8 Jan 2024 : Daily Current Affairs

Daily Current Affairs

8 -January-2024

1. India, Saudi sign Haj agreement, this year pilgrim quota 1.75 lakh

Topic: GS2: International Relations – Bilateral Relations
  • A bilateral agreement was recently reached between Saudi Arabia and India, deciding how much of a quota will be allocated to Indian pilgrims for the Haj in 2024.

Allocation Details and Reservation:

  • According to the official release, 1,75,025 Indian pilgrims have been allocated a total quota for the Haj in 2024.
  • Of these, 35,005 pilgrims are allowed to go through private operators, and 1,40,020 seats are set aside for those travelling through the Haj Committee of India.
  • The agreement highlights how the two nations have worked together to facilitate the pilgrimage process.

Recognition of Ladies Without Mehram (LWM) Initiative:

  • The effort by the Indian government to promote participation under the Ladies Without Mehram (LWM) category was also discussed in the bilateral talks.
  • During the discussions, this initiative which permits women to make the journey without a male guardian was praised.
  • The acknowledgement shows that India’s efforts to improve diversity during the Haj is being positively acknowledged.

What is Hajj Pilgrimage?
All physically fit Muslims who have the means must make the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, known as the Hajj. It is seen as a fundamental aspect of Muslim religious life and is one of the Five Pillars of Islam.
Five Pillars:

  • Shahada (Faith): the proclamation of Muhammad’s prophetic status and belief in the unity of God.
  • Salah (Prayer): facing the Kaaba in Mecca while offering the five daily prayers.
  • Zakat (Charity): donating a portion of one’s riches to charitable causes.
  • Sawm (Fasting): observing a fast-during Ramadan.
  • Hajj (Pilgrimage): if one is financially and physically capable, making a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca at least once in one’s lifetime.

The Hajj entails a number of rites and is performed during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah.

  • The Islamic calendar’s twelfth and last month is Dhu al-Hijjah. It is regarded as one of the most holy months in the Islamic calendar and is a period for introspection, spiritual development, and rejuvenation. It is also a crucial time to work towards a closer relationship with God.
  • For many Muslims, performing the Hajj is a source of inspiration and great pride as it is considered a means of gaining spiritual merit and demonstrating one’s devotion to God.

2. IAF C-130J makes maiden night landing in Kargil

Topic: GS3 – Internal Security- Security challenges and their management in border areas 

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of defence technology.

  • The Indian Air Force’s (IAF) C-130J Super Hercules transport plane made a night landing at the high-altitude Kargil advanced landing site close to the Line of Control with Pakistan, demonstrating a noteworthy demonstration of operational capability.
  • This is the first time a transport plane has made a night landing at the strategically significant Kargil airstrip, which is located at a height of about 10,500 feet.

Tactical Execution and Garud Commandos:

  • The night landing of the C-130J, carrying elite Garud commandos, proved the IAF’s ability to conduct operations in difficult terrain.
  • Terrain masking was used throughout the exercise, and the operation included training objectives for the Garud commandos that focused on the integration of various capabilities.

Infrastructure Enhancement Along the LAC: Focus on ALGs:
Defence Ministry’s Infrastructure Focus

  • In order to meet operational needs, the Defence Ministry has been aggressively improving infrastructure at several airfields along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), notably the Advanced Landing Grounds (ALGs).
  • In border areas, the ALGs are essential to military aviation operations.

Specific Focus on Daulat Beg Oldi ALG and Nyoma Airstrip

  • The infrastructural development at the Nyoma airstrip and the Daulat Beg Oldi ALG is receiving special attention.
  • The highest airfield in the world is the Daulat Beg Oldi ALG, which is situated at 16,700 feet above sea level.
  • Situated near the LAC, it endures frigid temperatures during hard winters, with lows of – 40 degrees Celsius.

