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6-February-2024- Top News of the Day

Stay updated with the Latest 6th February 2024 Current Affairs. Covering topics: CBSE on Academic Framework, Public Debt and Fiscal Challenges, Floor test, Ergo sphere, and Panchayats earning.

1. Quad summit more likely after U.S. polls in November: envoy

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Regional and Global Groupings
Crucial for UPSC as it involves the geopolitical Quad alliance, U.S. elections, and India’s strategic engagements, testing diplomatic and global affairs knowledge.
Context
  • U.S. Ambassador Eric Garcetti suggests the Quad summit in India may be postponed until after the U.S. elections in 2024, citing potential scheduling conflicts.
Additional information on this news:
  • S. Ambassador Eric Garcetti indicates a possible delay in the Quad summit in India, proposing a more productive agenda by the end of 2024 due to U.S. election schedules.
  • He dismisses concerns about the election affecting India-U.S. relations and highlights upcoming Quadrilateral discussions on technology.
Additional Information About QUAD
  • Members: India, Japan, Australia, & the United States.
  • Focus: Promoting a “free, open, and prosperous” Indo-Pacific region.
  • Areas of cooperation: Maritime security, disaster relief, vaccine development, climate change, infrastructure, and cyber security.
  • Significance: Counters Chinese influence in the region and fosters regional stability.
  • Recent Developments:

○     Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) partnership signed.

○     Quad Plus meetings involving other regional players like Vietnam and South Korea.

  • Challenges: Balancing individual interests and ensuring consensus-driven approach.
  • Potential expansion to include other regional partners and address new challenges.
PYQ: ‘Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad)’ is transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times – Discuss. (250 words/15m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2020)

2. ‘Shared interest between India, U.S. to figure out civil nuclear cooperation’

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Bilateral Relations.
Critical for UPSC as it involves the stalled Indo-U.S. nuclear cooperation, addressing legal challenges, and exploring advancements in Small and Modular Reactor (SMR) technology.
Context
  • U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Geoffrey Pyatt discusses the stalled India-U.S. nuclear cooperation, emphasizing the need for progress in civil nuclear collaboration, including Small and Modular Reactor (SMR) technology.
 Additional information on this news:
  • S. Assistant Secretary of State Geoffrey R. Pyatt emphasizes the significance of unfinished nuclear cooperation between India and the U.S.
  • Highlights a shared interest in advancing civil nuclear cooperation, especially in Small and Modular Reactor (SMR) technology.
  • Indian companies, including Adani, Tata, Reliance, and Birla, express strong interest in SMRs for decarbonization.
  • Challenges include scaling SMR concepts, obtaining regulatory approval, and revising Indian laws to allow private companies in the civil nuclear sector.
  • Indo-U.S. nuclear deal faces delays due to Indian regulations, hindering construction plans in Kovvada, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Pyatt underscores the need for time and legal revisions for private companies to participate in India’s civil nuclear sector, citing it as a natural area of convergence.
India – USA Nuclear Cooperation
  • Agreements: India and the USA signed the Civil Nuclear Agreement in 2008, facilitating nuclear cooperation.
  • Strategic Partnership: The deal marked a significant shift in the relationship, recognizing India as a responsible nuclear state.
  • Benefits for India: Access to nuclear technology, fuel, and international markets for civilian nuclear energy development.
  • Non-Proliferation Commitments: India committed to separating its civil and military nuclear facilities and adhering to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.
  • Energy Security: The cooperation aims to address India’s growing energy needs and reduce its reliance on fossil fuels.
  • Obstacles and Challenges: Issues like liability concerns, regulatory challenges, and political considerations have impacted the pace of implementation.
  • Ongoing Collaboration: Both countries continue to explore opportunities for collaboration in nuclear research, technology, and clean energy initiatives.
  • Strategic Implications: The partnership contributes to broader geopolitical alignment and cooperation between India and the USA.
PYQ: In what ways would the ongoing US-Iran Nuclear Pact Controversy affect the National interest of India? How should India respond to this situation? (250 words/15m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2018)
Practice Question:  Explain the key features and strategic implications of the India-USA Civil Nuclear Cooperation. (150 words/10 m)

3. ‘Rigid, statutory fiscal targets are getting discredited globally’

