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Daily Current Affairs

21-October-2023

1. Govt. delay disturbs judicial seniority: SC

Topic: GS2 – Indian polity.

Context:

  • The Supreme Court expressed concern over the government’s delay in judicial appointments and transfers in High Courts.
  • Justice Sanjay Kishan Kaul, leading a three-judge Bench, found the delay in transferring High Court judges troublesome and disturbing.
  • The government’s selective segregation of names for transfers disrupted judicial seniority.

Ramifications of government delay in appointments and transfers of judiciary:

  • Erosion of Judicial Independence: Delays in appointments and transfers can erode the independence of the judiciary by subjecting it to external influences or undue pressure.
  • Impact on Justice Delivery: Delayed appointments can lead to backlogs in courts and hinder the timely delivery of justice, affecting litigants and the overall legal system.
  • Disruption of Seniority: Selective delays and appointments disrupt the seniority of judges, potentially leading to conflicts and undermining the hierarchy within the judiciary.
  • Loss of Trust: Such delays can erode public trust in the judicial system, as citizens may perceive it as inefficient and politically influenced.
  • Inefficiency and Workload: Delayed appointments and transfers place additional burdens on existing judges, affecting their workload and efficiency.
  • Political Interference: The perception of selective delays and appointments can lead to allegations of political interference in the judiciary, undermining its impartiality.
  • Administrative Challenges: Managing courts and legal proceedings becomes challenging when essential appointments are delayed, impacting the administration of justice.

Question: Examine the role of seniority and the impact of delayed judicial appointments on the hierarchy within the Indian judiciary. What measures can be taken to maintain the integrity of the seniority system in the face of such delays?

2. Eradicate manual scavenging, SC tells Centre, States

Topic: GS1 – Indian Society.

Context:

  • The Supreme Court emphasized the importance of fraternity, equality, and dignity for all citizens.
  • It expressed concern that a significant section of society is still engaged in the inhumane practice of manual scavenging, even a decade after its outlawing.
  • A Bench headed by Justice S.R. Bhat held the Union and the States responsible for eradicating manual scavenging through strict implementation of the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013.

Issues with manual scavenging:

  • Dignity and Equality: Manual scavenging violates the dignity and equality of those forced into this practice.
  • Inhuman Conditions: Workers in manual scavenging face degrading and hazardous working conditions, risking health and safety.
  • Legal Prohibitions: Manual scavenging was outlawed in India through the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013.
  • Lack of Implementation: Despite legal provisions, the practice persists due to poor enforcement and implementation.
  • Socioeconomic Marginalization: Manual scavengers often come from marginalized communities, facing discrimination and limited opportunities.
  • Health Hazards: Exposure to sewage and waste can lead to serious health risks and diseases.
  • Need for Rehabilitation: Eradicating manual scavenging necessitates not only legal measures but also rehabilitation and alternative employment opportunities for affected individuals.
  • Constitutional Rights: The practice undermines the constitutional values of fraternity, equality, and dignity for all citizens.

Steps taken by Indian government:

  • The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013: This Act prohibits the employment of manual scavengers and provides for their rehabilitation. It also makes it a crime to construct or maintain dry latrines that require manual scavenging.
  • The National Action Plan for Prohibition of Manual Scavenging and their Rehabilitation:This Plan was launched in 2016 and aims to eradicate manual scavenging and rehabilitate manual scavengers within a period of 5 years. It includes a number of measures, such as providing financial assistance to manual scavengers, constructing sanitary toilets, and providing training and employment opportunities.
  • The Swachh Bharat Mission:The Swachh Bharat Mission is a nationwide campaign to improve sanitation and cleanliness in India. It includes a number of measures to eradicate manual scavenging, such as constructing sanitary toilets in all households and public places.
  • The Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS): This scheme provides financial assistance to manual scavengers to start their own businesses or to get training in new skills.
  • National Safai Karamcharis Finance and Development Corporation (NSKFDC): This government agency supports the socio-economic upliftment of manual scavengers and their dependents.

Question: Discuss the measures taken by the Indian government to address the issue of manual scavenging and its implications on dignity and equality. Assess the effectiveness of these measures and suggest further steps for complete eradication.

 Multiple-choice question: 

Which of the following statements about the National Safai Karamcharis Finance and Development Corporation (NSKFDC) is/are correct? 

  1. NSKFDC is a statutory body established by an Act of Parliament.
  2. It primarily focuses on providing loans and financial assistance to entrepreneurs from the sanitation worker community.
  3. NSKFDC aims to promote self-employment and socio-economic upliftment of Safai Karamcharis and liberated manual scavengers.
  4. NSKFDC is responsible for the maintenance and development of sanitation infrastructure in India.