Challenges and Strategic Preparedness

  • The military faces difficulties in maintaining operational readiness in these types of terrain, as seen by the attempts to upgrade infrastructure at these high-altitude airfields.
  • India’s resolve to guarantee readiness along its northern borders is consistent with the strategic emphasis on improving facilities at these places.


  • The IAF’s night landing at the Kargil airstrip, which highlights the combination of tactical and training objectives, represents a turning point in operational capability.
  • The infrastructure development at key airfields along the LAC, taken in a broader context, highlights the strategic significance of preserving preparedness in difficult border regions.

About C-130J Super Hercules:
  • It is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft.
  • It is the latest production version of the C-130 Hercules. It replaced, in production, the previous C-130H.
  • The C-130J Super Hercules made its first flight in 1996.
  • It is the US Air Force’s principal tactical cargo and personnel transport aircraft.
  • It was developed by Lockheed Martin, a US security and aerospace company.
  • It primarily performs the tactical portion of the airlift mission, is capable of operating from rough, dirt strips, and is the prime transport for airdropping troops and equipment into hostile areas.
  • The largest operators are the US Air Force, US Marine Corps, Australia, Canada, India, Italy, and the United Kingdom.


  • It has reduced crew requirements.
  • A minimal crew of three men is required to operate this aircraft, including two pilots and one loadmaster.
  • It has a payload capacity of 19 tonnes.
  • It is powered by four Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3 turboprop engines.
  • It has digital avionics, including a Head-Up Display (HUD) for each pilot.

Range: 6,852 km (no payload)
Speed: 644 km/hr
Endurance: 20+ hours
It is capable of short takeoffs and landings from unprepared runways.

  • It is a stretch version of the C-130J.
  • The C-130J-30 adds 15 feet to the fuselage, increasing usable space (two more pallets of equipment) in the cargo compartment.


Practice Question: Discuss the strategic significance and operational implications of the Indian Air Force’s C-130J Super Hercules transport aircraft conducting a night landing at the Kargil advanced landing ground. Analyze how such operations contribute to India’s defense capabilities, emphasizing the integration of tactical exercises and training missions. (200 words/12.5 m)


Topic: GS2 – Polity- Judiciary

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of constitutional provisions, legal frameworks, social justice, and the interface between the judiciary and governance.

  • To replace Justice Sanjiv Khanna as Chairman of the Supreme Court Legal Services Committee (SCLSC), Justice B R Gavai has been nominated.
  • The statement was issued by the Department of Justice, which cited the authority granted to the SCLSC by Section 3A of the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 and Rule 10 of the National Legal Service Authority (NALSA) Rules, 1995.

Understanding the SCLSC:
Purpose and Composition:

  • The Supreme Court Legal Services Committee was founded to provide the less fortunate members of society with affordable, high-quality legal assistance, especially in matters that come under the Supreme Court’s purview.
  • The current chairman of the Supreme Court and additional members with the necessary training and expertise make up the committee.

Nomination and Appointment Process:

  • The Chief Justice of India (CJI), who also selects the committee’s Secretary after verifying that the candidate satisfies the necessary training and background, proposes candidates for the chairmanship and other positions on the SCLSC.
  • The requirements for the quantity, background, and credentials of SCLSC members are set forth in Rule 10 of the NALSA Rules.

Importance of the SCLSC:
Legal Services Authorities Act

  • The Legal Services Authorities Act, passed in 1987, intends to create a national network for the poorer segments of society to receive competent and free legal services. It also aims to establish legal services authorities and Lok Adalats.
  • As required by Article 39A of the Constitution, the SCLSC is essential to the execution of legal aid programmes and guarantees that no citizen is denied justice because of their financial situation or any other kind of disability.

Dispensing Legal Services Nationwide

  • Established by the 1987 Act, the NALSA oversees and assesses the execution of legal aid initiatives.
  • It establishes guidelines and rules to ensure that legal services are easily available.
  • Every state has State Legal Services Authorities that are tasked with carrying out NALSA’s directives and rules in order to develop a unified, comprehensive legal aid system nationwide.