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy – Government Budgeting
Crucial for UPSC as it delves into evolving global fiscal strategies, India’s debt dynamics, and the delicate balance between growth and inflation.
Context
  • The Finance Secretary discusses a shift from fixed fiscal goals globally, advocates a nuanced approach to debt sustainability, and emphasizes India’s favorable debt levels and high nominal growth.
 Additional information on this news: Fiscal Policy and Goals:
  • Finance Secretary T.V. Somanathan highlights the evolving approach to fiscal goals globally.
  • Points out that almost no country adheres to fixed fiscal targets anymore.
Debt Sustainability and Realism:
  • Emphasizes the need for a nuanced and realistic approach to debt sustainability and fiscal responsibility.
  • Argues against rigid, statutory fiscal targets, citing their discrediting internationally.
India’s Debt Levels:
  • India’s debt levels are considered not very high by global standards, especially when compared with other G-20 economies.
  • The country boasts a high nominal growth rate expected to be sustained for a prolonged period.
Monetary Policy and Inflation:
  • He acknowledges the delicate balance between growth and inflation, suggesting that inflationary risks are not entirely absent.
  • Leaves the decision on easing monetary policy to the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
Fiscal Outlook and Budget Composition:
  • Expects more details on reform areas in the full Budget likely in July.
  • Indicates that while the fiscal outlook may not change substantially, the composition of program expenditures may see adjustments.
Importance Of Fiscal Discipline
  • Significance of Fiscal Discipline:

○     Ensures stability and credibility of the government’s financial management.

○     Builds investor confidence and promotes economic growth.

○     Prevents excessive government spending, reducing the risk of inflation.

○     Helps maintain a sustainable fiscal policy over the long term.

  • Challenges in Fiscal Discipline:

○     Political pressures often lead to populist spending measures.

○     Economic downturns may tempt governments to engage in deficit spending.

○     Lack of public understanding and support for austerity measures.

○     Global economic uncertainties can impact revenue streams.

  • Way Forward for Fiscal Discipline:

○     Establish clear fiscal rules and frameworks to guide budgetary decisions.

○     Strengthen independent fiscal institutions for monitoring and enforcement.

○     Promote transparency in government finances to build public trust.

○     Prioritize long-term economic sustainability over short-term gains.

○     Implement effective debt management strategies to avoid excessive borrowing.

  • Enhanced Fiscal Discipline Benefits:

○     Lower interest rates due to reduced risk perception.

○     Fiscal space for responding to economic downturns or emergencies.

○     Attraction of foreign investment, fostering economic development.

○     Improved credit ratings, signaling financial prudence.

  • Global Cooperation:

○     Collaborate with international organizations to share best practices.

○     Coordinate fiscal policies to address global economic challenges.

○     Participate in information exchange for a better understanding of global economic trends.

PYQ: What are the reasons for introduction of Fiscal responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) act, 2003? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness. (200 words/10m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2013)
Practice Question:  Discuss the evolving global perspective on fiscal goals, emphasizing India’s debt sustainability, growth dynamics, and the delicate balance with inflation. (250 words/15 m)

4. Higher autonomy of panchayats leads to better health outcomes

Topic: GS2 – Indian Polity – Local Self Government
Critical for UPSC as it addresses the role of panchayat autonomy in governance, health outcomes, and rural development.
Context
  • The article discusses a Reserve Bank of India (RBI) study advocating greater autonomy for panchayats, linking it to improved health outcomes, reduced infant mortality, and better rural governance.
 Additional information on this news:
  • The article highlights a Reserve Bank of India (RBI) study emphasizing the need for increased autonomy for panchayats.
  • It showcases how panchayats, with greater independence, contribute to better governance and improved health outcomes, specifically in reducing infant mortality rates.
  • The study correlates states’ devolution index with enhanced health parameters, emphasizing the critical role of panchayat autonomy in rural development.
Need for greater autonomy to panchayats
Importance:
  • Local Empowerment: Grants greater decision-making power to local bodies.
  • Democratic Governance: Enhances grassroots democracy and representation.
  • Responsive Governance: Enables quicker and more effective responses to local issues.
  • Resource Utilization: Allows better management of local resources and development initiatives.
  • Inclusive Development: Fosters inclusive and community-centric development.
Challenges:
  • Capacity Building: Panchayats may lack the capacity for effective governance.
  • Financial Dependency: Limited financial resources may hinder autonomy.
  • Political Interference: Risk of external influence compromising local autonomy.
  • Administrative Bottlenecks: Bureaucratic hurdles may impede smooth functioning.
  • Awareness and Participation: Limited awareness and community participation challenges effectiveness.
Way Forward:
  • Capacity Enhancement: Invest in training and capacity-building for local leaders.
  • Financial Empowerment: Ensure adequate financial resources for local bodies.
  • Legislative Support: Strengthen legal frameworks supporting local autonomy.
  • Community Engagement: Promote awareness and active participation of the local community.
  • Decentralized Planning: Implement effective decentralized planning processes.
PYQ: Assess the importance of Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the Panchayats can look out for financing developmental projects. (250 words/15m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-2 2018)
Practice Question:  Discuss the significance of granting greater autonomy to Panchayats in India, highlighting the challenges faced and propose measures for overcoming them. (150 words/10 m)

