more than 2 degrees Celsius.
  • Concerns over the viability of reaching global targets in the battle against climate change are raised by the increase in weather-related disasters, the surge in global temperature, and the inadequate reaction.

Emissions Gap Report: Rising Global Emissions and Unrealistic Reduction Targets

  • The estimate, which cites the Emissions Gap Report, shows that global greenhouse gas emissions must be significantly reduced by 2030—ideally, by 43% from 2019 levels.
  • Emissions have increased, though, with 2022 levels exceeding 2019 levels—with the exception of a decrease in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Currently, an extremely unachievable average annual decrease of roughly 9% is needed to meet the 2030 target.

Everything You Need To Know About 22 November 2023 : Daily Current AffairsChallenges in Adaptation and Loss and Damage Fund

  • The article highlights the difficulties nations have in adjusting to the effects of climate change and rising temperatures.
  • There is not enough money for adaptation, even in spite of the requirement for it.
  • Financial support to countries hit by climate disasters is hampered since the ‘Loss and Damage’ fund, which was intended to assist those countries, is currently empty.

Financial Barriers: Delayed Action and Inadequate Funding

  • The report highlights the financial obstacles that prevent effective climate action, pointing out that wealthy and developed nations, who were supposed to lead in financial support as well as emission reductions, have not done so.
  • The 2009 commitment of rich countries to provide an annual flow of $100 billion has become obsolete, since current needs are anticipated to be in the tens of trillions of dollars.
  • While some low-cost, low-risk financing may be made available by efforts to restructure the global financial system, the amount of funding required may not be met.

Challenges in Meeting Targets and Future Scenarios

  • The article recognizes that it is unlikely that the 2030 emission reduction targets in line with 1.5- or 2-degrees Celsius pathways would be met.
  • The current situation is presented, with daily temperatures already above pre-industrial averages and 2023 predicted to be the warmest year on record.
  • Historical obstacles in attaining climate targets are cited. It is deemed almost certain that we will surpass the 1.5-degree threshold in the next four years.

Adaptation, Resilience, and Possible Scenarios

  • Although going over the 1.5-degree mark might not mean instant disaster, the article does admit that things will get harder over time.
  • It talks about the possibility of more interruptions, the loss of livelihoods, and the effects on vulnerable groups of people.
  • Although the report acknowledges that populations may be resilient, it also warns of the difficulties that lie ahead.

10. Rare metal found in Sutlej sands: What is tantalum, what it is used for

Topic: Prelims

Context:

  • Tantalum, a rare metal, has been found in the sand of the Sutlej river in Punjab by a group of researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Ropar. 
  • The discovery is considered noteworthy for the state and for India collectively, considering the extensive application of tantalum in semiconductors and electronics.

Tantalum: Properties and Significance

  • Tantalum, an atomic number 73 rare metal, is one of the most corrosion-resistant metals used today.
  • It is heavy, grey, and has a strong corrosion resistance.
  • It is nearly completely resistant to chemical assault at temperatures below 150°C and has ductility, which allows it to be stretched without breaking.
  • The only metals with a higher melting point than this one are rhenium and tungsten.

Historical Background and Naming

  • First believed to be a distinct type of niobium, tantalum was discovered in 1802, by the Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf Ekenberg.
  • The Swiss scientist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac distinguished between tantalum and niobium in 1866.
  • Tantalus, a Greek legendary person who Zeus chastised for serving his son at a feast with the gods, is the inspiration behind the metal’s name.
  • The name refers to tantalum’s insolubility in acids.

Applications of Tantalum

  • Tantalum is widely used in the electronic industry, especially in capacitors, which are perfect for portable electronics like laptops and smartphones because they can store more electricity in smaller quantities with less leakage.
  • In addition, tantalum is a more affordable option than platinum due to its high melting point.
  • The manufacturing of missiles, chemical facilities, nuclear power plants, and aircraft all make use of rare metals.
  • Because it doesn’t react with body fluids, it can be used with surgical instruments and implants like prosthetic joints.