  • In line with constitutional mandates and the goals of the Legal Services Authorities Act, Justice B R Gavai’s nomination to chair the SCLSC serves as a reminder of the ongoing significance of offering free legal services to the most vulnerable members of society.

Constitutional Backing
  • Article 39A of the Indian Constitution states that the State must ensure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice on the basis of equal opportunity.
  • It particularly emphasizes the provision of free legal aid through suitable legislation or schemes to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.
  • Additionally, Articles 14 (right to equality) and 22(1) (rights to be informed of grounds for arrest) make it obligatory for the State to ensure equality before the law and a legal system that promotes justice based on equal opportunity.
PYQ: With reference to National Legal Services Authority, consider the following statements: (2013)
1. Its objective is to provide free and competent legal services to the weaker sections of the society on the basis of equal opportunity.
2. It issues guidelines for the State Legal Services Authorities to implement the legal programmes and schemes throughout the country.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: (c)
Practice Question: Evaluate the role of the SCLSC in ensuring access to justice, and analyze the constitutional and legal frameworks that underpin such appointments. Highlight the importance of legal aid programs and their alignment with constitutional directives on social justice. (200 words/12.5 m)

4. Tata Memorial Hospital Harnesses AI for Cancer Diagnosis: Bio-Imaging Bank and Radiation Reduction Initiatives Unveiled

Topic: GS2 – Health, GS3– Science and Technology

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of implications of artificial intelligence

  • Using information from 60,000 patients, researchers at Mumbai’s Tata Memorial Hospital—the biggest cancer hospital in India have created a bio-imaging bank for the disease.
  • The goal of the programme is to build a comprehensive database of pathology and radiology pictures associated with clinical data so that specific algorithms can be developed to identify cancer early on.

AI Reducing Radiation Exposure:

  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is being used by Tata Memorial Hospital to minimise radiation exposure to paediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) scans.
  • Expert analysis highlights the role AI plays in diagnosis and treatment, particularly in light of the anticipated doubling of cancer cases in India in the next ten years.

Bio-Imaging Bank’s Objectives:

  • The goal of the bio-imaging bank is to establish an extensive database that includes radiology and pathology images along with clinical data, outcome information, and treatment details.
  • With the goal of advancing medical research and diagnostics, this resource makes it easier to train, validate, and test AI algorithms.
  • Currently, lung cancer and malignancies of the head and neck are the project’s main focus.

AI’s Role in Cancer Detection

  • By evaluating pathological and radiological images and learning from large datasets, artificial intelligence (AI) simulates the information-processing capacity of the human brain.
  • Tasks like nucleus segmentation, biomarker prediction, therapeutic response prediction, and lymph node metastasis screening are tested for the AI systems.

Reduction in Radiation Exposure

  • By using AI algorithms to enhance images, the hospital has reduced radiation exposure for paediatric patients receiving CT scans by 40%.
  • This cut guarantees children will be exposed to much less radiation while still receiving high-quality diagnostics.
  • Debates and Challenges
  • Although using AI tools has a lot of potential, there have been discussions over whether or not human radiologists will eventually be replaced by them.
  • The use of AI in cancer diagnosis and therapy is fraught with difficulties, including regulatory scrutiny and opposition from certain medical professionals and organisations.

AI Healthcare Startups in India:
  • Tricog: Its product portfolio includes InstaECG, a cloud-connected device that analyses and interprets ECG reports within a span of 10 minutes and InstaEcho, an AI-powered device that helps doctors to get an accurate and fast echocardiogram (ECG) for diagnosis of issues like heart failure.
  • Niramai: This company launched a patented portable device called Thermalytix which employs AI to accurately detect early-stage breast cancer.
  • PharmEasy: It uses AI to get real-time data and communicate with users efficiently. Also, to improve its user experience, this company utilises Machine Learning tools such as Tensorflow, Spark, HBase, Hadoop, Hive, and Kafka.
  • HealthifyMe: With the help of AI, the app monitors calorie intake and gives dietary recommendations, tips and nutritious recipes.
PYQ: Introduce the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI). How does AI help clinical diagnosis? Do you perceive any threat to privacy of the individual in the use of Al in healthcare? (150 words/10m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2023)
Practice Question: Discuss the challenges and ethical considerations associated with the integration of AI tools in the medical field. (150 words/10 m)