5. New Bill Aims to Safeguard Integrity of UPSC Examinations and Enhance Fairness in Public Testing

Topic: GS2 – Polity – Parliament
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of the Bill’s provisions.
Context:
  • The Public Examinations (Prevention of Unfair Means) Bill, 2024, was recently introduced in the Lok Sabha with the primary goal of enhancing transparency, fairness, and credibility in the public examination system.
  • The bill aims to address the issue of unfair means used during exams, which has been a significant concern in recent years.
More about the news: Defining Unfair Means:
  • Section 3 of the Bill outlines various actions considered as “unfair means” in public examinations.
  • These actions include:
    • the leakage of question papers,
    • collusion in such leakage,
    • unauthorized access to exam materials,
    • tampering with answer sheets,
    • providing solutions by unauthorized persons,
    • assisting candidates directly or indirectly.
Scope of Public Examinations:
  • The Bill defines “public examinations” under Section 2(k) as exams conducted by specific public examination authorities listed in the Schedule or any other authority notified by the Central Government.
  • The designated authorities include UPSC, SSC, RRBs, IBPS, and NTA, covering a range of national-level exams.
Expansion of Authorities and Schedule:
  • Apart from the listed authorities, the Bill allows the Central Government to add new authorities to the Schedule through notifications.
  • Furthermore, all Ministries and Departments of the Central Government, along with their attached and subordinate offices for staff recruitment, will be under the purview of the new law.
Punishments for Violations:
  • Section 9 of the Bill outlines stringent measures for offenses, making them cognizable, non-bailable, and non-compoundable.
  • Offenders can face imprisonment ranging from three to five years and fines up to Rs 10 lakh.
  • Service providers engaged in supporting exam conduct may also be fined up to Rs 1 crore.
  • For organized paper leaks, the punishment may extend to imprisonment for not less than five years and a fine not less than one crore rupees.
Reasons for Enacting the Bill:
  • The government introduced the Bill in response to a significant number of question paper leaks disrupting recruitment exams across the country.
  • The Bill aims to address malpractices that lead to delays and cancellations, impacting the prospects of millions of youth.
  • The absence of a specific law to tackle such issues prompted the need for comprehensive Central legislation.
Objective of the Bill:
  • The Statement of Objects and Reasons emphasizes the Bill’s objective of ensuring transparency, fairness, and credibility in public examinations.
  • It aims to deter individuals, organized groups, or institutions from resorting to unfair means for monetary or wrongful gains.
  • The Bill is also intended to serve as a model draft for states to adopt, assisting them in preventing criminal elements from disrupting their state-level public examinations.
  • The Bill assures candidates that they will not be held liable for actions covered by the Bill and will remain under existing administrative provisions of the concerned public examination authority.
Practice Question:  Discuss the Significance of the Public Examinations (Prevention of Unfair Means) Bill, 2024, in Upholding the Integrity of UPSC Examinations. (250 words/15 m)