Select the correct option from the following:

  1. Only one statement is correct
  2. Only two statement are correct
  3. Only three statement are correct
  4. All statements are correct.

Answer:  Option B – Only two statements are correct

Explanation: 

  • Statement 1: This statement is incorrect. NSKFDC is not a statutory body established by an Act of Parliament. It is a Government of India-owned non-statutory company under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • Statement 2: This statement is correct. NSKFDC primarily focuses on providing loans and financial assistance to entrepreneurs from the sanitation worker community, especially Safai Karamcharis and liberated manual scavengers, to promote their economic empowerment.
  • Statement 3: This statement is correct. TNSKFDC aims to promote self-employment and socio-economic upliftment of Safai Karamcharis and liberated manual scavengers by offering financial support and assistance in setting up income-generating activities.
  • Statement 4: This statement is incorrect. NSKFDC is not responsible for the maintenance and development of sanitation infrastructure in India; its main role is to provide financial assistance and support to individuals for their economic betterment.

3. Depression in Arabian Sea to intensify into cyclonic storm

Topic: GS1 – geography.

Context:

  • A low-pressure area in the southeast and southwest Arabian Sea has developed into a depression.
  • The India Meteorological Department (IMD) anticipates it will intensify into a cyclonic storm, to be named ‘Tej’ following the standard naming formula for cyclones in the Indian Ocean Region.
  • The IMD’s forecast suggests that the cyclonic storm may become a severe cyclonic storm by Sunday.

Impact of atmospheric conditions in Arabian Sea on Indian climate:

  • Monsoon Patterns: Atmospheric conditions in the Arabian Sea influence the Indian monsoon, which is vital for agriculture and water resources in India.
  • Cyclones and Rainfall: Cyclones originating in the Arabian Sea can bring heavy rainfall and storms to India’s western coast, impacting regions from Gujarat to Kerala.
  • Temperature and Humidity: Changes in Arabian Sea conditions can affect temperature and humidity levels, which, in turn, influence weather patterns and local climates in coastal areas.
  • Sea Surface Temperature: Variations in sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea can lead to fluctuations in the intensity and frequency of cyclones and monsoon rainfall.
  • Environmental Changes: Long-term shifts in atmospheric conditions in the Arabian Sea can contribute to broader environmental changes, including sea-level rise and coastal erosion.

More about formation of cyclonic storms:

  • Warm Ocean Waters: Cyclones require warm ocean waters as their energy source. When sea surface temperatures rise, it provides the necessary heat and moisture for cyclone development.
  • Low-Pressure Areas: Low-pressure areas, or disturbances, often serve as the initial triggers for cyclone formation. These disturbances can originate from various factors, including monsoon troughs and weather systems.
  • Coriolis Effect: The rotation of the Earth, known as the Coriolis effect, plays a crucial role in cyclone formation. In the Northern Hemisphere, cyclones rotate counterclockwise due to this effect.
  • Convergence of Winds: As warm, moist air rises from the ocean’s surface, it creates an area of lower pressure. Meanwhile, air from surrounding regions converges into this low-pressure area. This convergence of winds causes the air to spiral, forming the initial cyclonic circulation.
  • Upper-Level Wind Patterns: Favorable upper-level wind patterns that are conducive to cyclone development and intensification also play a role. Weak vertical wind shear allows the cyclone to maintain its structure and strengthen.
  • Sea Surface Temperature Threshold: A critical factor is the sea surface temperature threshold. For cyclone formation, sea surface temperatures typically need to be around 27°C or higher to provide the necessary heat and moisture.
  • Moisture and Instability: Cyclones thrive on moist, unstable air. The warm, moist air over the Arabian Sea contributes to the instability needed for cyclone development.

Question: Explain the key atmospheric and oceanic factors contributing to the formation of cyclonic storms. Discuss the significance of early warning systems and disaster preparedness in managing the impact of such storms.

4. Mehrauli park structures get facelift as Delhi digs deeper into its history

Topic: GS1 – Indian art and culture.

Context:

  • Major restoration and conservation efforts have been carried out at the Mehrauli Archaeological Park in south Delhi, adjacent to the Qutub Minar.
  • Spread over 200 acres, the park is home to 55 historic structures built by various empires, including the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Lodhis, Mughals, and the British.
  • The initiative aims to bring alive Delhi’s rich historical past, predating the medieval-era monuments, and provide residents with a place to explore and enjoy.