5. India’s GDP Forecast Surprises with 7.3% Growth in 2023-24, Outperforming Expectations

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy- Issues relating to growth

This topic is relevant for both Prelims and Mains in the context of economic indicators, GDP growth rates, and sectoral analysis

  • India’s GDP is expected to rise by 7.3% in the current fiscal year, according to the First Advance Estimates (FAEs), which is more than the 7.2% growth recorded in 2022–2023.
  • These projections, which were made public at the beginning of January, are the first measures of the economy’s performance for the fiscal year.

Estimation Process:

  • The FAEs, which are released in January each year, provide initial growth estimates.
  • These forecasts are improved by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) through further releases, which include the Provisional forecasts by May and the Second Advance Estimates by February.
  • The Third Revised Estimates are released in the ensuing three years, after which the final GDP figures, referred to as “Actuals,” are determined.

Significance of FAEs:

  • The FAEs, however preliminary, are important since they represent the last GDP figures to be disclosed prior to the presentation on February 1 of the Union Budget for the upcoming fiscal year.
  • The fact that this year’s FAEs offer a thorough picture of economic progress throughout the first ten years of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s administration gives them much more significance.

GDP Growth Trends:

  • India’s real GDP growth rates and absolute values are shown by the FAE statistics.
  • The GDP is expected to see a significant growth trajectory from Rs 98 lakh crore when Prime Minister Modi took office in March 2024 to roughly Rs 172 lakh crore.
  • Surpassing forecasts, the projected 7.3% growth rate for 2023–24 highlights how strong India’s economic recovery is.

Contributors to India’s Growth:
Four main factors drive India’s GDP growth:

  • net exports,
  • government final consumption expenditure (GFCE),
  • gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), and
  • private final consumption expenditure (PFCE).

PFCE, or personal spending, accounts for around 60% of GDP.

  • GFCF makes up around 30% and represents investments in productive capacity.
  • Government spending, or GFCE, makes up 10% of GDP, but expenditure on imports and exports, or Net Exports, can have a negative effect.

Components of GDP Growth:

  • Private Consumption Demand: The overall demand from consumers is expected to expand by 4.4% in the current year. This is less than the growth rate of the first term (7.1%) but still comparable to the CAGR of the second term (4.5%). Concerns arise from muted private consumption and rising inequality.
  • Investment Spending: The current fiscal year has seen a 9.3% increase in investment spending, bringing the second term’s CAGR (5.6%) into line with the first term’s (7.3%). Concerns still exist, though, since the government provides a sizable share of investment and private consumption is still low.
  • Government Spending: In comparison to the first term, when it grew at a CAGR of 7.9%, government spending has expanded more slowly in the second term, growing at a CAGR of 2.8%. The expansion in government spending has been modest despite the COVID-19 delays.
  • Net Exports: The current year has seen a 144% increase in negative growth rates in net exports, which indicate larger imports than exports. In spite of this, the growth rate has slowed down during the course of the two terms, indicating a slight improvement.


  • The prediction of 7.3% GDP growth for 2023-24, while optimistic overall, indicates a strong economic rebound and exceeds initial expectations.
  • However, the growth trajectory for the second term is still lower than the first term.
PYQ: Do you agree that the Indian economy has recently experienced a V-shaped recovery? Give reasons in support of your answer. (250 words/15m) (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2021)
Practice Question: Analyzing India’s economic trajectory, the First Advance Estimates (FAEs) for the financial year 2023-24 reveal a surprising GDP growth rate of 7.3%, outperforming earlier expectations. Discuss the key factors contributing to this growth. (200 words/12.5 m)

6. GST revenues reveal a dissonance in consumption growth across States.

Topic: GS3 – Indian economy – Issues relating to Mobilization of Resources

Crucial for UPSC as it addresses economic disparities and consumption trends, impacting India’s fiscal health and policy formulation.