6. Breakthrough Study Reveals 718 Snow Leopards in India, Unveiling Insights and Challenges for Conservation Effort

Topic: GS3 – Environment – Conservations – Important Species
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of knowing facts about the SPAI study and its findings which are integral to the understanding of biodiversity conservation, a crucial topic.
Context:
  • The Snow Leopard Population Assessment in India (SPAI) estimates that there are 718 snow leopards in India, marking a significant advancement in comprehending the species’ status.
  • This study, conducted between 2019 and 2023, sheds light on the elusive cat’s distribution across various Himalayan regions.
More about the news: Challenges in Population Assessment:
  • The challenging terrains that snow leopards inhabit, especially in Ladakh and Spiti, pose a primary hurdle in conducting a comprehensive population count.
  • These areas, located at altitudes between 10,500 and 17,000 feet, are often inaccessible, making fieldwork, including the placement of camera traps, a daunting task.
Identification Challenges:
  • Unlike other species, identifying individual snow leopards proves challenging due to their unique spot patterns and thick fur.
  • Misidentifications may occur, prompting a global consensus among researchers to recommend manual evaluation, utilizing multiple marking patterns for accuracy.
The SPAI Exercise:
  • The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) collaborated with NGOs to develop India’s snow leopard estimation protocol in 2019.
  • Over the next three years, the SPAI exercise collected data from 1,971 camera trap locations, identifying 241 unique individuals.
  • This data extrapolated to the estimated population of 718 snow leopards in India.
Regional Estimates:
  • The study provides specific estimates for different regions, such as Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Each region faced unique challenges in camera trap placement and identification but contributed to the overall population assessment.
Consistent Population Trend:
  • The current estimate of 718 snow leopards aligns with historical trends, indicating overall population stability.
  • However, this marks the beginning of a more in-depth understanding of the species, including dispersal patterns, land use dynamics, and mortality trends.
Emerging Threats:
  • Infrastructure development, increasing laborer camps, tourism, and garbage mismanagement pose emerging threats to snow leopards.
  • Migrations to these regions and the rise in free-ranging dog populations competing with snow leopards emphasize the need for conservation efforts to ensure the long-term survival of the species.
Conclusion:
  • The SPAI study provides a crucial baseline for understanding and conserving the snow leopard population in India, highlighting the importance of addressing emerging threats to ensure the species’ future.
About Snow Leopard
Scientific Name: Panthera uncia Top Predator: As the apex predator in the food chain, snow leopards serve as an indicator for the state of the mountain ecosystem in which they reside. Protection Status:
  • IUCN List of Threatened Species: Vulnerable.
CITES: Appendix I. Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule-I.
  • Habitat: They are widely but unevenly distributed throughout the highlands of central Asia, which includes the Himalayan regions of Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim.
  • Threat: primarily threatened by the extinction of natural prey species, retaliatory killing brought on by human conflict, and the illicit trafficking in its bones and fur.
PYQ: Prelims Q. Consider the following: (2012) 1) Black-necked crane 2) Cheetah 3) Flying squirrel 4) Snow leopard Which of the above are naturally found in India? (a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) 1, 3 and 4 only (c) 2 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 Ans: (b)
Practice Question:  Discuss the significance of the Snow Leopard Population Assessment in India (SPAI) study in the context of biodiversity conservation and environmental governance. (150 words/10 m)

7. Moh-Juj: Traditional Animal Fights in Assam

Topic: GS1 – Indian Culture
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of Understanding the clash between traditional practices like buffalo fights and the need for ethical treatment of animals.
Context:
  • The Assam government’s bid to revive traditional ‘Moh-Juj’ buffalo and bulbul (songbird) fighting during Magh Bihu has encountered a legal challenge from People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) in the Gauhati High Court.
  • PETA India seeks to ban these activities.
More about the news:
  1. Buffalo and bulbul fights: Age-Old Tradition
  • Folk Culture: Buffalo and bulbul fights are part of the folk culture during the Assamese winter harvest festival of Magh Bihu.
  • Location: Buffalo fights are prominent in places like Ahatguri in Nagaon district, while bulbul fights are held at the Hayagriv Madhab Mandir in Hajo.
  • Religious Significance: Bulbul fights are tied to religion, involving rituals, lamps, and offerings to Lord Vishnu.
  • Historical Legacy: The practice has roots in the traditions of the Ahom rulers.
Discontinuation after SC Ruling
  • Supreme Court’s Intervention: The fights were discontinued after the Supreme Court’s 2014 judgment banned the use of bulls as performing animals in events like jallikattu.
  • Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI): Following the SC ruling, the AWBI urged the Assam government to stop animal and bird fights during Bihu celebrations.
  • Resistance: Despite the prohibition, some continued to hold buffalo fights in defiance, leading to legal challenges.
Revival Efforts after SC Clears Path
  • SC Ruling in 2021: The Supreme Court overturned its 2014 judgment, allowing states like Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Karnataka to conduct traditional events involving bulls and animals.
  • Assam Government’s SOPs: The Assam Cabinet approved Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for buffalo and bulbul fights without deliberate cruelty.
  • Guidelines: SOPs permit fights in traditional locations, set specific dates, forbid harm to animals, and ban the use of intoxicating substances.
  • Revival: Buffalo and bulbul fights were resumed in Magh Bihu, with Chief Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma supporting the revival as part of Assam’s Bihu traditions.
PETA’s Legal Challenge
  • PETA’s Petitions: PETA India filed petitions in the Gauhati High Court seeking a ban on both activities and an interim stay during the proceedings.
  • Allegations: PETA claimed that buffalo owners instigated fights through slapping, shoving, and using wooden sticks, resulting in injuries. Bulbuls were allegedly captured and forced to fight.
  • Court’s Response: The court heard PETA’s application and noted that organizing buffalo fights beyond January 25 violates government guidelines. It instructed the petitioners to inform the relevant authorities to prevent the event in violation of SOPs.
Conclusion
  • The legal battle over the revival of traditional animal fights in Assam reflects the clash between cultural traditions, religious significance, and animal welfare concerns.
  • The Gauhati High Court’s decision will shape the future of these practices in the region.
What is Magh Bihu?
About
  • Magh Bihu, also known as Bhogali Bihu or Maghor Bihu, is a harvesting festival celebrated in Assam.
  • The festival has its roots in the agricultural traditions of Assam and falls in the month of Magh, which falls in January. It marks the end of the harvesting season.
History
  • Bihu’s history dates back to ancient times (3500 BC) when people offered fire sacrifices to improve their harvest.
  • The Dimasa Kacharis tribe is known to be the festival’s first-known ancestors.
Rituals
  • Magh Bihu is celebrated over two days.
  • The first day is known as Uruka or Bihu eve.
  • On this day, Meiji (bonfire) is burnt with people singing Bihu songs, beating Dhol, and celebrating with their loved ones.
  • The main Magh Bihu is observed the next day.
  • People take a bath early in the morning and play traditional Assamese games like Tekeli Bonga (pot-breaking) and buffalo fighting.
Significance
  • Magh Bihu holds agricultural and social significance as it is time to celebrate new yield and renew ties of friendship and brotherhood.
  • The festival emphasises sharing meals with the community.
  • The agricultural significance of the festival marks the end of the harvesting season, celebration of new yield, and thanking the ancestors and the Gods for a bountiful harvest.
  • The social significance is that during this time communities come together for celebrations.
PYQ: What are the challenges to our cultural practices in the name of secularism. (150 words/10m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-1 2019)
Practice Question:  Examine the legal and ethical dimensions surrounding the Gauhati High Court’s directive on buffalo fights in Assam, particularly in the context of cultural traditions and animal rights. (250 words/15 m)