Conclusion: Tantalum’s Role in Advancing Technology

  • Tantalum was found in the sand of the Sutlej River and is a promising discovery for technological developments, especially in the area of improving electronic components and materials utilized in advanced applications.
  • Due to its special qualities, tantalum is a useful resource with a wide range of applications in many different industries, helping to create cutting-edge materials and technology.

11. COVID vaccines don’t raise risk of sudden deaths

Topic: GS2- Health

Context:

  • According to an Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) study spanning 39 network hospitals, receiving the COVID-19 vaccine does not raise the chance of unexpected death.
  • Indeed, among seemingly healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 45, immunization seems to lower the chance of unexpected fatalities.
  • Heart disorders, such as irregular heartbeat and restricted blood supply to the heart muscles, are frequently associated with sudden deaths.
  • The study examined data from 729 deaths that were registered between October 2021 and March 2023. It was commissioned earlier this year in response to worries about vaccine-related deaths.

Risk Factors and Exoneration of Vaccines

  • The study finds that severe COVID-19 that necessitates hospitalization increases the likelihood of unexpected fatalities, but it also clears immunizations of any fault.
  • The likelihood of having had severe COVID-19 was four times higher in those who died suddenly.
  • The research indicates that immunization may act as a buffer, lowering the risk after receiving a COVID-19 vaccination, presumably because it provides protection from the virus’s severe form.
  • A family history of sudden death, current smoking habits, binge drinking 48 hours before a cardiac event, and intense physical activity 48 hours before a cardiac arrest, are among the additional risk factors for sudden fatalities identified by the study.

Understanding the Impact of COVID-19 on Heart Health

  • The study admits that our understanding of the mechanisms via which COVID-19 may result in unexpected deaths is lacking.
  • Nonetheless, research from other sources has suggested that COVID-19 infection may raise the risk of stroke and heart disease.
  • There are several possible mechanisms for this to happen, such as the virus targeting the lining of blood arteries and the heart muscle cells.
  • As per experts, while uncommon, incidences of COVID-19 infection causing damage to the heart muscle and resulting in cardiomyopathy do exist.

ICMR’s Ongoing Research

  • The ICMR is carrying out three studies, including this one.
  • A different study that was carried out in August across 31 hospitals discovered that 5% of patients admitted with COVID-19 had passed away the year before.
  • The ICMR’s dedication to comprehending the facets of COVID-19, such as vaccination safety and the virus’s long-term effects on people’s health, is demonstrated by the continuous study.

12. Gujarat gets state fish, the expensive Ghol

Topic: Prelims

Context:

  • The marine ‘Ghol’ fish was designated as the state fish of Gujarat by Gujarat Chief Minister Bhupendra Patel during the maiden Global Fisheries Conference India 2023 in Ahmedabad.
  • The statement emphasizes the importance of the Ghol fish, also called the Black Spotted Croaker fish, in Gujarat’s marine environment as well as its culinary and medicinal worth.

Culinary and Medicinal Importance

  • From the Persian Gulf to the Pacific Ocean, the Ghol fish is extensively dispersed throughout the Indo-Pacific region.
  • It is prized as a delicacy and recognized for its therapeutic qualities. Gujarat exports its high-value bladder.
  • Designating Ghol as the official fish of the state will support conservation initiatives and raise awareness of the significance of this marine species.

State Fish Designation in India

  • Along with Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Maharashtra, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Telangana, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal, Gujarat is the latest state in India to designate a state fish.
  • This action attempts to identify and save particular fish species that are essential to the aquatic biodiversity of each state.

Growth in Fisheries Sector

  • Under the Modi administration, India’s inland fisheries production has increased significantly over the last nine years, as underlined by Union Minister Rupala.
  • The government’s role in increasing the nation’s inland fisheries production was highlighted throughout the conference.
  • Out of the 80 lakh metric tonnes of fish produced in the state in 2021–2022, Gujarat exported over 2 lakh metric tonnes, or Rs 5,000 crore worth of fish and fish products.
  • Gujarat accounts for 17% of the nation’s fish exports.

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