  • The news highlights concerns over weak consumer spending trends in India as Goods and Services Tax (GST) revenues for the first nine months of 2023-24 reveal disparities in consumption growth across states, with Gujarat, West Bengal, and others experiencing slower growth.

Additional information on this news:

  • GST revenues for the first nine months of 2023-24 highlight disparities in consumption growth across Indian states.
  • Private final consumption expenditure (PFCE) is estimated to grow at the slowest rate since 2002-03, raising concerns about weak consumer spending trends.
  • While overall GST revenues grew by 11.7%, State GST collections increased at a sharper pace of 15.2%, serving as an indicator of consumption trends.
  • Among the 20 largest states, Gujarat and West Bengal are seeing weaker growth, clocking less than double-digit growth in State GST collections.
  • Eight states, including Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Karnataka, have experienced State GST revenue growth rates higher than the national average.
  • Regional disparities in consumption may explain the overall slower growth in consumption across the country.
  • Uneven consumption patterns highlight the need for improved consumption in states with lagging growth to boost overall GDP growth and GST collections.
  • Factors such as tepid rural demand in certain states and the lack of significant wage growth contribute to the concerns about consumption growth.
  • Smaller states and union territories generally registered higher growth in State GST collections, with Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, and northeastern states showing robust increases.
  • The overall trend underscores the importance of broad-based consumption recovery for sustained PFCE growth.
PYQ: Explain the rationale behind the Goods and Services Tax (compensation to States) Act of 2017. How has COVID-19 impacted the GST compensation fund and created new federal tensions? (UPSC CSE (M) GS-3 2020) (250 words/12.5 m)


7. Use social media influencers: PM tells police chiefs.

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Important aspects of governance – Digital governance

Relevant for UPSC as it reflects on PM Modi’s directives on policing, social media use, new laws, and national security.

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi urges top police officers to explore the engagement of social media influencers for public interest dissemination.
  • Emphasizes the need for effective use of social media and calls for police training in handling cyber-related crimes and challenges posed by Artificial Intelligence (AI).
  • Stresses reinforcing a positive police image among citizens and proposes social media use at the station-level for positive information dissemination.
  • Suggests using social media to provide advance information on natural calamities and disaster relief efforts.

Social Media in Police Activities:

  • Enhanced Communication and Transparency: Social media platforms provide a direct line of communication between police and the public, fostering trust and understanding.
  • Community Building and Outreach:Police can engage with communities, address concerns, and build positive relationships through social media.
  • Crime Prevention and Investigation:Sharing information about wanted suspects, missing persons, or suspicious activity can lead to quicker apprehension and resolution of cases.
  • Real-time Updates and Emergency Response:Social media can be used to disseminate critical information during emergencies, keeping the public informed and safe.
  • Recruitment and Public Image: Police forces can attract diverse talent and showcase their work to the public through social media platforms.


  • Misinformation and Fake News: The rapid spread of misinformation and fake news on social media can hinder investigations and damage public trust.
  • Privacy Concerns:Balancing transparency with the right to privacy can be a delicate act, especially when dealing with sensitive information.
  • Cyberbullying and Harassment:Police officers and members of the public can be vulnerable to cyberbullying and harassment on social media.
  • Limited Resources and Training:Effectively managing social media requires dedicated resources, training, and clear policies.
  • Algorithmic Bias and Discrimination:Social media algorithms can perpetuate biases, leading to unfair treatment of certain communities.