8. The Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) Report: Organised Manufacturing Sector Displays Resilience with Post-Pandemic Employment Recovery, Despite Decline in Fixed Investments

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy – Issues relating to development and employment.
This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of economic impact and employment dynamics to government policies and post-pandemic recovery strategies.
Context:
  • The Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) for 2020-21 and 2021-22, released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), reveals the multifaceted impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the organised manufacturing sector in India.
  • In the initial year of the pandemic, 2020-21, the sector witnessed a decrease in the total number of employees, dropping from 1.66 crore in 2019-20 to 1.60 crore.
  • Similarly, the number of workers employed in factories decreased from 1.31 crore to 1.26 crore during the same period.
More about the news: Post-Pandemic Recovery:
  • However, the employment scenario showed signs of recovery in 2021-22, surpassing pre-pandemic levels.
  • The number of employees in over 2.50 lakh factories increased to 1.72 crore, marking a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.7 percent from the pre-pandemic year of 2019-20.
  • The number of workers also recorded an increase, reaching 1.36 crore, with a CAGR growth of 2.1 percent over these two years.
  • The corporate sector, encompassing public and private government and non-government companies, experienced a 6 percent CAGR rise, exceeding 1 crore employees in 2021-22 compared to slightly over 97 lakh in 2019-20.
Fixed Capital Investments:
  • In contrast, fixed capital investments witnessed a sharp decline during the pandemic-affected years.
  • Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), an indicator of investment, declined by 11 percent in 2021-22 to Rs 3.30 lakh crore from Rs 4.17 lakh crore in the pre-pandemic year of 2019-20.
  • However, there was a marginal recovery in GFCF in 2021-22, rising by about 5 percent from Rs 3.14 lakh crore in the lockdown-affected year of 2020-21.
Financial Performance:
  • Surprisingly, despite the disruptions caused by the pandemic, profits and invested capital in the organised manufacturing sector increased during the mentioned period.
  • The ASI data indicates a complex interplay of factors influencing different aspects of the manufacturing landscape, reflecting the sector’s resilience and adaptability in the face of unprecedented challenges.
Conclusion:
  • The ASI report sheds light on the nuanced impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on employment, investments, and financial performance in the organised manufacturing sector, emphasizing both challenges and signs of recovery in the post-pandemic period.
What is the ASI?
  • ASI, the principal source of industrial statistics in India, is the most comprehensive data on organised manufacturing.
  • It covers all factories employing 10 or more workers using power and those employing 20 or more workers without using power.
Practice Question:  Examine the nuanced impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the organised manufacturing sector in India, as highlighted in the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) for 2020-21 and 2021-22. (150 words/15 m)

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