Structures at Mehrauli Park:

  • Mehrauli Archaeological Park houses 55 historic structures.
  • These structures were built by various empires, including the Khaljis, Tughlaqs, Lodhis, Mughals, and the British.
  • Notable structures include the Jamali Kamali Mosque, Metcalfe House, Rajon ki Baoli, and the tombs of historical figures like Mamluk king Ghiyas-ud-din Balban and Mughal governor Shah Quli Khan.
  • Mehrauli Iron pillar: Standing 7 meters tall, this wrought iron pillar has intrigued scientists and historians for centuries due to its impressive rust-resistant properties. It dates back to the 4th century and bears inscriptions honoring a Gupta king. The pillar is covered in Sanskrit inscriptions, which praise Chandragupta II and his accomplishments.

5. Sparks of danger

Topic: GS3 – disaster management

Context:

  • A firecracker factory explosion in Ariyalur district, Tamil Nadu, resulted in the tragic deaths of 12 workers, including three women.
  • The fireworks industry in Tamil Nadu has been predominantly based in Sivakasi, but in recent years, smaller, often unregulated units have emerged across the country.

Compromise on safety of workers in firecracker industry:

  • Dispersal of firecracker units to smaller, unregulated facilities compromises worker safety.
  • Units lack adequate training and often employ inexperienced labor.
  • Violations occur, such as stocking chemicals above permitted limits.
  • During the festive season, sub-leasing work to smaller units lacking experience is common.
  • Manpower shortages at the licensing authority, PESO, hamper effective monitoring.
  • Lack of clarity and communication between PESO and district administrations pose challenges.

Way forward:

  • Implement stricter regulations and regular inspections of firecracker units.
  • Enforce training programs and ensure skilled workers handle dangerous processes.
  • Promote automation of hazardous processes in firecracker manufacturing.
  • Increase staffing at the licensing and regulatory authority (PESO) to improve monitoring.
  • Foster awareness about safety practices among workers and owners.
  • Ensure that units comply with safety guidelines and adhere to permitted chemical storage limits.
  • Improve coordination between PESO and district administrations for better oversight.
  • Collaborate with industry stakeholders to enhance safety in firecracker production.

Question: Discuss the safety challenges and regulatory issues in the firecracker industry in India. Suggest measures to ensure the safety of workers and prevent accidents in the industry.

6. Gaganyaan Mission: ISRO is set for first test flight today

Topic: GS3 – Science and technology.

Context:

  • ISRO will conduct the Gaganyaan’s first Flight Test Vehicle Abort Mission-1 (TV-D1) on October 21.
  • The test aims to demonstrate the performance of the Crew Escape System (CES) in case of an abort during ascent.

About Gaganyaan Mission:

  • Gaganyaan is India’s ambitious human spaceflight program, aiming to send Indian astronauts into space.
  • The program is overseen by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  • It aims to send three astronauts to space for a minimum of seven days.
  • Gaganyaan’s objectives include demonstrating India’s capability to send humans to space, conducting experiments in microgravity, and enhancing space technology.
  • The program includes the development of a crew module for housing astronauts and a launch vehicle for the mission.
  • Gaganyaan is expected to contribute to advancements in space medicine, life support systems, and space-related research.
  • Gaganyaan will make India the fourth country to send humans into space, after the Soviet Union, the United States, and China.

7. Astronomers Detect 8 Billion Year Old ‘Fast Radioburst’: What Is It?

Topic: GS3-Science and Tech

Context:

  • Astronomers have detected an intense flash of radio waves coming from what looks like a merger of galaxies dating to about 8 billion years ago, the oldest-known instance of a phenomenon called a fast radio burst that continues to defy explanation.

What are Fast Radiobursts (FRBs)?

  • A fast radio burst, or FRB, is a pulse of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation.
  • It lasts a small fraction of a second, but outshines most other sources of radio waves in the universe.
  • Radio waves have the longest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum.

Age and distance:

  • This specific FRB, dating from 8 billion years ago, is 3 billion years older than the previous record-holder, making it the oldest FRB ever discovered.
  • To put things in perspective, the universe is thought to be 13.8 billion years old, but Earth is thought to be 4.5 billion years old.

Probable Sources of FRBs:

  • The most likely source of this FRB, according to scientists, is a magnetar, which is a type of hyper-magnetized neutron star. They have the mass of the Sun but are only a small city’s size, making these heavenly objects immensely dense.
  • While there are more energetic phenomena in the universe, such as stellar explosions or black holes consuming stars, FRBs are special in that they only emit radio waves and do not emit any other wavelengths, such as optical light or X-rays.

