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12-December -2023

1. Measures Undertaken for Self-sufficiency in Coal Production & Supply to Power Sector.

Topic: GS3 – Indian economy

India’s Coal Production and Supply: Key Points 

Record high coal production: 893.19 MT in 2022-23, a 14.77% increase from the previous year.

Measures for self-sufficiency:

  • Transparent auctions for commercial mining (91 blocks auctioned).
  • Regular reviews and policy changes to expedite coal block development.
  • Single Window Clearance portal for faster approvals.
  • Incentives for early production and coal gasification/liquefaction.
  • Investment in advanced technologies like Continuous Miners and high-capacity equipment.
  • SCCL aiming to increase production to 75 MT by 2023-24.

Improving coal evacuation and distribution:

  • Collaboration with Railways for 13 new railway lines.
  • 67 First Mile Connectivity projects for mechanized coal handling.
  • Investment of over Rs.26,000 crore in railway projects for coal infrastructure.

Inter-ministerial coordination:

  • Regular meetings to ensure coal supply to power plants.
  • Inter-Ministerial Committee monitoring coal supply and power generation capacity.

Reduced reliance on imported coal:

  • No further capacity based on imported coal is planned.
  • Coal imports decreased by 5.04% in 2023-24 (upto Sept).
  • CAGR of coal-based generation increased to 4.59% from 2014-15 to 2022-23.


2. Steps taken by the Government to promote women participation in STEM Courses

Topic: GS3 – gender equality.

Steps taken by the Government to promote women participation in STEM Courses

  • Pragati Scholarship:10,000 scholarships awarded annually to encourage girls to pursue technical education.
  • TechSaksham Program:Top-up program to develop employability skills among underserved female students.
  • Supernumerary Seats in IITs:Increased female enrolment from 8% to 20% in undergraduate programs.
  • Female Enrolment in STEM Courses:Increased from 38.4% to 42.6% (provisional) between 2014-15 and 2021-22.
  • India’s Female Share of STEM Graduates:7% in 2018, exceeding US (34%), UK (38.1%), Australia (32.1%), and Germany (27.6%).


3. Contribution of MSMES to the country's GDP

Topic: GS3 – Indian economy

MSME Share in GDP and Manufacturing:

  • 15% of India’s GDP in 2021-22.
  • 83% of India’s manufacturing GVA in 2021-22.

MSME Export Contribution:

  • 59% of India’s exports in 2022-23.
  • Projected to reach 45.56% in 2023-24 (up to September 2023).

MSME Employment:

  • 50 crore recorded on the Udyam Registration Portal as on 06.12.2023.

Government Initiatives for MSME Financing:

  • PMEGP:Credit-linked subsidy program for self-employment.
  • PMMY:Loans up to Rs. 10 lakh for micro/small enterprises.
  • Credit Guarantee Scheme:Collateral-free loans up to Rs. 5 crore.
  • SRI Fund: 50,000 crore equity infusion.
  • Udyam Assist Platform:Bringing informal micro enterprises under the formal ambit.
  • Priority Sector Lending benefits for retail and wholesale traders.
  • Non-tax benefits for upward change in MSME status.
  • TReDS:Financing trade receivables through electronic platform.
  • ECLGS:Emergency credit line guarantee scheme for businesses, including MSMEs.


4. Steps taken by the Government to promote Skill Development & Entrepreneurship across the country

Topic: GS3 – skill development.

Skill India Mission (SIM):

  • Led by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE).
  • Aims to provide skill, re-skill, and up-skill training to all sections of society across India.
  • Training delivered through various schemes, including PMKVY, JSS, NAPS, and CTS.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY):

  • Imparts skill development through Short-Term Training (STT) and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL).
  • Focuses on youth across the country, including rural areas.

Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS) Scheme:

  • Targets non-literates, neo-literates, and school dropouts up to 12th standard.
  • Provides vocational skills with a focus on priority groups in rural and urban low-income areas.

National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS):

  • Promotes apprenticeship training by providing financial support to industrial establishments.
  • Includes Basic Training and On-the-Job Training at workplaces.

Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS):

  • Offers long-term training through Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) nationwide.
  • Aims to provide skilled workforce to industries and promote youth self-employment.

Skilling Network Across the Country:

  • PMKVY: 2640 training centers, including PMKKs.
  • JSS: 288 JSS centers.
  • NAPS: 49927 establishments (42453 unique) engaged apprentices.
  • CTS (ITI): 15016 ITIs.

Central Ministries and Additional Schemes:

  • Over 20 Central Ministries implement skilling/upskilling programs.
  • Includes DDU-GKY, RSETI, NULM, and others.


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