Way Forward:

  • Develop Clear Policies and Guidelines:Establish comprehensive policies on social media use, covering data privacy, content moderation, and engagement protocols.
  • Invest in Training and Resources:Provide officers with adequate training on safe and effective social media use, including cyber security and diversity awareness.
  • Promote Responsible Use and Fact-Checking:Encourage the public to be critical consumers of information and promote fact-checking initiatives.
  • Foster Collaboration and Partnerships:Work with communities, media outlets, and tech companies to address common challenges and promote positive use of social media.
  • Continuously Monitor and Adapt:Regularly evaluate the effectiveness of social media strategies and adapt them based on feedback and emerging trends.
Practice Question: Critically evaluate the role of social media in Indian police activities, highlighting its potential benefits and challenges. Suggest concrete measures to maximize its usefulness. (250 words/12.5 m)

8. IIT-Delhi team makes first hi-res landslide risk map for India.

Topic: GS3 – Environment – Disaster and disaster management.

Relevant for UPSC as it highlights the creation of India’s first national landslide susceptibility map, crucial for disaster management and planning.

  • The article discusses the initiative led by Manabendra Saharia at IIT Delhi to create India’s first national landslide susceptibility map, addressing the need for better risk management and resource allocation following devastating floods and landslides in late 2023.


  • In late 2023, heavy floods and landslides during the northeast monsoon in North India resulted in fatalities, emphasizing the need for effective landslide risk management.

Initiative for a National Map:

  • Manabendra Saharia, an assistant professor at IIT Delhi, aimed to create a national landslide susceptibility map for better resource allocation and mitigation strategies.
  • Landslides in India are challenging to track due to their localized nature and the lack of widespread data, making machine-learning models less effective.

Data Collection and Factors:

  • Collected data on nearly 1.5 lakh known landslide events in India from sources including the Geological Survey of India (GSI).
  • Identified 16 factors (landslide conditioning factors) affecting susceptibility, such as soil cover, tree density, and proximity to roads or mountains.


  • Used ensemble machine learning methods to analyze data, combining multiple models to provide more accurate results.
  • Projected landslide susceptibility for areas without known landslide events, estimating vulnerability based on identified factors.

High-Resolution Susceptibility Map:

  • Developed a high-resolution ‘Indian Landslide Susceptibility Map’ with a 100m resolution, covering the entire country.
  • The map, a first of its kind, will be published in the journal Catena in its February 2024 issue.

Significance and Acknowledgment:

  • The map helps policymakers assess vulnerability and plan mitigation strategies at a national scale, filling gaps in knowledge.
  • Acknowledged regions of high susceptibility, including parts of the Himalayan foothills, Assam-Meghalaya, and the Western Ghats.
  • Identified previously unknown high-risk areas, such as portions of the Eastern Ghats north of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.

Future Plans:

  • Researchers aim to develop a ‘Landslide Early Warning System’ for India using data from the susceptibility map.
  • The map is expected to assist organizations like GSI, the Ministry of Mines, and the National Disaster Management Authority in landslide investigations and mitigation efforts.

Public Accessibility:

  • The map and related data will be made publicly available through a web-based interface, promoting accessibility and understanding of landslide susceptibility.

Expert Feedback:

  • Praised as an excellent contribution, the map aids in assessing vulnerability, guiding policymakers, and fostering early mitigation measures.
What is a landslide?
Landslides in a Nutshell:

  • Downhill rush: Landslides are the movement of rock, earth, or debris down a slope due to gravity. Think of it like a hill taking a tumble!
  • Types galore: From slow soil creeps to fast-flowing mudslides, landslides come in many forms, each with its own speed and fury.
  • Triggers: Heavy rain, earthquakes, and even volcanic eruptions can tip the scales and send slopes sliding.
  • Nature’s domino effect: One landslide can trigger another, creating a cascading chain reaction of downhill chaos.
  • Living with the risk: Many areas around the world are prone to landslides, making it crucial to understand the risks and be prepared.
PYQ: Differentiate the causes of landslides in the Himalayan region and Western Ghats.(UPSC CSE (M) GS-1 2021) (150 words/ 10m)

For Enquiry




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