Significance:

  • FRBs are thought to happen often, with over 100,000 events per day possibly occurring in the universe, despite their relative rarity. There have only been a few found, though.
  • These FRBs can shed light on how galaxies appear in the distant universe. Due to mergers or clumping, distant galaxies may be different from those nearby.
  • Astronomers can identify and quantify the large amount of matter that is thought to reside in the region between galaxies by studying FRBs, which is useful for their research.
  • These radio waves can be used to detect intergalactic plasma, which is where atoms disintegrate into smaller subatomic particles like electrons and ions.

8. Mumbai Air Quality Deteriorates

Topic: GS3- Environment

Context:

  • According to SAFAR, Mumbai Air Quality PM10 level raised to 143 as against 122 in Delhi.

Reasons for Mumbai Air Quality Pollution:

  • Developmental Works: The increase in PM 10 levels in the city has been attributed to development projects such as the metro, which causes dust pollution.
  • Wind Stagnancy: Due to anti-cyclonic circulation over Mumbai, the winds are not ascending, leading to accumulation of dust particles and affecting the Mumbai Air Quality.
  • Moisture: The presence of moisture in the city’s atmosphere traps dust and other PM 10 particles, thus causing deterioration of Mumbai air quality.
  • Heavy Traffic: Heavy traffic in the city limits is contributing to higher levels of pollutants in the air.
  • Climate change: Due to climate change, the pattern of natural cleansing mechanism from sea winds has been affected, leading to accumulation of dust particles.

What is SAFAR?

  • SAFAR is an air quality monitoring system introduced by the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
  • Aim: To provide location specific information on air quality in near real time, giving forecasts up to 3 days in India.
  • Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, along with India Meteorological Department (IMD) and National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) have jointly developed SAFAR.

Steps that should be taken:

  • Fogging Machines: These machines can be used to spray water in the skies, causing dust particles to settle down.
  • Enhancing Mumbai Air Quality – Covering Construction Area: The construction area can be covered to prevent dust from escaping into the atmosphere.
  • Green Vehicles: Vehicles run on CNG and electricity can replace fossil fuel vehicles to prevent emission.
  • Green Cover: Increasing green cover has shown to reduce PM 10 and PM 2.5 particles in the atmosphere.
  • Scrubber Systems: Scrubber systems can be installed in industries to absorb harmful particles from the gasses of industrial exhaust.
  • Public Transport Promotion: Authorities must promote public transport in urban areas to reduce vehicular emissions.
  • Control Landfill Fires: Solid waste burning contributes to air pollution. The major reason is landfill fires, which has the potential to drastically affect Mumbai air quality.
  • Farm Fire Control: Measures have been taken in areas susceptible to stubble burning. Machines such as happy seeders have been introduced to reduce incidents of stubble burning.

9. Canada recalls 41 Diplomats from India

Topic: GS2-IR

Context:

  • Foreign Minister of Canada revealed that 41 Canadian diplomats and their 42 family members had left India because they were “in danger of having immunity stripped on an arbitrary date” and it would have “put their personal safety at risk”.

Challenges of the India-Canada Relationship:

Terrorism at the Heart of Tensions:

  • The biggest issue for India is the safe haven that Canada has provided to separatist Khalistani groups.
  • Canada is turning a blind eye to the activities of subversive and radical elements who are using Canadian soil to destabilise India and carry out political assassinations, and gangland killings, fund subversive elements, and support narcotics and human trafficking networks inside India.

Other Major challenges:

  • Trade Tensions: India and Canada have been negotiating a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) for several years, but the talks have been stalled over several issues, including tariffs and intellectual property rights. The lack of a trade agreement has been a source of frustration for both sides and has hampered trade and investment between the two countries.
  • Diplomatic Disputes: In recent years, there have been a number of diplomatic disputes between India and Canada, including over the issue of Sikh separatism and the treatment of Indian nationals in Canada. These disputes have further strained relations between the two countries.
  • Security Concerns: India has expressed concerns about the presence of Khalistani extremist groups in Canada and about the possibility of terrorist attacks on Indian nationals in Canada. Canada has assured India that it is taking steps to address these concerns, but the issue remains a source of tension.
  • Human Rights Concerns: India has also expressed concerns about human rights abuses in Canada, including the treatment of Indigenous peoples and the alleged racial profiling of minorities.

Despite these challenges, India and Canada remain important partners to each other. They share a strong economic relationship and have close people-to-people ties. Both countries are also working together on several global issues, including climate change and terrorism.

