Print Friendly, Pdf &Amp; Email

Mains Answer Writing


1. Discuss the factors behind distribution of global palm oil production. Why does India depend on palm oil imports despite having conditions suitable for its cultivation?


Palm oil is a widely produced vegetable oil. It has domestic as well as industrial applications. India imports nearly 60% of its palm oil demand.

The distribution of global palm oil production is influenced by the following factors:

  1. Tropical Climate: Palm oil is predominantly produced in tropical regions as it requires high temperatures, abundant rainfall, and a relatively consistent climate throughout the year. Countries within the equatorial belt account for around 85% of global production due to ideal climatic conditions for palm cultivation.
  2. Land Availability: Palm cultivation requires allocation of a significant amount of land. Countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia have been able to allocate substantial areas for palm plantations by clearing rainforests.
  3. Technological advancements: The adoption of new technologies, such as high-yielding oil palm varieties and mechanized harvesting techniques result in high oil yield per unit of land compared to other oilseed crops. Better economic viability leads to increased production from palm cultivating regions.
  4. Government Policies: Countries with supportive policies, infrastructure development, and investment in research & development have been successful in promoting palm oil cultivation and production. E.g., increased demand due to bio-diesel mandate in Indonesia.
  5. Market demand: The global demand for palm oil is coming from a range of industries, including food, cosmetics, and biofuels. With increasing consumer demand for palm oil products, countries with favourable climates are likely to increase their production of palm oil.

India has a diverse climate with suitable tropical conditions for palm cultivation in Northeast and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. But India depends on palm oil imports due to the following reasons:

  1. Land availability: The availability of land is limited due to rice-wheat dominance, growing population, and urbanization. Equatorial climate regions are limited to a few pockets.
  2. Low productivity: Palm oil production in India is relatively low due to lack of high-yielding varieties of oil palm, low investment in research and development, and inefficient farming practices.
  3. Production cost: Lower productivity, and higher input costs increases the cost of producing palm oil in India. Economic viability is weaker than in Indonesia and Malaysia.
  4. Environmental Concern: Allocating areas for palm cultivation might require clearing forests in biodiversity hotspots such as the Indo-Burma region, the Western Ghats and the Sundaland.
  5. Domestic demand: India has a rapidly growing population, and the demand for edible oils is high. This increasing domestic demand cannot be met by domestic production alone.

Achieving self-sufficiency in palm oil production remains a complex task. Government initiatives such as National Mission on Edible Oil (Oil Palm) and support through subsidies, research and extension services etc. are helpful interventions that will take time to materialise.

Upload Answer here

0 0 votes
Article Rating
Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

2. Discuss the key factors influencing India’s economic growth strategy and the challenges it faces in achieving sustainable development, particularly considering changing global conditions.

Upload Answer here

3. Examine the persistent challenges of air pollution in major Indian cities. Evaluate the health, environmental, and economic implications of the existing air pollution crisis.

Upload Answer here

4. Critically examine the arguments for and against the use of election freebies in India. Suggest a balanced policy approach that addresses the concerns of both pro and anti-freebie camps.

Upload Answer here

For Enquiry

© Copyright  All Rights Reserved


Head Office :- Office No-2 & 3 ,LGF,Apsara Arcade,Adjacent Karol bagh Metro,Old Rajinder Nagar ,New Delhi-110060

2nd Office:- Metro station, 2nd floor, 5B, Pusa Rd, opp. to Metro Pillar no. 110, near Karol Bagh, Block B, Karol Bagh, New Delhi, Delhi 110005