Potential Implications of worsening India-Canada Relations:

  • Global politics: India and Canada could be at odds on a range of issues, such as the response to the Ukraine war, the reform of the UN Security Council, and the Indo-Pacific region. This could make it more difficult to build consensus on important global issues.
  • Multilateralism: The two countries are both members of important international organizations like the G20 and the United Nations. If they are unable to cooperate with each other, it could make it more difficult for these organizations to function effectively.
  • Internal Security: It could lead to increased tensions and conflict between the Indian and Canadian communities in both countries. This could pose a challenge to law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
  • Cooperation in Indo-Pacific: India-Canada cooperation is essential for maintaining a free and open Indo-Pacific. If relations continue to worsen, it could undermine the efforts of the Quad and other countries to promote a rules-based order in the region.
  • Reduced Trade and Investment: India and Canada are both important economic partners. A worsening of relations could lead to a reduction in trade and investment between the two countries. For example: The negotiations on the free trade agreement have been paused and are unlikely to be resumed until the diplomatic row is settled.

10. Completely eradicate manual scavenging: SC to Centre, states

Topic: GS1-Society

Context:

  • Observing that manual scavengers have lived in bondage, systematically trapped in inhuman conditions for a long time, the Supreme Court asked the Centre and state governments to completely eradicate manual scavenging across the country.

What is manual scavenging?

  • The process of manually removing human waste from septic tanks or sewers is known as manual scavenging.

Manual Scavenging in India:

  • As per International Labor Organisation (ILO), manual scavenging includes mainly the disposal of human excreta from dry latrines, public streets and the maintenance and sweeping of septic tanks, sewers and gutters.
  • Though found in other regions of the world, the practice is most popular in India, where people from lower castes (over 90% are SC) are typically involved in carrying out manual scavenging, which is considered the worst remaining evidence of being an untouchable.
  • In India, ~58,098 people worked as manual scavengers as of 2018 and 941 people have died (since 1993) due to accidents while undertaking hazardous cleaning of sewer and septic tanks.

Statistics:

  • While 100% of districts in States like Bihar, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and a few others have declared themselves free of manual scavenging, in several States and UTs, only about 15% to 20% of the districts have reported so.
  • For instance, in Manipur, just two of the 16 districts have reported as being manual-scavenging free.
  • Similarly, in J&K, just 30% of the districts have declared themselves free of the practice with a similar number in Telangana. In Odisha and West Bengal too, over 60% districts are yet to report their respective status.
  • However, UP, which had the highest number of manual scavengers (32,473) in two surveys conducted till 2018, has nearly 90% districts reporting that they had been made free of manual scavenging.

11. hina offers to help cash-strapped Lanka, buy more of its exports

Topic: GS2-IR

Context:

  • Sri Lanka has signed a deal with the Export-Import (EXIM) Bank of China to cover around 4.2 billion USD of its outstanding debt, more than a year after it was thrown into an economic crisis.
  • China’s support to Sri Lanka would be perceived by India as yet another way that China is putting money into strengthening its ties with the island nation.

Causes of the economic crisis in Sri Lanka and solutions:

  • Sri Lanka in April 2022 said that it would be unable to pay back its debt of approximately USD 83 billion, of which more than half was owed to international creditors.
  • Large tax cuts in 2019, the coronavirus pandemic’s effects on the tourism sector, and fuel shortages brought on by the conflict in Ukraine are some of the factors causing the crisis.
  • India provided a USD 1 billion credit line for the purchase of necessities and a USD 500 million credit line for petroleum after Sri Lanka requested help from China and India.

China-Sri Lanka Ties:

  • China is Sri Lanka’s largest foreign creditor, according to a recent report.
  • Sri Lanka relies heavily on Chinese loans to pay off its mounting foreign debt.
  • Investment in Infrastructure Projects: Between 2006 and 2019, China invested over $12 billion in infrastructure projects in Sri Lanka.
  • China’s Interests in the Indian Ocean: Compared to Southeast Asia and the Pacific, South Asia and the Indian Ocean offer China friendlier seas.
  • Taiwan’s opposition, territorial conflicts in East Asia and the South China Sea, as well as numerous disagreements with the US and Australia, are all problems that China must deal with.
  • Smaller nations’ interests shifting: Sri Lanka’s economic problems may further encourage it to align its policies with those of China.

India’s Concerns:

  • In contrast to India’s SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region) program, the Chinese-proposedForum on the Development of Indian Ocean Island Countries” appeared to be a negative proposal.
  • Sri Lanka has made the decision to create a Special Economic Zone surrounding the port city of Colombo as well as a new economic commission, all of which will be funded by China.
  • The leasing of Hambantota and the Colombo Port City project virtually guarantees that the Chinese navy would maintain a permanent presence in the Indian Ocean, raising concerns for India’s national security.
  • The Strings of Pearls Strategy is the name of China’s encirclement plan for India.

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